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" And Dckkcr, in his " Gull's Horn Book," published in 1 609, contrasting the fashions 
" of his day with the simplicity of the old times (though where he found simplicity in 
"any later than the Deluge I am not aware), says : — 'There was then neither the 
"Spanish slop nor the skipper's galligaskins; the Danish sleeving, sagging down 
"like a Welsh wallet ; the Italian's close strosser, nor the French standing collar; 
"your treble, quadruple Dzedalion rufTs ; nor your stiff-necked rabatos, that have 
" more arches for pride to row under than can stand under five London bridges, 
" durst not then set themselves out in print, for the patent for starch could by no 
" means be signed. Fashion then was counted a disease, and horses died of it.' 
"The disease is a very old one, and Dekker would have been puzzled, I fancy, to 
"point out an age in which it was not deplored as epidemic." — J. R. Planche, 
A General History of Costume in Europe, 1879, p. 230. 


The aim of this book is to give, as far as possible, a 
straight-forward account of the costume to be found 
represented on that large class of sepulchral memorials 
known as Monumental Brasses. The student of Costume, 
to whom this volume is addressed, has before him the 
task of clothing one of an earlier age than his own " in his 
habit as he lived." If his period be the first quarter of the 
nineteenth century he collects and compares the fascinating 
copper-plate engravings of that time ; if the seventeenth 
century claims his study, he consults the portraits of 
Van Dyck, Kneller, and Lely; but if his attention be turned 
to the costume of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, he 
finds his examples less easy of access, and mainly to be 
sought in illuminated manuscripts and in sepulchral 
effigies. Of the latter, in England, a large number con- 
sists of memorials in brass. Of these he must collect 
examples, either by means of heel-ball rubbings or of 
photography. By these methods he will be able to show 
the various styles of armour, the vestments of the clergy, 
the dress of the merchant, the fashions of the ladies, so 
that his collection will form a valuable companion to the 
study of English History. 

In dealing with such a subject as Costume, the enormous 
scope of the study renders necessary a strict adherence to 
stated Hmits, and a plain statement of those limits. The 
present volume treats of Costume,' so far as it appears on 
EngHsh Monumental Brasses, including an introductory 
chapter dealing generally with this class of memorial. 
The author has not commented upon the beauty or 

' Two classes of costume, if such they may be considered, have been 
omitted : — the swaddling clothes of infants with the class known as 
" Chrysom Brasses," and the class represented by " Shroud Brasses." 



ugliness of English fashion, holding that, at the most, such 
treatment conveys but the expression of individual taste, 
and that it is futile to criticize adversely a fifteenth-century 
head-dress, merely because it may not be supported by the 
sanction of a nineteenth-century mode. Dresses which 
appear to us to be graceful, or the reverse, occur in every 
age. The light which they throw on the manners of their 
period constitutes their importance, and justifies an in- 
telligent study of their origin, use, and development. 

The adequate acknowledgment of an author's indebted- 
ness to authorities, in a work of this kind, presents many 
difficulties. It was intended that a Bibliography should 
have been printed at the end of this book,' which would 
have shown the range of these obligations ; but it was 
found to be impossible to include this, as it would have 
increased unduly the size of the book. This bibliography 
will be issued, with some additions, in a separate form at 
a later date, when it is hoped that it will prove of service 
to the student. But it must be stated here that the 
author's chief indebtedness is to the Rev. Herbert Haines' 
Manual of Monumental Brasses, now, unfortunately, out of 
print, and comparatively costly, but which for more than 
forty years has been and still remains the standard work 
on the subject. 

Many of the illustrations are from photographs, taken 
directly, of the brasses themselves. The author's grateful 
acknowledgments are due to Mr. E. M. Beloe, junr., for 
his photographs of the Elsing brass ; to Mr. W. H. H. 
Rogers, F.S.A., for his kindness in allowing the use of 
some thirty blocks, made from his own carefully prepared 
rubbings ; and to Mr. H. K. St. J. Sanderson for the use 
of his block of the brass at Cople. 

The author thankfully records his indebtedness to many 

I This will explain the reference on p. 145, and the absence of the list 
of books there mentioned. In the Index of Persons the names of authors 
cited will be found printed in italics. The author has endeavoured by 
means of footnotes to show the sources of statements in the text. 



of the clergy and to others, who have given him informa- 
tion and assistance, more especially to 'the Rev. Canon 
C. H. Mayo, Professor E. C. Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., 
and to Messrs. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A., and Albert 
Hartshorne, F.S.A. 

That errors and many imperfections must exist in his 
work the author is well aware. He will be grateful to any 
one who, detecting such, will bring them to his notice. 



Preface - v. 

Contents - -- -- -- -- - ix. 

Illustrations - - - - - - - - - xv. 

Introduction. — Of Monumental Brasses 

Rise of this branch of archaeology — its literature — its im- 
portance — Haines' classification of monumental effigies — 
Incised slabs — Limoges enamels — inlaying slabs with colour 
and metals — inlaying of brasses — advantage of use of brass for 
sepulchral monuments — material used — how made and en- 
graved — brass inlaid in marble slab — cost of brasses — artists 
and engravers — devices and signatures — thirteenth century 
brasses — development of brasses following that of architecture 
— arrangement in periods with their characteristics — four- 
teenth century — fifteenth century — sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries — rarity of brasses in eighteenth century — modern 
brasses — distribution of brasses — their size — some account of 
the treatment to which they have been subjected from the 
sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries — modern recoveries, 
practices, restorations — palimpsest brasses — three classes de- 
scribed, with examples — palimpsest at Burwell described — 
Flemish brasses — list of those in England of fourteenth century 
— some fine Continental examples — Flemish palimpsests — 
brass of Abbot Delamere described — effigy of abbot, British 
Museum — the Lynn brasses — those at North Mimms, Wensley, 
and Elsing — characteristics of fourteenth century Flemish 
brasses — fifteenth and sixteenth century Flemish brasses — 
foreign brasses in London museums — brasses showing French 
influence — English brass of Bishop Hallum at Constance 

Costume divided into four main groups — notes on royal 
brasses i 

Chapter I. — Of Ecclesiastical Costume on Brasses 

Origin of vestments — early examples on brasses — brasses of 
cardinals — division into mass and processional vestments — 
Mass Vestments : i. Amice; 2. Alb ; 3. Stole; 4. Maniple ; 
5. Chasuble — examples of priests in mass vestments, and of 




demi-figures similarly vested— some variant brasses combining 
mass and processional vestments — Episcopal Vestments {pontifi- 
calia): I. Dalmatic; 2. Tunicle ; 3. Buskins or Stockings; 
4. Sandals; 5. Gloves; 6. Ring; 7. Mitre; 8. Pastoral Staff 
or Crozier — Archiepiscopal Insignia: i. Cross Staff; 2. Pall 

A list of brasses of archbishops and bishops in pontificals — 
some other brass memorials of bishops — the ornamentation of 
mass vestments, and their characteristics on brasses 

Processional or Choral Vestments: Cassock, Subtunica, 
Surplice, Almuce, Cope— examples showing hood— examples 
showing cope embroidered throughout — decoration of the 
cope— its morse— choral cope {cappa «/^-rt)— examples- 
Mantle of the Garter — brasses of Canons of Windsor wearmg 
it examples of priests in processional vestments — examples 

lacking the cope . 

Brasses of the Monastic Orders (male)— abbots in pontificals 
—in monastic habit— examples of Benedictine habit— brass of 
an Augustinian canon— Monastic Orders (female)— two brasses 
of abbesses — examples of vowesses and nuns 

A Note on the Chalice Brass— with or without efiigy— 
examples of chalices with or without wafer— examples showing 
chalice held by effigies in mass vestments and by others m pro- 
cessional vestments and academicals— ornamentation of the 

^'^Clerical habit— examples showing cassock, tippet, and hood 
—others showing cassock and scarf-like tippet _ 

Post-Reformation Ecclesiastics— their vestment regulations 
—Rochet, Chimere, Scarf or Tippet-gown— ///m quadratus 
—brasses of Bishops Geste and Robinson, and of Archbishop 
Harsnett— three instances of mitre brasses— some other epis- 
copal brasses— examples of clergy in clerical costume - 

Chapter II —Of Academical Costume on Brasses 

Difficulty of subject— some authorities— ecclesiastical origin 
of universities and of their costume-its regulation-Articles 
of dress: l. The Under or Body Garment; 2. Cassock; 
. Gown : a. cappa clausa; b. gown with two slits, or sleeveless 

Iberdun talare/c. sleeved tabard ; ^-l^-^^^ /^kdHap 
medias tibias ; 4. Tippet; 5- Hood; 6. P.leus : skull-cap, 
b Pointed— Order of precedence of faculties 
■ Examples in academicals and other costume-Sacr^ Theo- 
loei^ Professor, Doctor of Divinity-Decretorum or Juris 
Cfnonici Docto'r-Legum, or Juris Ciyilis Doctor-Utriusque 
Juris Doctor-Medicine Doctor-Licentiati (m decretis)- 
Sacre Theologie Baccalaureus-Artium Magister (Haines 




M.A. I. and M.A. II.) — Sacrae Theologiae Scholaris — Juris 
Canonici or In Decretis Baccalaureus — Juris Civilis or Legum 
Baccalaureus — Utriusque Juris Baccalaureus — Physics Bacca- 
laureus — Artium Baccalaureus — Student of Civil Law — 
Undergraduate — Schoolboys — Note: Doctor of Music - 119 

Chapter III. — Of Military Costume on Brasses 

Surcoat Period — examples — mail — hawberk — coif de mailles 
— chausses — genouillieres or poleyns — prick spurs — hauketon 
— surcoat — ailettes — shield — sword — brasses of Sir John 
D'Aubernoun — Sir Robert de Trumpington (with tilting 
helm) — Sir Robert de Bures — Sir Robert de Setvans — two 
half-effigies — matrices of the Surcoat Period 

Transitional Period — brasses at Pebmarsh and Gorleston — 
brassarts (rerebraces and vambraces) — coutes or coudieres — 
roundels — jambs or jambarts — sollerets 

Mixed Mail and Plate Period, called Cyclas Period — 
examples — cyclas — camail — brasses of Sir John de Creke, Sir 
John D'Aubernoun II., Sir John de Northwode 

Transitional Period — brasses of Sir Hugh Hastings, Sir John 
de Wantyng, and Sir John GifFard described 

Camail Period — hawberk — chausses — camail — bascinet — 
rerebraces — vambraces — coutes — epaulieres — cuisses — genou- 
illieres — jambs — sollerets — rowell spurs — gauntlets — jupon — 
bawdric — sword — basilard or misericorde — tilting helm — 

Transitional Period — breastplate or cuirass — skirt of taces 
— examples 

Complete Plate Period (Lancastrian) — bascinet — gorget or 
standard — breastplate — backplate — skirt of taces — epaulieres 
— brassarts — coutes — roundels — palettes — gauntlets — cuisses 
— jambs — genouillieres — sollerets — rowell spurs — sword — 
misericorde — tuilles — heraldic tabards (brasses of heralds) — 

Yorkist Period — demi-placcates — pauldrons — gardes de bras 
— hausse-col or collar of mail — tuilles — tuillettes — examples 
showing lance-rest — gussets of mail — shell-backed gauntlets — 
salade — mentoni^re — examples of the Yorkshire school show- 
ing it — examples of heraldic tabards — early examples of period 
—examples of the London school — later examples — examples 
with short mail-skirt showing signs of transition — examples of 
the Norwich school 

Early Tudor or Mail Skirt Period — its characteristics — pike 
guards— cuirass — its tapul — lamboys or bases — tuilles — skirt 
or petticoat of mail — sabbatons — other characteristics — ex- 
amples — examples showing heraldic tabards 




Transitional Period — mail skirt worn with tassets — examples 

Tasset Period — characteristics — tassets taking the place of 
taces — a few examples in heraldic tabards — examples of the 
period — alterations under the Stuarts — examples 

Knights of the Garter — examples on brasses — matrices — 
restored example — shields within Garter 

Livery Collars on Military Brasses — Collars of SS. and of 
Suns and Roses — some authorities — John H. Mayo quoted — 
examples showing Collar of SS. — examples showing Collar of 
Suns and Roses — some other examples 

Brasses of Serjeants at Arms — Bishop Wyvill's brass — ^his 
champion holding a croc — representations of the Resurrection 
showing halberds and other weapons - - - - H3 

Chapter IV. — Of Civilian* Costume on Brasses 

Of fourteenth century — examples — cote hardie, long and 
short — its liripipia — chaperon — other examples — examples of 
latter part of fourteenth century — anelace — mantle — examples 
with mantle — others without mantle — examples in long loose 
tunic — Reign of Henry IV. — bag-sleeved gown — examples — 
brass of a hunter — middle of fifteenth century — houppelande 
fur-lined tunic — examples — transitional period — latter part of 
fifteenth century — cassock-like gown — hood or bourrelet— its 
origin and shape — examples — Reign of Henry VII. — fur-lined 
open gown — gypciere and rosary — examples — change, f. 1 520 
the false-sleeved gown — examples — Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth characteristics — gown with false sleeves — short cloak — 

examples in long gown — examples in short cloak — Crown 
keepers— Yeomen of the Guard— Reign of Charles I.— ex- 
amples in false-sleeved gown— examples in short cloak — 
eighteenth century vbrass of Benjamin Greenwood— civic 
mantle — examples from 1432 to 1 574 - - - -195 

Chapter V. — Of Legal Costume on Brasses 

Its origin— r/i^? Order of the Coif, by Alexander Pulling, S.L. 
Attornati et apprenticii ad /^^m— Serjeants-at-law— Judges- 
Coif — Serjeants' long robe— tabard — illummations temp. 
Henry VI.— costume of Judges— long robe— girdle— cape- 
hood— coif— Barons of the Exchequer— Masters m Chancery 
—examples of brasses of Judges— of Serjeants-at-law— of 
Barons of the Exchequer— of Masters in Chancery— ot 
Barristers (with some inscriptions)— of Students— of other 
legal functionaries— of Notaries (with some inscriptions) - 219 

I The term Ci-vilian is here used in a broad sense, not in its academical significance. 




Chapter VI. — Of Female Costume on Brasses 

Brass of Margarete de Camoys, r. 1310, described — cote- 
hardie — kirtle — wimple — covrechef — brass of Lady Joan de 
Cobham, c. 1320 — two other brasses — examples of the middle 
of the fourteenth century described — mantle — liripipes of 
cote-hardie — sideless cote-hardie — tunic or cote — head-dress: 
(i) veiled; (2) zig-zag, nebule, reticulated — examples ar- 
ranged according to coiffure — in veil head-dress — costume of 
widows with examples — examples showing the hair plaited at 
the sides and bound with a fillet — showing the zig-zag, 
nebule, and reticulated head-dresses — examples, c. 1400, of 
the long close-sleeved gown — early form of crespine head- 
dress — examples — first part of fifteenth century — kirtle — side- 
less cote-hardie — mantle — houppelande — bag-sleeved gown 

crespine head-dress — its early form — examples with kirtle and 
mantle — examples with bag-sleeved gown — square cauls of 
crespine head-dress — examples — horned, lunar, mitre or heart- 
shaped head-dress (hennin) — examples showing it worn with 
kirtle and mantle — examples of the surplice-sleeved gown or 
houppelande — examples of the girded bag-sleeved gown worn 

with the horned head-dress — and with the veil head-dress 

costume of widows — barbe — examples from 1405 to 1501 

fur-lined gown, c. 1460, worn over kirtle — horned head-dress 
more acutely pointed — examples of it worn (i.) with kirtle and 
mantle, (ii.) with other costume — mitre-shaped head-dress of 
Jane Keriell — decorated cauls, surmounted by coronets, worn 
by Joice, Lady Tiptoft, and by Isabel, Countess of Essex- 
Transition from horned to butterfly head-dress— examples- 
later form of hennin— steeple and butterfly head-dresses 

examples wearing butterfly head-dress— curious treatment on 
Norfolk brasses— modified form— examples— Reign of Henry 
"^^I-— Pedimental head-dress— its cornet and frontlet— gown 
of the period described— its girdle— pomanders— examples 
showing veil head-dress— examples showing pedimental head- 
dress and in some cases heraldic mantle— change in the gown 
sleeves, f.l 1 525— partlet— lappets of pedimental head-dress 
turned up— examples— some provincial examples in Norfolk, 
bufFolk, and Essex— Reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and the first 
part of thatof Elizabeth— Paris Head or French Hood— open 
gown with embroidered petticoat— a few instances of heraldic 
mantles— one of heraldic tabard— list of some examples of the 
period— changes in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth— 
shadoe or bongrace— hood (calash)— farthingale— large ruff 
with examples-hats-examples of the period -Reign of 
Charles I.— falling lace collars— virago sleeves, etc.— examples 
—two later examples, at Great Chart, c. 1 680, and at St. Mary 




Cray, 1747 — widows in the sixteenth century — examples — 
hair worn long by young unmarried ladies — examples — 
maiden garlands — examples of married ladies with long hair 
— some examples of peculiar head-dresses 

A Note on the Effigies of Children, with examples - - 237 


A. Extract from Dugdale's Jnttquities of Warwickshire, 
quoting the contract for the tomb of Richard Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick -------- 301 

B. Extract from Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments, 
163 1, giving some account of the spoliation to which they 
have been subjected, and quoting the Proclamation of Queen 
Elizabeth against breaking or defacing of Monuments - - 306 

C. Note on vestments showing personal devices, as illus- 
trated by the Exhibition of the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 
1905 --------- - 311 

Addenda et Corrigenda - - - - - - "3^3 


Of Persons - - - - - - - - - 3^9 

Of Places - 349 

Of Costume- -------- 366 

General - -- -- -- -- 377 


Those marked * lent by W. H. H. Rogers, Esq., F.S.A. 


Sir John D'Aubernoun, 1277 {seep. 145) ; Sir John D'Aubernoun, 

1327 {see p. 1 5 2), Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey {photogravure) Frontispiece 

Incised Cross Slab, New Romney, Kent {from a photograph) . 3 

Cross Brass, Thomas Chichele and wife Agnes, 1400, Higham 

Ferrers, Northants : i., whole brass ; \\.^d.&fx\\.{from photographs) 22 

Bracket Brass, John Strete, 1405, Upper Hardres, Kent, see 

pp. 104, 128 {from a rubbing . . . .22 

Chrysom Brass, Elyn, daughter of Sir Edmond Bray and his wife 

Jane, 15 16, Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey {fom a photograph) . 25 

Flemish Brass, Simon de Wenslagh, f. 1 360, Wensley, Yorkshire 

(from a rubbing) . . . . . .43 

Flemish Brass, Abbot Thomas Delamere, f. 1360, St, Alban's 

Abbey, Herts. . . . . . .46 

Flemish Brass, Thomas de Horton, c. 1360, North Mimms, Herts. 49 

Flemish Brass, Andrew Evyngar and wife Ellyn, i 535> -All 

Hallows' Barking, London, see pp. 212, 276 «. . '55 

p. 55,/or 1536 read 1535. 

St. Ethelred, King of the West Saxons, 872, engraved c. 1440, 

Wimborne Minster, Dorset, see p. 17 (from a photograph) . 5^ 

Richard de Hakebourne, <r. 1 3 1 1 , Merton College, Oxford {from a 

photograph) . . . . . . • 63 

Priest in Mass Vestments (John Seys), 1370, West Hanney, 
Berks., mutilated \ 

Priest in Mass Vestments, c. 1480, Childrey, Berks, (from photo- 
graphs) ...... 70 

Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin, 141 7 (Warden), New 

College, Oxford ; effigy (from a photograph) . . 79 

John Yong, Bishop of Callipolis, 1526 (Warden), New College, 

Oxford, mutilated (from a photograph) . . .80 




Thomas de Hop, c. 1320, Kemsing, Kent, see p. 71 ; 
John Verieu, 1370, Saltwood, Kent, see p. 71 {from photographs) 82 
Note apparels. 

Thomas Buttler, 1494, Great Haseley, Oxon. (Jrom a photograph) . 87 
Richard Malford, 1403 (Warden), New College, Oxford; 

Note length of surplice. 

Walter Hyll, 1494 (Warden), New College, Oxford, see p. 138 

{from photographs) . . . . . .89 

Henry Sever, S.T.P., 1471 (Warden), Merton College, Oxford 

{see pp. 126, 128) ; effigy {from a rubbing) . . -93 

Robert Hacombleyn, 1528, King's College, Cambridge {from a 

photograph) . . . . . . '95 

Richard Bewftbreste, Abbot, f. 1510, Dorchester, Oxon. {from a 

photograph) . . . . . .96 

*Martin Forester, c. 1460, Yeovil, Somerset, on the lectern {from 

a rubbing . . . . . . .97 

John Frye, S.T.S., 1507, New College, Oxford, see p. 138 ; 
Chalice Brass, William Weststow, r. 1520, Little Walsingham, 

Norfolk, see p. 100 {from photographs) . . .101 

Ecclesiastic, .'1372, in head of cross, Merton College, Oxford 

{from a photograph) . . . . • .103 

William Geddyng ?, 15 12, Wantage, Berks.; 

John Yslyngton, S.T.P., f. 1 520, Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, see 

pp. 106, 129, {from photographs) . . . .105 

Edmund Geste, Bishop of Salisbury, 1578, Salisbury Cathedral 

{from a rubbing) . . . . • • ^ 1 3 

William Dye, 1567, Westerham, Kent {from a rubbing) . .116 

Thomas Hylle, S.T.P., 1468, New College, Oxford, see p. 128 

{from a photograph) . . . • • .121 

John Argentein, D.D., M.D., 1507, King's College, Cambridge, 

sec pp. 128, 133 ; 
Robert Brassie, S.T.P., 1558, King's College, Cambridge, see 

pp. 95, 129 {from photographs) . • • .127 

William Hautryve, Decretorum Doctor, 1441, New College, 

OySox^^ see "p. i^o {from a photograph) . . .129 

John Lowthe, Juris Civilis Professor, 1427, New College, Oxford 

{from a photograph) . . • • • ' 1 3 ^ 




Bryan Roos, Doctor of Lawe, 1529, Childrey, Berks., see p. 131 

(Jrom a photograph) . . . . . • 13^ 

John Bloxham {d. 1387), S.T.B., Warden, and John Whytton, 
see p. 104, f. 1420, Merton College, Oxford; effigies on 

bracket (from a photograph) . . . . -134 i 

John Kyllyngworth, M.A., 1445, Merton College, Oxford; 
John Bowke, M.A., 1519, Merton College, Oxford, see pp. 102, 

137 {from photographs) . . . . .136 

Geoffrey Hargreve, S.T.S., 1447, New College, Oxford (from a 

photograph . . . . . . .138 

John Palmer, B.A., 1479, New College, Oxford (from a photograph) 141 

John, son of Walter Stonor, Esq., 15 12, Wyrardisbury, Bucks. 

(from a photograph) . . . . . .142 

Sir Roger de Trumpington, 1289, Trumpington, Cambs. (from a 

photograph) . . . . . . .145 

Sir Hugh Hastings, 1347, Elsing, Norfolk, see pp. 43, 49, 51 

The author is indebted for much information concerning this brass to 
Mr. Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., whose account of this monument will 
appear in the Archeeologia. The treatment of the Elsing figure resembles 
in some respects that of Sir John de Wantyng's brass at Wimbish, and 
it is not improbable that they are of French rather than of Flemish 
workmanship. Witli regard to the figures in the side shafts, coloured 
pigments seem to have been employed in the backgrounds and on the 
heraldic jupons. The shields of the Lords Grey de Ruthin, Stafford, and 
St. Amand probably contained their respective arms in enamel, which 
has long since disappeared. 

The following illustrations, with the exception of that of the figure of 
Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, are from photographs taken by 
Mr. E. M. Beloe, junr. 

I. Brass of Sir Hugh Hastings, 1347, Elsing, Norfolk .154 

II. King Edward III., from the Hastings Brass . . 154 ' 

The diapered background of this figure is similar to that of the 
opposite figure of the Earl of Lancaster. 

III. Ralph, Lord Stafford, from the Hastings Brass . . 154 I 

The opposite figure, lost, was that of Edward le Despenser. 
P. 155, the arms have disappeared from the shield. 

IV. Almeric, Lord St. Amand, from the Hastings Brass . 154 

The diapered background of this figure is similar to that of the 
opposite figure of Lord Grey de Ruthin. 

P. 155, the arms have disappeared from the shield. 




V. {a) Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, from the 
Hastings Brass ; 

The opposite figure (lost) was that of Lawrence Hastings, Earl of 
Pembroke. An impression exists in the British Museum (Douce 

{6) Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, from the Hastings 
Brass ; 

(f) Roger Grey, Lord Grey de Ruthin, from the Hastings 

Brass . . . . . . 1 54 

He is represented leaning upon a pole-axe. 

The arms {see pp. 155, 316) are on the jupon ; those on the shield 
have disappeared. 

VL Shield from the Hastings Brass . . . .156 

VIL Detail of Canopy, from the Hastings Brass . . .156 

Vin. Figure of the Virgin, from the Hastings Brass . .156 

*Sir John de Cobham, c. 1367, Cobham, Kent (J. 1407) (from a 

rubbing . . . . . . .160 

As founder, holding model of church. 

On p. 160 it is wrongly stated that there is no misericorde. 

*Sir William de Echingham, 1388, Etchingham, Sussex (p. 161), 

mutilated {Jrom a rubbing) , . . . .162 

* Sir Thomas Cheddar, 1442-3, Cheddar, Somerset (pp. 165, 169) ; 

effigy (Jrom a rubbing) . , . . .165 

* Sir William Molyns (p. 168) and widow Margery (p. 265), 1425, 

Stoke Poges, Bucks, (from a rubbing) . . .167 

Thomas Brokill, Esq., and wife Joan?, 1437, Saltwood, Kent 

(Jrom a photograpK) . . . . . . 1 69 

The wife wears a costume similar to that of Joan Bacon (^eepp. 262-3). 

*Sir John Harpedon, 1457, Westminster Abbey see p. 264 {from 

a rubbing . . . . . • .169 

Thomas Peyton, Esq. (p. 175), and wives Margaret and Margaret 

(p. 273), 1484, Isleham, Cambs. . . • • ^7S 

♦Matrix of Shroud Effigy of Alianore Mullens (Molyns), c. 1476, 

Stoke Poges, Bucks ra/^^/«^) . . • •'^77 

Note the tilting-shields (see p. 177 «)• 

* Thomas Golde, Esq., 1525, Crewkerne, Somerset, kneeling, 

wearing armour or the Early Tudor or Mail-Skirt Period 
(Jrom a rubbing) . . • • • .178 





* Sir Thomas Brooke, Lord Cobham, and his first wife, Dorothy, 

i^2(), CohhAvn, Kent; effigies (from rubbings) . .180 

Lady Cobham wears kirtle, sideless cote, mantle, partlet, and pedi- 
mental head-dress (see pp, 275-80). 

Christopher Septvans, a/ias Harflete, Esq., 1602, Ash-next-Sand- 

wlch, Kent, male effigy only, wife, etc., omitted [from a rubbing) 1 84 

Sir John Drayton, 141 1, Dorchester, Oxon., wearing Collar of SS. 

(from a photograph) . . . • • . 1 90 

Nichole de Aumberdene, f. 1350, Taplow, Bucks., effigy in head 

oi cross (from a photograph) . . • • • "97 

Priest (p. 70) and Frankelein, f. 1370, Shottesbrooke, Berks, (from 
a photograph) 

*Sir Thomas Brook and wife Joan (p. 269), 1437, Thorncombe, 

Devon (from a rubbing . . . . • 200 

Richard, son and heir of Robert Manfeld, aged 19, with his sister 
Isabel (p. 295) (his brother John, in shroud, omitted), 1455, 
Taplow, Bucks, (from a photograph) . . • • 208 

Jenkyn Smyth and wife Marion (p. 274), r. 1480, St. Mary, 

Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk (from a photograph) . . 208 

William Walrond, Gent., and wife Elizabeth, f.1480, Childrey, 

Berks, (from a photograph) . . . • .208 

For costume of husband, see pp. 206-8 ; for that of wife, see pp. 268-9. 

Geoffrey Kidwelly, Esq., 1483, Little Wittenham, Berks, (from a 
photograph) . . . • • ... 

* Gyles Penne, Gent., and wife Isabell, 15 19, Yeovil, Somerset, 

inscription and two shields omitted (from a rubbing) . .212 

The costume of the former corresponds with that described on pp. 
210-11; that of the latter to that described on pp. 276-7, of which 
examples are given, pp. 278-80. 

* William Strachleigh, Esq., with wife Anne and daughter Christian, 

i^S^, Etmington, Devon, (from a rubbing) . . .214 

For male costume, see pp. 213-14; for female costume, see pp. 284-5. 

Walter Septvans, a/ias Harflete, Esq., and wife Jane (p. 293), 1642, 

Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent ; effigies only r«M/ff^) . 216 

Nichol Rolond (p. 230), and wife Pernel (p. 265), f. 1410, 

Cople, Beds, (from a rubbing) . . • .221 

Block lent by H. K. St, J. Sanderson, Esq. 




Sir William Laken, 1475, Justice of the King's Bench, Bray, 

Berks, {frovi a rubbing . . . . .227 

*John Brook, Serjeant-at-Law (p. 230), and wife Joan, 1522, 

St. Mary Redclift'e, Bristol (from a rubbing) . . .230 

The costume of the wife corresponds with that described on pp. 276-7. 

Sir John de Creke (pp. 152-3), and wife Alyne (p. 241), c. 1325, 

Westley Waterless, Cambs. . . . . .239 

*Sir John de la Pole and wife Joan, c. 1370, Chrishall, Essex, the 

former in armour of the Camail Period [Jrom a rubbing . 250 

Dame Margarete de Cobham, 1375, Cobham, Kent • • 250 

*Dame Margarete (p. 251), wife of Sir John de Cobham (p. 160), 

1395, Cobham, Kent (Jrom a rubbing) . . . 250 

*Sir William Echyngham (p. 169) with wife Joan (p. 259), and 

son Sir Thomas, 1444, Etchingham, Sussex {from a rubbing) . 259 

Joan, wife of Sir William Echyngham, 1444 ; part of figure show- 
ing head-dress {/rom a photograph) . . . .259 

John Bacon (p. 207) and wife Joan, 1437, All Hallows' Barking, 

London ....... 263 

*Joan, Lady de Cobham, 1433, Cobham, Kent; for children see 

p. 297 (Jrom a rubbing) . . . . .264 

* Sir Reginald Braybrok, and sons Reginald and Robert (p. 299), 

1405, Cobham, Kent; armour of the Camail Period (Jrom a 
rubbing) . . . . . . .264 

*Sir Nicholas Hawberk and son John (p. 299), 1407, Cobham, 

Kent ; armour of the Camail Period (Jrom a rubbing) . 264 

* Matilda ?, widow of Richard r Clitherow, Esq., c. 1440, Ash-next- 

Sandwich, Kent (from a rubbing) . . . .266 

*Isabel (nee Scobahull), widow of Sir Thomas Cheddar, f. 1475, 
Cheddar, Somerset, in widow's weeds as described p. 264, 
three shields omitted (Jrom a rubbing) . . .266 

*Jane, wife of Keriell, f. 1460, Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent, 

daughter of Roger Cletherowe (from a rubbing) . . 269 

In the Connoisseur, July, 1905 (Vol. XII., p. 182), is an illustration 
showing a piece of fifteenth-century tapestry "exhibited by Count of 
Valence de Don Juan at the Madrid Exhibition, 1892-93." The costume 
of the lady therein represented bears much resemblance to that of Jane 
Keriell, and reveals the nature of the latter's head-dress :— the horse-shoe 
ornament being formed of some costly material surmounting the horned 
cauls of the head-dress and falling behind. 




Joice, LadyTiptoft and Powis (p. 269), d. 1466, engraved c. 1470, 

Enfield, Middlesex, canopy omitted . . .270 

Two Ladies of the Clopton family, 1480, Long Melford, Suffolk 

(from photographs) . . . . . '273 

* Margaret (nee Nevill), wife of Sir John Brooke, Lord Cobham, 

1506, Cobham, Kent, male effigy lost rai5/^/«^) . 278 

Thomas Pekham, Esq., and wife Dorothy, 15 12, Wrotham, Kent; 
Armour of Mail-Skirt Period, Pedimental Headdress, etc. ; 

Reynold Pekham, Esq., and wife Joyce (p. 279), Wrotham, Kent ; 
Heraldic talsard worn over armour, Heraldic mantle (Jrom 
photographs) . . . ' . . .278 

*The Lady Katherine Howard, </. 1452, engraved c. 1535, Stoke- 
by-Nayland, Suffolk. Daughter of Sir William de Moleyns of 
Stoke Poges, Bucks.; wife of John Howard, created, 1483, 
Duke of Norfolk ; mother of Thomas Howard, created, 
15 13/4, Duke of Norfolk (Jrom a rubbing) . . . 280 

p. 280, line i^-tfor Thomas ri<j(/ John. 

* Sir John Basset, and wives Honor (Grenville) and Ann (Dennys), 

c. 1540, Atherington, Devon (from a rubbing . . 282 

Armour of Mail Skirt Period, see pp. 177 et seq. For female costume, 
see pp. 280-2. 

* Alice, Lady Norton (ne'e Cobbe), wife of John Cobham, Esq., 

widow of Sir John Norton, 1580, with her two sons (see 

p. 215), Newington, Kent (from a rubbing . . . 287 

Mary, wife of Anthony Huddleston, Esq., 1581, Great Haseley, 

Oxon. (from a photograph) . . . . .287 

Aphra, wife of Henry Hawkins, Gent., 1605, Fordwich, Kent 

(from a rubbing) . . . . . .290 

Thomas Smyth, his wife Mary and daughter Elizabeth, 1610, 

New Romney, Kent ; example of hat ; 
Elizabeth, wife of Henry Crispe, Gent., 1615, Wrotham, Kent 

(from photographs) . . . . . .290 

*Joan, wife of Sir Robert Brooke, 161 8, Yoxford, Suffolk (from a 

rubbing) . . . . . . .290 

*Mary, widow of Edward Brooke, a/ias Cobham, Esq., 1600, 
Newington, Kent ; example of widow not wearing widow's 
weeds see pp. 293-4, (from a rubbing) . . . 294 



* Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Thomas and Margaret Echyngham, 

d. 1452, engraved c. 1480 ; 
*Agnes, daughter of Robert Oxenbrigg, 1480, Etchingham, Sussex, 

{from rubbings) . . . . . .296 

For the date given on p. 295, 1479, read 1480. 

Anne, daughter of Henry and Anne Dunch, 1683, Little Wltten- 

ham, Berks, (from a photograph) .... 300 






The study of Monumental Brasses, as a branch of Rise of this 
Archaeology, may be said to have arisen in the nineteenth Archeology 
century. A collection of impressions, now in the British 
Museum, was made towards the close of the previous 
century by Craven Ord, Sir John Cullum, and the Rev. 
Thomas Cole, at which time also Richard Gough published 
his great work on Sepulchral Monuments in Great Britain. 
In the year 1819 appeared Cotman's work on the brasses 
of Norfolk. About the middle of last century Boutell and 
Haines gave system and classification to the subject ; in 
1853 Hudson's work on the brasses of Northamptonshire 
appeared ; whilst the Messrs. Waller produced a splendid 
series of engravings. Some years later the Rev. W, F. 
Creeny published the results of his labours on the Con- 
tinent. Besides these a large literature exists, in books 
devoted to the treatment of separate counties, and in 
scattered articles, the work, for the most part, of Arch^o- 
logical societies in the Universities and different English 
counties : work, doubtless of varying merit, but all to a 
greater or less degree adding to our knowledge of the 
subject. These papers, moreover, are in many instances 
accompanied by illustrations, which gain in absolute 
accuracy what they lack in artistic merit by the substitu- 
tion of photographic processes for the more costly, though 
less trustworthy, line-engraving. 

The importance of the subject is sufficiently proved by importance of 
the fact that this class of monument affords matter of ^^^^y 
mterest ^ to the students of different branches of art and 
antiquities. The architect finds the contemporary style 
mirrored in the canopies, surviving on many brasses ; the 
herald may trace the history and development of arm'orial 
bearings through a fine series of shields, though he may 




complain that time has deprived them of their original 
tinctures ; the genealogist finds in the frequent dating of 
brass inscriptions evidence often denied him by other 
monuments ; the student of costume, to whom the present 
volume is more particularly addressed, has before him a 
set of durable and trustworthy fashion-plates of military 
and civil dress throughout four centuries; the ecclesiologist 
observes the use of vestments, the form of the chalice and 
many other details of importance ; the student of palaeo- 
graphy has valuable data of the use of different styles of 
lettering; the philologist of the changes in language. 
Besides which there are many subjects upon which brasses 
give information, such as the manufacture in Europe of 
alloys of copper. Wherefore we do not feel guilty of 
exaggeration in saying that it would be difficult to over- 
estimate the importance, from an historical point of view, of 
an intelligent study of the contemporary evidence afforded 
by the sepulchral monuments of our churches, of which so 
goodly a proportion is furnished by engravings on brass. 

Haines' Classi- Haincs' divides Monumental Effigies into three classes : 

fication of 

Monumental I . Sculpturcd figurcs in Complete or low relief, executed 
Effigies stone, wood, or copper. 

2. Figures incised on stone or engraved on brass plates 
fastened to stone. 

3. Representations of the deceased painted on wood or 

It is with the second of these groups that we have to 
deal ; though it should be noted that sometimes a monu- 
ment may be found to combine the characteristics of two 

' Introduction, p. i. 

2 As for instance at Hereford Cathedral, where Bishop Richard Mayo 
{d. 151 6) is commemorated by a brass {see p. 8 1) as well as by a sculptured 
effigy. Haines (Introduction, p. i.) writes: — "The incised memorials 
" forming the second class may indeed be considered merely imitations of 
" the sculptured effigies on a flat surface, and the progressive history of the 
" art shews that such was their origin." 


New Romney, Kent. 




Incised slabs can be traced to a much greater antiquity incised siabi 
than brasses. Of this kind of monument two sub-classes 
may be said to exist : — those which are incised in the strict 
sense of the word, and those which are formed by cutting 
away the surface of the stone, thereby leaving the pattern 
or figure in low relief with a raised border, as in the case 
of so-called Keltic crosses.' Many examples of each sub- 
class exist, usually in the form of crosses on slabs. The 
slab proper probably derives its origin from the lid of the 
stone coffin, which, gradually becoming more ornate, 
reached its highest development in the stately altar-tomb. 
About the twelfth century the representation of the 
deceased in bas-relief on the stone coffin seems to have 
come into use, being superseded later by the incised slab 
proper. The best examples of this latter form are to be 
found on the Continent, due, no doubt, to the greater 
prevalence of a harder stone than that employed in 
England. Creeny mentions as early examples those of 
St. Piatus at Seclin, near Lille, c. 114.2, and of Bishop 
Earthelemy de Vir at Laon, 1 158, each in pontificals ; and 
that of An tone de Loncin, c. 1 160, at the Palais de Justice, 
Liege, in armour, said to be the earliest incised slab in 

An early fragment representing an ecclesiastic with 
pastoral staff, possibly of the twelfth century, exists at 
Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight.^ At SaHsbury Cathedral are 
two slabs commemorating respectively Bishop Roger, 1 139, 

^This classification may possibly invite the criticism that this latter 

Tu AU ""^^^^ ^° ^''^ two sub-classes 

(called by Rev E. L. Cutts in speaking of crosses, respectively Incised and 
Kaised Cross Slabs, see p. i, J Manual for the Study of the Sepulchral Slabs 
^nd Crosses of the Middle Jges, 1849) are so closely connected that it would 
merely encourage confusion to separate them. 

■'See Plates 12, and 3, " Illustrations of Incised Slabs on the Continent 
NorwiT i^i ^"^""^"S' '"'^ Tracings," by W. F. Creeny, M.A., F.S.A., 

3 In the Church. The lower part, very much worn, is in the porch of 
the priory farm-house. ^ 



and Bishop Jocelin, 1184,' which combine the two sub- 
classes, lines being incised on the figure in rehef. A cross- 
slab at Bosbury in Herefordshire shows the head of the 
cross in low relief, whilst the stem, two other crosses and 
a sword are incised. A small incised slab exists at Steeple 
Langford, Wilts., representing a man with a hunting 
horn, c. 1200. Another interesting specimen is at Bitton, 
Gloucestershire, Sir Walter de Bitton, 1227, wherein the 
upper part of the body is in bas-relief, whilst the lower 
part is incised. 

Besides these may be mentioned a cross-legged knight, 
c. 1260, at Avenbury, Herefordshire; the slab of Bishop 
St. William de Byttone, 1274, at Wells ; that of Johan de 
Botiler, c. 1285, at St. Bride's, Glamorgan; and that of 
William de Freney, Archbishop of Rages, c. 1290, at 
Rhuddlan, N. Wales. It is of interest to note that these 
five slabs belong to the thirteenth century, and are, there- 
fore, contemporary with the earliest brasses, of which we 
have any knowledge, in this country. Of later date may 
be mentioned James Samson, Rector, 1349, Middleton, 
Essex, in mass vestments; Gerard Sothill, Esq., 1401, 
Redbourne, Lines.; John Cherowin, Esq., 1441, Brading, 
Isle of Wight, probably of Flemish work ; and John Stone, 
Vicar, 1501, Aldbourne, Wilts., in mass vestments and 
holding a chalice.^ 

An engraving, taken from a drawing in a manuscript m 
the British Museum,^ is given in the first volume of the 

1 But see Rev. Canon W. H. Jones ("The Bishops of Old Sarum," 
AD 1 071:- 1 22 5— Vol. XVII., 1878, Wiltshire Archaological Magazine) 
who considers the older slab to belong to Bishop Jocelin, and the other, 
therefore, not to be that of his predecessor, Roger (i 107-1 13q). 

2 The first is illustrated in ^rans. of Essex Jrchaological Society, New Series, 
Vol VIII 1903 p i Two Essex Incised Slabs by Miller Christy and 
E. Bertram SmiJh." The second in ^e Reliquary, Yo\ JV 1874-5, 
p IC4. The third in ;r^/>^/mW/?y^, by Henry Richard Holloway, 2nd 

edition, London, 1848, p. 107 (the length of the spurs is remarkable). 
The fourth in Wiltshire Notes and Queries, Vol. II., June, 1898, p. 447- 

3 Add MS., No. 10,292, fol. 5 5 v°. Also illustrated in Boutell, p. 162 
{Monumental Brasses and Slabs, 1847). 



Archaologkal Journal (1845, p. 301) representing the process 
of incising two stone slabs in the fourteenth century.^ For 
a long time after the introduction of sepulchral brasses, 
incised slabs seem to have run in a parallel line, keeping 
the characteristics due to their different material, but ex- 
hibiting an identical scheme of design and arrangement. 
This is best seen on the Continent, where the Flemish 
brass may be said partly to have derived its quadrangular 
shape from that of the incised slab. 

Haines (Introduction, pp. viii.-xiii.) produces much Limoges 
evidence to show the origin of the monumental brass from Enamels 
the Limoges enamel. This art of enamelling on copper, 
named after the town where it flourished, was used in the 
decoration of Church vessels soon after the tenth century. 
Later, we find it used for monumental purposes, as on the 
plate of copper in the Museum at Le Mans, which shows 
an enamelled efiigy with canopy and diapered background 
of the twelfth century.^ Another exists at St. Denis, 1247.' 

^ Another example is afforded by MS. Royal 14, E iii,, British Museum: 
" Here Flegentyne bids them build three Tombs near Tarabel," re- 
produced in " Early Fourteenth Century Costume," by Oswald Barron, 
F.S.A., The Ancestor, No. VIII., January, 1904, p. 152. 

2 This enamel, formerly in the Church of St. Julien, has been supposed 
to represent Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou \d. 1 150), father of 
Henry II. It has, also, been assigned to William D'Evereux or Fitz- 
Patrick, Earl of Salisbury, c. 11 96. See "Remarks on an Enamelled 
Tablet, preserved in the Museum at Mans and supposed to represent 
the effigy of Geoffrey Plantagenet," by J. R. Planche. — Journal of Brit. 
Arch. Assoc., Vol. I., 1845, pp. 29-39. M. Darcel considers the work to 
show German influence, — see Mus'ee dti Moyen Age et de la Renaissance, 
Serie D. Notice des Emaux et de I'Orfevrerie par Alfred Darcel, Paris, 
1867, pp. 10, II. This is an early instance of a shield bearing arms, 
see Some Feudal Coats of Arms, by Joseph Foster, 1902, in which the plate 
is reproduced, p. xxxviii. It may be found also in Stothard's Monumental 
Effigies, and in Planch^'s Cyclopcedia of Costume. Dictionary, 1876, p. 455, 
sub. shield, where it is assigned to a " Norman Nobleman." 

3 Reproduced in Willemln's Monuments, " Tombeau en bronze dor6 et 
emaille de Jean fils de St. Louis, 1 247, conserve a I'Eglise royale de St. 
Denis." Mr. J. Starkie Gardner writes " There are two in St. Denis, of 
" the children of St. Louis, 1 243 and I 248 ; one of Blanche of Cham- 
"pagne, only slightly enamelled, in the Louvre, 1283 ; and two or three 



This species of enamelling is known as champ-leve^ consist- 
ing of a field of copper indented to receive and separate 
the diiferent coloured enamels. Here, then, we see a very- 
obvious connection between this treatment and the filling 
up of the engraved lines of the brass with some black or 
coloured substance. Instances of the use of enamel on 
monuments may be seen on the tomb of William de 
Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 1296, in Westminster Abbey,^ 
and on that of Edward the Black Prince, 1376, in Canter- 
bury Cathedral. The tomb of Walter de Merton, Bishop 
of Rochester, 1277, in his Cathedral, which was destroyed 
in the seventeenth century, was decorated with Limoges 
enamels by artists from that place. There can be no doubt 
that the antiquity of the Limoges enamel is superior to 
that of the monumental brass ; and from this fact and from 
the great similarity of design seen in the Continental brasses 
and in these enamels Haines was of opinion (Introduction, 
p. viii.) " that the use of Limoges works led the way to 
the employment of brass plates on the ground." 
Inlaying slabs The principle of inlaying with diff'erent substances and 
colours is common alike to incised slabs and brasses, and 
may reasonably be derived from the Limoges enamels. 
Many instances are known of incised slabs having been 
inlaid with different material in order to gain additional 
effect. An instance of a dark slab being inlaid with a 
white composition is that of Jehan Rose, d. 1328, and his 

" others in Spain." — ^ee " Enamels in connection with Ecclesiastical Art," 
by J. Starkie Gardner, F.L.S., F.G.S.— Trans, of St. Paul's Eccles. Societyy 
Vol. III., 1895. Stothard and Haines mention an enamelled tablet, 
formerly in the Church of St. Maurice, Angers, but destroyed at the 
Revolution, representing Ulger, Bishop of Angers, 1 149. Sr^ Plate in 
Planche's C'jclopadia of Costume. Dictionary, 1876, Sub. Chasuble, p. 94^ 
These enamels are of the kind called champleve. The Chinese cloisonne 
enamel is formed by separating the colours by means of wires attached to 
the metal groundwork. 

Mn connection with this monument see Proceedings of the Society of 
Jntiquaries, Vol. XVIII., pp. 41 1-12 (June 20th, 1901). Sir J. Charles 
Robinson, F.S.A., exhibited a shield of Limoges enamel on copper with 
the arms of England and De Valence quarterly.! 



wife, d. 1367, in the Cathedral of Meaux, an illustration 
of which is given in the Archaeological Journal^ Vol. IX., 
1852, p. 384. A black substance fills the incised lines of 
a slab upon an altar-tomb at North Mimms, Herts. 
(Margaret Beresford 1584). Creeny gives (Plate 9) a 
black marble slab, commemorating Asscheric van der 
Couderborch, c. 1250, which was found with some fifty- 
others serving as the bottom for the sluice of a bridge at 
Cuypgat near Ghent, by Mons. van Duyse, secretary of 
the Ghent Municipal Museum. The lines of the design, 
which somewhat resembles that of the Wyvill brass at 
Salisbury, were filled with coloured material. The slab of 
Thiebauz Rupez, c. 1260, at St. Memmie, near Chalons- 
sur-Marne (Creeny, Plate 10) has its lines filled with lead.' 
Haines mentions (Introduction, p. x.) a slab from Villers 
in Brabant, of which " the figure most artistically drawn 
" has the lines usually incised on a brass, in relief, the inter- 
" vening spaces, having been hollowed out and inlaid with 
" thin plates of copper enamelled." Instances of incised 
slabs which have had portions of their efiigies, heads, hands, 
etc., inlaid in brass may be seen in Lincolnshire at Ashby 
Puerorum (Priest in Mass Vestments), and at Boston, 
worked in a foreign blue marble.^ The Gough Collection 
of Drawings in the Bodleian Library contains examples of 
slabs inlaid with coloured material.^ Indeed, it is reason- 
able to infer that the habit of inlaying stone slabs with 
coloured substances, copper, or brass gradually led to the 
increase in importance of the latter; work in brass usurping 
that hitherto seen in the surface of the stone itself, till, in 
the case of English brasses, the slab is used merely as the 

' Cutts (p. 4.) mentions a similar treatment of an incised slab at Atten- 
borough, Notts. 

^See pp. 3, J List of the Existing Sepulchral Brasses in Lincolnshire, by 
the Rev. G. E. Jeans, 1895. 

3 This Collection, acquired by the Bodleian Library in 1810 on the 
death of Richard Gough, consists of sixteen folio volumes, being part of 
the Collection of Drawings of Monuments in France formed about 1700 
by M. de Gaignieres, the remainder of which is in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris. 



Inlaying of 

Advantage of 
brass for 

background for the brass effigy and ornaments; the matrix, 
into which the brass is fitted in the shape of the figure, being 
the only survival of the sculpture on the stone itself. 

The use of enamel on copper plates let into brass is 
proved by the shields on the brass of Sir John D'Auber- 
noun (1277), a well-known example ; and traces of colour 
may be found on the Hastings brass (1347) at Elsing, on 
that of Sir John Say (1473) Broxbourne, and in other 
instances. But this can hardly have become the general 
practice owing to the costliness of the process. Moreover, 
the choice of enamel for a permanent memorial, however 
suitable, as was gilding, when applied to a brass raised on 
an altar-tomb, would be prevented by its frailty when 
exposed to wear and tear on the pavement of a church. 
An examination of extant brasses leads to the conclusion 
that, as a rule, it was part of the design to fill the incised 
lines with diflferent substances of varied colours, thereby 
relieving the monotony of the metal, and producing a rich 
effect. In some cases a white metal was used for a similar 
purpose, as, for instance, in portraying the almuce. That 
the softer material no longer remains is not to be marvelled; 
but we see the lines cut for its reception and to secure its 
adherence. It is due to the disappearance of these com- 
positions, which probably filled the grooves, that the 
student is enabled to obtain an accurate reproduction of a 
brass by means of that which the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne 
termed "this little piece of heel-ball, uniting even fragrance 
with its economy and portableness." ^ 

The necessity for not overcrowding a church with 
monuments so cumbersome as the altar-tomb,"" gives 

56, Jn Endeavour to Classify the Sepulchral Remains in Northampton- 
shire, etc., by the Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, M.A., F.S.A., 1840. 

2 William Fitz-William {d. 1474) by his will directed that he should 
be buried in the Choir at Sprotborough, Yorkshire : " ita quod impedi- 
mentum in aliquo non fiat eundo et redeundo ministrantibus circa Divina 
officia in choro pracdicto" (Test. Ebor., Vol. III., p. 211). For account 
of his brass see " Ancient Memorial Brasses remaining in the old Deanery 
of Doncaster," by F. R. Fairbank, M.D., F.S.A.— Vol. XI. Yorkshire 
Archaological and Topographical Journal. 




sufficient reason for the adoption of a style of memorial 
which, by becoming a part of the pavement of the church, 
performed a function as useful as it was ornamental. The 
incised slab or effigy in very low relief soon became worn 
by the feet of the faithful. Limoges enamels would soon 
be broken by a like cause. Brasses engraved in deep lines 
filled with coloured cements were found best suited to 
resist the detrimental influences, practically unavoidable in 
the conduct of the services of the Church. Hence the 
very general adoption of this kind of monument in England 
from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. 

The material employed for monumental brasses was an Material used 
alloy of copper,' which appears to have been generally known 
as latten or laton {Belg. lattoen). The chief place for its 
manufacture was Cologne, from which we find it called 
" Cullen plate." " The industry was confined for a long 
time probably to North Germany and Flanders, where are 
such splendid examples of the sepulchral brass. The plates 
were imported into England^ from the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. It is not till the latter half of the six- 
teenth century that we find records of the manufacture in 
this country at Isleworth and elsewhere."* 

The following quotations from Waller {A Series of 

'The analysis of the Cortewille Flemish brass, 1504, in the South 
Kensington Museum is :— copper 64-0, zinc 29-5, lead 3-5, tin 3-0 in 
the hundred parts. 

^See Appendix for Dugdale's account of the construction of the 
Beauchamp tomb, 1439, at Warwick. 

3 Doubtless in connection with the exportation of wool to Flanders. 
1 his accounts for the use of monumental brasses by the Wool-merchants 
oi Gloucestershire, and for the prevalence of these memorials in the 
counties on the East coast. 

u^'a^^ the close of the i6th century the manufacture of brass was in- 
^^troduced into England. Patents were granted in 1565 to several 

persons, and mills were established in various places about London and 
« f sewhere. Norden in his account of Middlesex mentions the ' copper 
u.Z\ T ""^^ "<^^^ 'Thistleworth or Istleworth ' where ' the workmen 
'^<7wlltTX ^ °f ;^Wr and brasse, of all scyces, little and great, 
thick and thyn, for all purposes.' This metal was of improved manu- 

lacture ; the copper was beaten out with heavy hammers worked by 



How made Monumental Brasses, p. ii.) give some account of the process 
How engraved of making and cngraving the pktcs I — 

" The sheets of metal were cast to near the size required 
" in a mould formed of two cakes of loam ; there was no 
" hammering, except by wooden mallets, an operation now 
" known as planishing, the object of which is to get rid of 
" any twist or bend. The average size of the sheets is 
"generally from 2ft. 6 in. to 2ft. 8 in.; but there is one at 
Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, somewhat over 3 ft., 
and the Flemish brass just alluded to (" Cortewille") has 
"plates measuring 3ft. 2 in. by ift. lojin. The thickness 
" or gauge is about \ of an inch, but being always unequal, 
" varies much in the same plate. The mode of manu- 
"facture was not calculated to produce a substance of 
"homogeneous structure; thus it is often found full of 
" air-bubbles and flaws; and a brass, much worn, will show 
" a number of small holes upon its surface. The Lynn 
" brasses exhibit these defects in a remarkable manner. ... 
" In English work the burin or lozenge-shaped graver is 
"more constantly used. Broad lines are produced by 
" repeated parallel strokes, running into each other, and 
"the channel thus made is in some cases roughened by 
" cross hatching as in a fine example of John de Campeden, 
" 1 382, at St. Cross, near Winchester. But, in the Flemish, 
"a broad chisel-shaped tool has been chiefly used; the 
" channels are not so deep, and are always smooth at the 
"bottom. Simple as it seems to be, this difference of 
"practice has materially affected the character of the 
" designs. This is especially noticeable in the treatment 
" of draperies in which the Flemish brasses fall short of 
" the grace and elegance to be found in English examples; 
" and the reason appears to be that the broad-cutting tool 
" admitted of less freedom in execution." 

" water power ; and the plates thus produced were saturated with oxide 
« of zinc. But they were thin, and when used for brasses, upon the pave- 
"ment, are always found much bent and defaced 'W Senes of Monu- 
mental Brasses from the Uirteenth to the Sixteenth Century, drawn and 
engraved by J. G. and L. A. B. Waller, p. 11. 


A slab of stone, or of marble of the Purbeck or Sussex inlaid in 
kind, was prepared to receive the brass' when finished, "^^''^^^ ^i^b 
being hollowed out so as to form a casement, matrix, or 
indent in which the brass was laid, imbedded in pitch and 
fastened to the slab by means of rivets. 

Some evidences of the cost of these monuments have Cost of brasses 
come down to us. Sir lohn de St. Quintin, 1397, left 
XX marks for a marble stone with three images of laton 
to be placed over himself and two wives at Brandsburton, 
Yorkshire. Katherine, widow of John Fastolff {d. 1445), 
by her will dated 20th November, 1478, orders a stone to 
be provided to the value of 7 or 8 marks, inlaid with the 
arms of John Sampson and John Fastolf, her late husbands, 
of Roger Welysham, her father, and with those of Beding- 
feld. There is no mention of the two effigies in the will; 
but they are reproduced in Suckling's Suffolk, 1 848, Vol. II., 
p. 40, in the account of the Church of St. Michael at 
Oulton.^ The contract for the tomb of Richard, Earl of 
Warwick, gives much information on this subject. {See 
Appendix.) ^ 

The following extract (for which we are indebted to 
Canon Mayo) from the will of " Thomas Denny, son and 
" heir of Edmunde Denny late one of the Barons of the 
^' Eschequier, 10 May, 1527; 19 Hen. VIII." gives 
instructions for making a memorial brass. Unfortunately, 
no such brass remains in Cheshunt Church, Herts. Possibly 
the executor did not fulfil the testator's wishes : — " To be 

^ An instance of a brass originally fixed on wood is at Bettws-Cedewain, 
near Newtown, in Montgomeryshire, John ap Meredyth de Powys, i i, 
m mass vestments. 

^ ^'They were stolen, together with that of Adam de Bacon, c. 13 10, 
in February, 1857. The brass of Katherine Fastolff afforded a good 
example of the butterfly headdress. 

3S^^ also "Some Notes on the Montacutes, Earls of Salisbury," by 
lidward Kite, Wiltshire Notes and Queries, Vol. IV. (No. 47, September, 
Q^r k ' P- 490, for codicil to will of Thomas de Montacute, 4th Earl of 
balisbury {d. 1428), directing a tomb to be made at Bisham, Berks, for 
himself and wives, the Ladies Alianore and Alice, "which tomb I desire 
to be made of marble, with portraitures of each in brass, and epitaphs " 



" buried in parish Church of Chesthunt, where I doe dwell 
" at the altar's end on the south side next before the pewe 
" where I was wonte to sitte, and there I will a stone to be 
" layd on me by my execut', and a picture of dethe to be 
" made in the saied stone w' roules having this writing 
" about hym to be written in the sayed roules, As I am so 
" shall ye be, nowe pray e for me of yd^ charitie a pr nr and 
*' an ave mary, for the rest of the soule of Thomas Denny 
*' whiche dyed the x^'' day of May in the yere of or Lorde god 
m'v^xxvii, and at the hed of the saied picture in two 
" roules having this sculpture Dne secundu actum meum noli 
me judicare unto the one syde, and on the other syde 
'''■Delicta juventutis mee et ignorantias meas ne memineres 
"•domine. Also 1 will it to be made by myne execut' a 
" litle stone of halfe a yerde brode and thre quarters long 
" and to be set in the wall over where I doe lye and therein 
"a picture of me to be made kneling and holding up 
" my hands, ingraven and gilted w* my armes another side 
" and a picture of or Lorde suffering his passon in the 
"upper corner and a roule gilted with this ingraven 
" comyng frome my hands and upwards Mtas tuas dne in 
eternu cantabo and underneth in the foote of the saied 
stone one other plate graven and gilted with this therein 
" written Every man that here goeth by pray for him that here 
" doth lye wt a pr nr an ave mary, for the reste of the soule 
« of Thomas Denny which died the x"' day of May in the yere 
'-'of or Lorde God m'v'xxvii'' (28 Jankyn P.C.C.). 
Artists and Very little is known as to the artists who designed or 
engravers ^j^q cngravcd the brasses. But from differences 

in locality and style it may be inferred that, like other 
craftsmen, they formed themselves into guilds with centres 
at large towns, such as London, York, or Norwich. 
There is little to go by but a similarity of design, from 
which, however, it is obviously unsafe to infer that because 
any two brasses have similarities, they were, therefore, 
either designed or worked by the same hand. The most 
important school of engraverslwas that settled in London 
which supplied the greater number of brasses. Provincial 


engravers, as a rule, show inferior workmanship, though 
there is good local work to be found in Yorkshire and 
Lincolnshire, probably executed by engravers making York 
their headquarters. The special characteristics marking 
the Norwich school are to be met with throughout Norfolk 
and Suffolk. Some peculiarities seen in Cambridgeshire 
and Essex (as for instance on the brasses of ladies, men- 
tioned on p. 283) may prove the existence of several 
engravers at Cambridge in the sixteenth century; and 
proofs of a school supplying the Midlands may be seen in 
the local work, such as the ecclesiastical brasses at Coles- 
hill (WiUiam Abell, 1500) and at Whitnash (Richard 
Bennett, M.A., 1531), Warwickshire. Sometimes an 
extraordinary and grotesque effect is produced, owing to 
lack of craftsmanship. Such may be seen at Preston 
Lancashire, where the effigy of Seath Bushell, woollen 
draper, 1623, has more the appearance of a modern 
caricature by "Max" than of a sepulchral memorial.^ 

A device, which may be an artist's signature,^ or possibly 
the mark of the brass manufacturer, occurs on the brass of 
Lady Creke, c. 1325, at Westley Waterless, Cambs., 
representing the letter N reversed over which is a mallet, 
and on the dexter side a crescent and on the sinister 
a star of six points. The N reversed is also found on the 
Camoys brass, 1424, at Trotton, Sussex. Waller, in 
his description of the Creke brass, mentions a seal of 
Walter the Mason, attached to a deed, on which a 
mallet with a crescent and a star of five points appears. 
This device of a star and crescent is mentioned in the 
Arch^ologkal Journal (Vol. III., 1846, p. 345), as used by 

' S^^ illustration in T:he Monumental Brasses of Lancashire and Cheshire, by 
^ames L. Thornely, 1893. See also Records of the Parish Church of Preston 
'' f^^^nderness, hy Tom. C. Smith, F.R.Hist.Soc, Preston, 1892, pp. 
250-9 and 287-8. ^ ' 

^Boutell gives an illustration {Monumental Brasses and Slabs, p. 14.0) of 
a palimpsest fragment now in the British Museum, of a Flemish inscrip- 
non formerly m Trunch Church, Norfolk, on which is a shield charged 
with a crescent and star and the letter W. ^ 


Hawisia de Wygornia for a seal to a document, dated 1 254.' 

Signatures are, occasionally, found in later years, par- 
ticularly on inscriptions of the seventeeth century. The 
Flemish brass of Margaret Svanders, 1529, at Fulham, 
has the initials G. O.^ The initials A. H. and R. H. 
found respectively on the brasses of Bishop Henry Robin- 
son and Provost Airay, both 1616, at Queen's College, 
Oxford, have been supposed by Haines to refer to Abraham 
and Remigius Hogenbergh ; but it is possible that the 
latter may refer to Dr. Richard Haydock, fellow of New 
College, whose work is to be seen in the brass of Erasmus 
Williams, 1608, at Tingewick, Bucks, and who composed 
the inscription to Thomas Hopper, 1623, at New College.^ 
An engraver's monogram occurs on the brass of William 
Waller (1636), St. Paul's, Bedford.-* The Filmer brass 
(1638) at East Sutton, Kent, is signed: "Ed. Marfhall 
sculpfit." At Tamworth, in Warwickshire, the inscrip- 
tion to Anne, wife of John Chambers, 1650, is signed, 
"J.C. composuit, E.C. sculpsit, W.C. dedit."^ In the 

I " The name of an artist was recorded on the brass of Bishop Philip, 
" 1 241, formerly at Evreux, * Guillaume de Plalli me fecit,' and another 
" was on an incised slab, formerly in the church of St. Yved de Braine, 
" in France, representing Robert, Count de Dreux, who died 1223. It 
" was inscribed upon the fillet at the feet of the figure thus : ' Letarous me 
" fecit.' Drawings of these are preserved in Gough's Collection in the 
" Bodleian Library, Oxford. These instances are of particular interest, 
" and suggest to us the question, whether we have here the nanie of the 
" designer, or of him who executed the work. It is scarcely possible that 
" the workman and the designer were one."— Waller, A Series of Monu- 
mental Brasses, Introduction, p. iv. 

2 Possibly those of her husband, Gerard Hornebolt, the painter. 

3 See J Catalogue of the Brasses in Queen's College, Oxford, by P. Manning, 
M.A., F.S.A., pp. 67-79; Journal of the Oxford University Brass Rubbing 
Society, Vol. L, No. 2, June, 1897, p. 78. 

4 See Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. II., p. 90. 

5 Her children's names were William, Edmund, John, and Elizabeth. 
See " A Few Notes on Monumental Brasses with a Catalogue of those 
existing in Warwickshire," by Charles Williams, Transactions of the Bir- 
mingham and Midland Institute {Archaological Section), ^ 

1887, p. 47. A brass in Chichester Cathedral, William^ Bradbridge and 
wife Alice, is signed " Fynished in July, i 592, A. L. B." 




Gwydir Chapel, Llanrwst, Denbighshire, the brass of 
Mary, wife of Sir Roger Mostyn, 1653, is the work of 
"Silvanus Crue " ; that of Sarah, wife of Sir Richard 
Wynne, 1 67 1, of" Guil. Vaughan." In Yorkshire there are 
several signed brasses.' The name of " Gabr. Hornbie " 
occurs on an inscription at Nunkeeling (George Acklam, 
1629); that of "Fr: Grigs" on the brass of John and 
Grace Morewood, 1647, at Bradfield, near Sheffield. It 
is also found, 1640, at Upton Cressett, Shropshire (Richard 
Cressett and Wife), and at St. Osyth's, Essex (John Darcy, 
Serjeant-at-Law). "Tho. Mann Eboraci sculp." occurs 
on brasses at Lowthorp (John Pierson, 1665) ; Normanton 
(Richard Mallet, 1668); Ingleby Arnclifte (Elizabeth 
Mauleverer, 1674); Rudstone (Katherine, wife of John 
Constable, 1677). "J- Mann Ebor. sculp' " occurs on the 
brass of John Wilson, 1681, at Bedale. "P. Brigges, 
Ebor." signs the brass of Roger Talbot, 1 680, at Thornton- 
le-Street, and " Ric. Crosse " that of Peter Samwaies, 
rector, 1693, at Bedale. "George Harris Fecit" occurs 
on an inscription at Deddington, Oxon. (Thomas Higgins, 

A few brasses, by the fineness of their engraving, are 
evidendy the work of goldsmiths, as in the case of the 
palimpsest reverse, c. 1 500, at Berkhampstead, Herts, to 
Thomas Humfre, goldsmith, of London {see p. 64, note 2). 
A later example is at St. Andrew's, Auckland, Durham, 
to Fridesmonda, wife of Richard Barnes, Bishop of 
Durham-^* ^ 

The use of engraved plates of brass for sepulchral Thirteenth 
monuments seems to have arisen early in the thirteenth ^'"'"'>' 


J.f'^ 5^!" Stephenson in Vols. XII., XV., and XVII. of the Tork- 

J- p- y^^ler writes ^rchaologia Aeliana,Vo\. XV., p. 81V— 

accountri cgf "tt ^'^^ ^'^'^^P'^ 

for n n ; f^' °^ ^ payment ' to the gouldsmythe at Yorke 

for a plate to sett over Mrs. Barnes, 32s.' " ^ ^ 



century; ^ but very few remains of that period have come 
down to us. Leland records an inscription on brass, once 
existing in St. Paul's Church, Bedford, to Simon de 
Beauchamp, Earl of Bedford, c. 1208.^ An engraving 
(Planche 18), in the second volume of Montfaucon's 
Monumens de la Monarchic Franfoise, 1730, gives an early 
design of a brass, commemorating Philippe and Jean, the 
sons of Louis VIII. (i 223-1 226). On a quadrangular 
plate the two boys are portrayed beneath a double canopy, 
above which four angels, holding incense boats, swing 
censers ; the background is composed of fleurs-de-lis.^ The 
oldest extant brass is that at Verden, representing in 
pontificals Ysowilpe Graf von Welpe in Lower Saxony, who 
became the thirty-first Bishop of Verden in 1205, and 
died on the nones of August, 1231. It consists of one 

1 Boutell aptly writes {Motiumefttal Brasses and Slabs, p. 7) : "Nor is it less 
" worthy of remark that these incised monumental plates were produced 
" in abundance, and in high perfection, more than two centuries previous 
" to the discovery of the art of engraving plates of metal for the purpose 
"of impression. To Mazo Finiquerra, a goldsmith of Florence who 
"flourished about the year 1460, is assigned the distinguished honour 
" of having made the discovery of copper-plate engraving, properly so- 
" called: and thus, during no less a period than 250 years, with an 
" abundance of engraven plates in existence, all of which were expressly 
" calculated to produce fac-simile copies by means of impression, the art 
« of taking impressions remained altogether unknown." 

^See "The Brasses of Bedfordshire," by H. K. St. J. Sanderson, Tran- 
sactions of Cambridge University Association of Brass Collectors (now the 
Monumental Brass Society), Vol. II., p. 41-2. 

3 " La planche suivante nous montre Philippe et Jean de France, fils de 
" Louis VIII. et de Blanche de Castille, comme marque I'mscnption tout 
" au tour en quatre tr^s-mauvais vers Latins. lis moururent tous deux 
" fort ieu'nes. Leurs corps gisent sous la mcme tombe de cuivre au milieu 
" du chceur de Notre Dame de Poissi. lis ont chacun une espece de 
" petite couronne, et un sceptre qu'ils portent de la mam droite,_et qui se 
" termine en haut par une fieur de lis. Celui qui est a la droite, tient de la 
" main gauche un gand. C'est le gand de la mam qui soutenoit 1 oiseau 
"que les grands Seigneurs, les Princes et les Rois memes se faisoient un 
" honneur de porter. C'est Philippe qui le tient, et qui comme am6 de 
"Jean, par6it avoir cette prerogative sur lui. — Montfaucon, Vol. II., 



sheet of brass, over six feet in length, surrounded by a 
fillet on which is an inscription in Lombardic capitals, 
spaces for the nails being allowed for in the arrangement 
of the lettering. The style of the design and engraving 
much resembles that of the incised slabs of the period, 
from which, no doubt, this was a departure. An illustra- 
tion of this brass may be seen in Creeny's book of Fac- 
similes of Brasses on the Continent^ where a similar thirteenth 
century one, that of Bishop Otto de Brunswick, 1279, 
the Cathedral of Hildesheim, is given. 

We have evidence of the former existence in England 
of various brasses during this century ; such as that of 
Bishop Bingham of Salisbury ; ' of Richard de Berkyng, 
Abbot of Westminster, 1246, etc. ; but the earliest effigies 
that survive to this day are those of Sir John Daubernoun, 
c. 1277, at Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey, and of Sir Roger de 
Trumpington, 1289, at Trumpington, near Cambridge. 
At Wimborne Minster, Dorset, is a brass commemorating 
St. Ethelred, King of the West Saxons, 872 ; but the half- 
effigy and shield belong to the fifteenth, and the inscription 
on copper in Roman capitals to about the end of the six- 
teenth century.^ At Ashbourn in Derbyshire, a Lombardic 
inscription recording the dedication of the church, 1241, 
is probably a copy of an older plate.^ In Westminster 
Abbey an important slab survives, showing a portion of 
the stem of a brass cross, with a marginal inscription in 
Lombardic lettering, enclosed in narrow brass fillets, of 

which eight letters (lame: rlea) still remain, the 

space between the stem and the inscribed border being 
filled in with glass mosaic in red, white, and gold. This 

^ The matrix, showing a demi-effigy with mitre and crozier in the 
cen^tre of a cross flory, is illustrated in Kite's Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire, 

^See some remarks in J History of Wimborne Minster, by Charles Mayo 
London, i86o, pp. 7 and 135. Haines gives the date of the effigy! 
c, 144.0. °^ ' 

3 Illustrated Transactions of Monumental Brass Society, Vol. Ill n 200 
April, 1899. ^' 

similar to that 
of architecture 


may be the memorial of John de Valence or de Var/^^nce, 
son of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, c. 1270/ 
At Hereford Cathedral is a small figure of St. Ethelbert, 
part of the brass, formerly existing, of Bishop Thomas 
Cantilupe, 1282. 

Development The history of the development of design in English 
brasses is, practically, identical with that of English archi- 
tecture. As in the buildings, so in the brasses, we note 
an insular individuality of style. Indeed, in many re- 
spects our brasses may be distinguished from those on the 
Continent; perhaps the most noticeable departure being 
the difference in shape. For, whereas the foreign brasses, 
as a rule, consist of quadrangular sheets of metal, this 
form, putting aside the later mural brass, is the excep- 
tion in England ; and when it does occur in the earlier 
periods may, usually, be attributed directly to Flemish 

It is no part of this essay to trace the development of 
Gothic architecture in England ; but an acquaintance with 
its main features is necessary, if an intelligent study of 
brasses be desired. This may be cultivated in Rickman, 
and Parker, and in other works, and, above all, in the 
buildings themselves. Unfortunately, but few of the 
Decorated Canopies of the fourteenth century remain to 
us, though their beauty of form may be traced in surviving 
indents ; but of the Perpendicular work of the next cen- 
tury many fine examples exist. Indeed, so accurately do 
they reflect the architecture of their time, that were no 
other proof available, the date of a brass could often be 
fixed by comparing its canopy with well-known dated 

1 An excellent reproduction of this slab, made from a water-colour 
fac-simile done by Miss E. M. Vincent, will be found in J Series of Photo- 
lithographs of Monumental Brasses in Westminster Abbey, mostly from rubbings 
taken by E. M. Beloe, junr. 1898. 

2 It is possible that the costliness of the brass, due to the fact that it 
was not manufactured in England, may account for the shape of English 
brasses. There was not the same need of economy in Flanders, the 
material being more easily procured. 


examples in stone. Like Gothic architecture, the monu- 
mental brass, which can hardly be considered other than 
an accessory of the style, reached its perfection in the 
fourteenth century, and shared the stately decline of the 
Perpendicular period. The succeeding Renaissance, 
owing either to inferiority of craft and material, or to some 
subtle lack of sympathy in the classical spirit with a 
medium, so successful during the Gothic age, did not 
reach in brasses that perfection which it attained in other 
arts. Possibly there may be something essentially Gothic 
in this art, a quality born of tradition, since, theoretically, 
there is no reason why the classical treatment should not 
be equally successful. But it is curious to note that this 
view has been supported by the practice of the Gothic 
revivalists of the nineteenth century. The Renaissance 
artists, moreover, with their love for work in relief, may 
have found the necessary limitations of the flat surface of 
the brass irksome to them. 

The arrangement of brasses in periods presents the Arrangement 
same difficulties which we encounter in architecture owing ''^ Periods 
to the overlapping of styles, and to the fact that the 
gradual growth of ideas with their concrete embodiment, 
though, doubdess, witnessing to the flight of time, does 
not, necessarily, take account of artificial divisions into 
reigns or centuries. The Rev. H. W. Macklin in his 
excellent handbook' divides brasses into seven periods, 
the^ final one beginning with the reign of Charles I. 
Haines groups them, in a somewhat broader survey, into 
three periods: — (i) The fourteenth; (2) the fifteenth; 
(3) the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In following 
this latter arrangement we have to consider some of the 
mam characteristics, leaving the changes in costume for 
separate treatment. 

The first period covers the fourteenth century, extending The xiv. 
from the beginning of the reign of Edward I., 1272, to the Century 
end of that of Richard II., 1399, ^^d in many respects is 

^Monumental Brasses, ^ih edition, 1898, pp. 15-17. 



the most important of the three. In it we include the 
brasses at Stoke D'Abernon and Trumpington, already 
mentioned as the only brass effigies of the thirteenth century 
left to us in England. Its finest work was that seen in 
the Flemish brasses of the middle of the century, of which 
we treat below. The engraving was executed on thick and 
hard plates, in bold and graceful lines without shading, 
and deeply cut. It is indicative of the excellence of the 
work and material used in this century that these earlier 
brasses, where they have escaped deliberate vandalism, are, 
usually, to be found in far better preservation than those 
of a later period. The general treatment is revealed in 
the use of the recumbent position and in the absence of 
any apparent effort at portraiture. Ecclesiastics have the 
grave countenances befitting their profession. To the 
earlier part of this period belong the few cross-legged, 
mail-clad knights that survive. The figures are usually 
about life-size, though we find them somewhat diminished 
after the introduction of canopies under Edward II. Half- 
length figures and busts seem to have been in fashion. 
The Floriated cross was a favourite form of brass, its head 
frequently enclosing a figure of the deceased, and it is de- 
plorable that so few remain of what was once a numerous 
class. Its use led to the development from it of the so- 
called Bracket-brass, of which some beautiful examples 
survive. The representation of children on brasses is rare, 
and when it occurs the figures are usually not much inferior 
in size to that of the parents. The canopies of this period 
have suffered much from spoliation ; ' they appear to have 
grown in elaboration similarly to the stonework, which 
they imitated. The earliest inscriptions are in Lombardic 
characters, each letter being fixed into its own matrix on 
the slab, and in some cases enclosed in narrow fillets of 

I That of Lady Joan de Cobham, 1 3 20, at Cobham, Kent (see Chap. VI.), 
is the only specimen left of the pedimental canopy of the earlier part of 
the century. 



brass.^ This rather insecure method gave place to en" 
graving the words on fillets of brass placed as a border to 
the slab.- At the beginning of Edward III.'s reign black 
letter^ was introduced with Lombardic capitals/ and we 
find inscriptions placed beneath the figures. Generally 
speaking, the inscriptions are of a simple nature. Latin 
is used, as a rule, for priests, and Norman-French fre- 
quently occurs for knights and their ladies. Dates are 
the exception rather than the rule. An early instance 
occurs on the palimpsest inscription in Denchworth Church, 
Berks (1333, St. Margaret's Day, the date of the surrender 
of Berwick), recording the laying of the foundation-stone 
of Bisham Priory by Edward III. At Cholsey, in the 

^ In YiAteh Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire, p. 10, is an illustration of 
a stone slab, not earlier than 1322, showing indents of a cross fleury sur- 
mounted by the half-effigy of a priest, and of a Lombardic marginal 
inscription, once of brass, as witness the inscription in Norman-French : — 


The matrix of the brass of Boneface de Hart, Canon of Aosta, c. 1320, 
at Hornchurch, Essex (a cross fleury with two half-effigies of ecclesiastics 
and Lombardic marginal inscription), retains a small piece of the outer 
fillet, the letters N and F in " BONEFACE," and the upper dot of the 
colon after " SIRE." See " Some Interesting Essex Brasses," by Miller 
Christy and W. W. Porteous, in The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, 
N.S., Vol. VII., 1 90 1. At Peterborough are preserved a letter V and a 
circular stop from the inscription of Abbot Godfrey de Croyland, 1329, 
and at Watlington, Norfolk, five diamond-shaped stops remain on the slab 
of Sir Robert de Montalt, 1329. See "Notes on some early matrices in 
the Eastern Counties," by E. M. Beloe, junr., Journal of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Brass Rubbing Society, Vol. II., No. I., Feb., 1900, pp. 35-39. In 
the British Museum are preserved the Lombardic letters A D M N and 
T, c. 1330. That these letters appear to have been imbedded in pitch 
without rivets is sufficient reason for their scarcity at the present day. 
^In the Essex Review, Vol. X., 1901, "Some Interesting Essex 
Brasses," by Miller Christy and W. W. Porteous, p. 87, three fragments 
are cited, as existing, of the fillet inscribed with Lombardic lettering to 
Sir — Fitzralph, c. 1320, at Pebmarsh, Essex. 

3 An early example is at North Ockenden, Essex, lohan baucholi, f . 1 3 30. 

4 As at Stanstead Montfitchet, Essex, Robert de Bokkyngg, vicar, 1361. 



same county, the French inscription to John Barfoot bears 
the date 8 th October, 1361. 

The XV. The second period begins with the reign of Henry IV. 

Century 1399, ^'^^s with the death of Henry VII. in 1509, 

following the fortunes of the Houses of Lancaster and 
York to their union in the latter monarch. Great delicacy 
distinguishes the early work of this century ; cross-shading 
is introduced and the lines are finer than in the former 
period. Gradually, as the century advances, convention- 
ality of treatment becomes more marked, and shading is 
more frequently introduced, often to the disadvantage of 
the composition. The greater extension of the use by all 
classes ' of this form of monument leads to a greater diver- 
sity in artistic merit. The figures become smaller, and 
the presence of flowers and of grass beneath the feet begins 
to denote an erect attitude. The greater extravagance in 
dress, especially in the development of the ladies' head- 
dress, is noticeable, and led to the frequent use of the 
figure in profile instead of the former full-face attitude, 
still retained by the clergy. The demi-figure, except for 
priests, is not so frequent a feature as in the last century. 
The portrayal of children on the brasses of their parents 
becomes of common occurrence, sometimes placed beneath 
the parents, sometimes standing beside them as diminutive 
figures. Brasses of children, alone, are to be found, as at 
Blickling, Norfolk, 1479. mural brass with kneeling 

figures, a form that became very common in the next 
century, is introduced. Floriated crosses of very fine 
work are to be found in the earlier part of the century, as 
at Stone, Kent (John Lumbarde, Rector, 1408), but are 
superseded by the simpler cross fleury. Fine examples of 
bracket-brasses exist, as at Upper Hardres, Kent, 1405, 
and Merton College, Oxford, 1420, in the former of which 

I This fact adds greatly to the value of these memorials, ranging as they 
do from the Duchess of Gloucester, wife of Thomas of Woodstock, 1399, 
in Westminster Abbey, to the blacksmith at Beauchampton, Bucks 
(William Bawdyn, 1600). 

Upper Hardres, Kent. 






we see a good instance of the introduction of figures of 
Apostles, as of other sacred personages and scenes at this 
time. The canopies, of which there are many very fine 
specimens, follow the progress of the Perpendicular style, 
the gradual deterioration of which towards the close of the 
century is very noticeable in the treatment of the crockets 
and finials. The ogee is the favourite shape for the arch. 
A curious feature of this period is seen to advantage in 
Yorkshire, and later in Norfolk in the adoption of devices 
with inscriptions, such as the chalice for a priest. In- 
scriptions are frequently formed of raised lettering,' and 
in some instances the spaces between the words are filled 
with grotesque figures of animals and flowers. At the end 
of the century the letters are often crowded together and 
consequently difficult to read. The Norman-French 
language and Lombardic capitals go out of use, and are 
succeeded by Latin with the occasional use of English,'' 
and Gothic black-letter or church-text. Arabic numerals 
exist, but are uncommon. An example, late in the century, 
is afforded by the brass of Thomas Greville, Chrysom, 
1892, at Stanford Rivers, Essex. The disagreeable prac- 
tice, introduced from the Continent, of presenting emaci- 
ated figures or skeletons in shrouds is a characteristic of 
this century, and is sometimes carried to an unsavoury 
excess. Examples are found in the eastern counties, where 
they show an English individuality of treatment. It is 
difficult to understand what satisfaction such a monument 
can have given either to the person commemorated, if 
worked in his lifetime, or to his relatives after his decease. 
It betrays an attitude of mind, which, though found in so 
eminent a person as Dr. Donne, we may hope has long 
since disappeared. 

The third period, in which the similarity of design xvi. & xvii. 


' A good example, of the next century, is the inscription at Flam- 
borough, Yorkshire, to Sir Marmaduke Constable, Knt., c. 1520. 

2 An early example is at Holm-by-the-Sea, Norfolk (Kerry Notingham 
and wife, c. 14.05). 



admits of the treatment of the two centuries in one divi- 
sion, spreads over the reigns of the Tudor and Stuart 
Dynasties. ^ This is the age of the deterioration of brasses 
and of their final extinction in the seventeenth century ; 
but in many respects this decadence is important. As 
already mentioned, the medium does not appear to have 
gained the sympathy of the best Renaissance workmen, 
from which fact, in England at all events, brasses may be 
defined as essentially Gothic in spirit. The workmanship, 
with few exceptions, is much coarser and weaker than in 
the former periods, and the practice of shading becomes 
an abuse. The quality of the metal, moreover, especially 
after the reign of Elizabeth, when it was first manufactured 
in this country, is much inferior to the earlier material, 
being much thinner and more easily worn. The erect 
attitude has become the favourite ; the figures standing on 
a marble pavement or low, rounded pedestal. Haines 
observes (Introduction, p. ccxv.) that this attitude is 
adopted in brasses long before it came into use for the 
sculptured effigy. The mural brass becomes common, 
frequently set in a stone or marble framework of classical 
design. In it the deceased are often represented kneeling 
at faldstools, husband and wife facing each other with their 
sons and daughters grouped on either side behind them.' 
It should be noted that these mural brasses, which are of 
a moderate size, usually consist of a rectangular plate, the 
background being filled in with classical architectural 
details, armorial bearings, etc. A certain lack of dignity 
is often to be seen, as in the portrayal of domestic events, 
e.g., at Heston, Middlesex (Constance, wife of Mordecai 
Bownell, 1581), or of occupations, as at Walton-on- 
Thames, Surrey (John Selwyn, 1587). Brasses of children 
become common, and we find the variety known as the 

' The demi-effigy is uncommon. See mural brasses in York Minster, 
representing (i) Elizabeth Eynns, daughter of Sir Edward Nevell, one 
of the gentlewomen of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth, 1582; 
and (2) James Cotrel, Esq., 1595. Also at Little Warley, Essex (Anne 
Tyrrell, 1592). 


■^iHfljjlii' nu'iiiisli'af.- -limliiHnDojBp; 
of f-f i VjiflbMiifin.lUT Jilt 'n^nci,!!!. teu; 



Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey. 




**chrysom," denoting the early death of the infant in a 
regenerate state. The influence of the Reformation is 
quite as visible as that of the Renaissance. Of the triumph 
of the latter, one of the best examples is the brass of Don 
Parafan de Ribera, Duke of Alcala, at Seville, 1571.' 
The influence of the former gives us many mournful or 
allegorical symbols, which replace those of an earlier age. 
Skulls and crossbones, hour-glasses, and other funeral 
ornaments succeed the evangelistic symbols, and the 
emblems of the Trinity or of the Passion. The Prayer 
for the dead is omitted from the inscriptions, which are 
much more ornate than in the former periods, epitaphs 
displaying, at times, elaborate eulogies, which are as foreign 
as possible to the good taste and reticent simplicity of a 
former age. There is, too, a more pompous display of 
heraldry, the shield commonly being surmounted by an 
elaborate helmet and manding. English becomes the 
usual language of inscriptions, often badly spelt, though 
Latm is frequently retained by the clergy. In the six- 
teenth century Roman capitals came into use. The later 
Gothic canopies become very much debased; the best 
mstances of the Renaissance style of building occur on 
Contmental brasses. The class of effigies, described 
above as shroud or skeleton brasses, is common. A dis- 
gusting instance of this unpleasantness may be seen at 
Oddmgton, Oxon., c. 15 10 (Ralph Hamsterley, rector, 
l^eUow of Merton College, Oxford, died 151 8). 

In the eighteenth century there are very few instances xvlii. and 
ot the use of brass effigies for sepulchral monuments, xix. Centuries 

' The inscription in Roman capitals runs : — 

" Hoc jacet in tumulo, quern virtus vexit ad astra : 
Quern canet ad summum debita fama diem. 
Tempore diverso duo regna amplissima rexit : 
Barchinoem juvenis Parthenopenque senex. 
Dum fuit Eois fulsit quasi sidus Eoum : 

Dum fuit Hesperiis, Hesperus alter erat. 
Flere nefas ilium, qui foelix vivit ubique, 
c , homines vivus, mortuus ante deos. 

See Greeny s Book of Facsimiles of Brasses on the Continent. 



Two occur at St. Mary Cray, Kent, namely those of 
Philadelphia Greenwood, 1747, and Benjamin Greenwood, 
1775. Although of some interest as fashion-plates, they 
possess no artistic value. The revival of Gothic architec- 
ture in the nineteeth century, aided by the religious 
movement at Oxford, has resuscitated an art long dormant. 
Instances of good work are not uncommon. A favourite 
form was a cross engraved on a rectangular plate ; but the 
cross proper has some representatives of merit in the 
nave of Westminster Abbey. Instances of effigies are 
increasing. A good example of a large brass is that of the 
Rev. Richard Temple West {d. 1893) in mass vestments 
in the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Paddington : ' of a 
small one that of Martin White Benson (1878), son of 
Archbishop Benson, in the cloisters of Winchester College. 
A fine brass, designed in the Flemish manner by E. R. 
Singer, is in Bristol Cathedral (Rev. Jordan Roquette 
Palmer-Palmer, 1885). Both Haines and Creeny are 
appropriately commemorated by brasses; the former in 
Gloucester Cathedral, the latter in St. Michael-at-Thorn, 

Distribution The ncxt point for consideration is the distribution of 
of brasses brasses. Many thousands must have existed in former 
times on the continent of Europe, as well as in England, 
of a large proportion of which not even matrices remain. 
Creeny gave two hundred as the probable limit to the 
number of brasses left on the Continent.^ In England 
more than five thousand survive, owing to the preserva- 
tion of which the study of brasses may be said to have 

1 See In Memory of the Rev. R. T. West, M.J., First Ficar 0/ Saint Mary 
Magdalene, Paddington. A Description of the Memorial Brass, with illustra- 
tion [by J. G. Wood]. 

2 " One small one at Amiens and some few unimportant ones at Douay 
are all that now remain in that land [France]. In Germany about 
seventy-five, and in Belgium about sixty or seventy, almost complete the 
catalogue " p iv., Creeny's book oi Facsimiles of Monumental Brasses on the 
Continent. A few exist in Denmark, and at least three are known in 


become, pre-eminently, an English pursuit. Moreover, 
an accurate exploration of a county, such as that conducted 
by the Rev. Edmund Farrer in Norfolk, or that made by 
Messrs. Miller Christy, and W. W. Porteous in Essex, 
may be found to increase very considerably the number 
above that given by Haines in 1861.^ Both in Scotland 
and in Ireland matrices occur, but brasses are very rare. 
In the former kingdom there is a mural brass, 1613, at 
Aberdeen ; another exists at Glasgow, 1 605 ; a third com- 
memorates the Regent Murray, 1569-70, in St. Giles's, 
Edinburgh. In St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, are four 
mural brasses ; in Christchurch Cathedral one. The Prin- 
cipality of Wales has preserved about a score. At Peel, 
in the Isle of Man, is the brass inscription of Bishop 
Rutter (1662). In the Channel Islands matrices may be 
seen. The presence and survival of so many brasses in 
this country may be attributed to a superior stability of 
government, and the consequent greater prosperity of the 
nation. They are scattered, very unequally, over the 
different counties ; those on the east coast (Kent, Essex, 
Norfolk, and Suffolk) containing the greater number; 
after which come the home counties. As a general rule, 
the farther north and west we travel, the sparser do the 
brasses become, until we find Northumberland repre- 
sented by three brasses, one being the Flemish brass at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; and Westmorland by but two brasses 
bearing effigies.^ The chief cause of this unequal dis- 
tribution must be the greater intercourse of the eastern 
counties, and of those surrounding London with the 
Continent, and especially with Flanders. 

Brasses are of all sizes. The largest known is that at 
Schwerin, representing Bishops Godfrey (13 14) and 
Frederic de Bulowe (1375), which measures 12 ft. 7 in. 

^In Norfolk, counting inscriptions, over one thousand brasses are 
known to exist ; in Essex nearly five hundred. 

Morknd ''^ ^^^^ °" '^^^''^ °^ Palimpsest inscription at 



by 6 ft. 4 in. Among the largest in England is the Wal- 
sokne brass at King's Lynn, lo ft. by 5 ft. 7 in. The slab 
at Durham, in which is the matrix of Bishop Beaumont's 
brass (died 1333), measures 15 ft. 10 in. by 9 ft. 7 in. 
One of the smallest in existence must be the mural 
inscription at Long Burton, Dorset, commemorating 
Nathaniel Faireclough, intruding Rector of Stalbridge, 
1656, which is 5J inches square. A very diminutive 
effigy may be seen at Cheam, Surrey (John Yerd, c. 1480). 
Some account A large book might be filled with records of the 
of the treat- sDoliation and misusa^e to which brasses have been sub- 

ment to which . r o • i i c • 

they have been jcctcd ; wc must be content With a short survey ot their 
subjected treatment. And we must be grateful that Fate has dealt 
more kindly with England than with other countries in 
this respect. If we review the history of Scotland or that 
of France, it is easy to find sufficient cause for the dis- 
appearance of sepulchral monuments. In the latter 
country, indeed, in a great many cases what religious 
fanaticism spared in the sixteenth, the Revolution of the 
end of the eighteenth century destroyed.' 

In Pre-Reformation times, moreover, it is not impro- 
bable that the tomb of a benefactor or illustrious personage 
may have usurped the burial-place of some humbler indi- 
vidual ; since interments in their churches became a source 
of emolument to the monastic orders.^ But the extent of 
such transactions must have been trifling when compared 
with the havoc wrought in the sixteenth century. The 

1 Many of the monuments no longer in existence are described and 
engraved in Montfaucon. We have already referred (p. 7, note 3) to the 
Collection of Drawings, made under the supervision of M. de Gaignidres, 
c. 1 700, and now preserved in the Bodleian Library. 

2 " And in beldyng of toumbes 

Thei traveileth grete, 

To chargen her cherche flore 

And chaungen it ofte." (Referring to the Friars.) 
lines 997-1000, The Creed of Piers Ploughman. S^^The Vision and 
Creed of Piers Ploughman, edited by Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A. 
London, 1856. Vol. IL (2nd edition), p. 480. 



suppression by Henry VIII., in 1536, of the lesser 
monasteries, followed, in 1539, by that of their more 
wealthy brethren, whatever political justification may sup- 
port it, can only be regarded by the antiquary as an almost 
incalculable calamity. With the destruction of the re- 
ligious houses their monuments disappeared, except in 
those cases in which the preservation of a portion of the 
fabric was due to the grant of its use as a parish church. 
For, the laton being a marketable metal, all orders of the 
realm were not slow to follow the example of greed and 
rapine, set by the king and his commissioners. The class 
of brasses known as ''Palimpsest^' of which we treat below, 
was largely added to at this time, an old brass being 
bought and then adapted or re-engraved to suit the taste 
or purpose of the purchaser. Sometimes, not only the 
brass, but the slab in which it was laid, was taken. 
Gough,^ quoting Blomfield, records that Robert, Earl of 
Sussex, paved his hall, kitchen, and larder with the slabs 
contaming brasses taken from the chancel of Attleborough 
Church, Norfolk, granted him by the king at the dissolu- 
tion of the college. Gough also^ cites a document, then 
in the Augmentation Office, giving particulars of the sale 
of monastic property, 1538-9 : — 

" County of Warwick, Mirival, six gravestones with 
brasses on them, 5J. 

" County of Stafford, Darley, the tombs and grave- 
stones with the metal on them, and roof of the church 
isles, etc., sold for lio^ ' 

In Nichols' Leicestershire,^ is an extract from the 
Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Martin's, Leicester, i C47 
TTt ^L""^^"''' follows:-" By the commandment 
ot Mr. Mayor and his brethren, according to the King's 

^ Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., Part I., p. cxxii. 
^ The same, p. cxx. 

3 Vol. I., pp. 570-71. 

4 pp. cxlii.-iii., Introduction. 


"Injunctions, in the year of our Lord 1546, and the first 
" year of the reign of Edward the Sixth, . • . Four 
" hundred and a quarter of brass was sold for 1 9J. per cwt. 
"to one man; and three hundred weight and three 
" quarters was sold to another at the same price, and one 
" hundred to William Taylor." ' 

Throughout the short reign of Edward VI. many monu- 
ments must have fallen a prey to reforming zeal. At 
Wigtoft, in Lincolnshire, in 1550, 85. was given for 
" xxiii stone of leten," and Gough relates ^ that when the 
materials of St. Andrew's Church, Lincoln, were sold in 
155 1, the plate in the chapel with the plate of other stones 
in the church was valued at 40J. The destruction of 
monuments must have received some check from the 
short counter-reformation of the next reign; but when 
Elizabeth ascended the throne it seems to have been m 
baneful progress, as we find from the account given by 
Weever in his Ancient Funeral Monuments, 1631 ; so much 
so that the queen issued a proclamation in 1560, to put an 
end to this wanton practice ;3 but in spite of her efforts 
we find, in 1579, Dean Whittingham of Durham appro- 
priating to his use many of the slabs in that cathedral. 
Indeed, so constantly must the war against valuable monu- 
ments have been waged that we find at Horshill, Surrey, 
in 1603, inscriptions to John Fayth and Thomas Sutton, 
ending "Gentle reader, deface not this stone ";-* and 
Haines cites ' the will of Archbishop Harsnett, February 
I -^th, 1 630-1, which gave suitable directions for the proper 
fa'stening of his brass in Chigwell Church, Essex. 

In the period of the Civil War and Commonwealth 
brasses fared badly. - The Journal of William Dowsing, 

I The Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Thomas the Martyr, Salisbury, 
reveal a similar transaction at the rate of 18.. the hundred. 
^Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., Part I., p. cxxi. 

3 See Appendix. . , . o 

\See " Horsell Church," by Thomas Milbourn, Architect, Surrey 
Archaologicd Collections, V*ol. VII., 1880, p. 152. 
5 Introduction, p. ccliii. 


" of Stratford, Parliamentary Visitor appointed under a 
"warrant from the Earl of Manchester for demolishing 
" the superstitious Pictures and Ornaments of Churches, 
" etc., within the County of SuiFolk in the Years 1643 and 
" 1 644," ^ shows us what damage that pestilent fanatic 
wrought in one county. His attention seems to have been 
specially directed against inscriptions of the "ora pro nobis " 
type, and the comely elevation of the altar above the level 
of the body of the church seems to have been a great offence 
in his eyes : — 

"Alhallows, Sudbury, Jan. the 9**^ [1643]. We brake 
" about twenty superstitious pictures and took up thirty 
"brazen superstitious inscriptions, ' ora pro nobis' and 
" * Pray for the soul,' etc. 

At Orford, January 2 5th : « Eleven popish inscriptions 
in brass." 

_ At Wetherden, February 5th : " there was taken up 
nmeteen superstitious inscriptions that weighed sixty-five 
pounds." ^ 

In all nearly two hundred brass inscriptions must have 
been subjected to the rigour of his intolerance.^ 

Other instances could be multiplied. The Church- 
wardens of St. Margaret's, Westminster, in 1644, received 
13J. 6^. "for 29 pound of fine brass at 4^. a pound 
and 96 pound of coarse brasse at 3^. a pound taken off 
trom sundrie tombe-stones in the Church." At Christ- 
church, m Hampshire, March 30th, 1657, the Church- 
wardens were ordered to " deliver unto Mrs. Hildesley 
or her Assignes one Marble Stone, now lying in the East 
end of the church being loose." 

The cathedral churches suffered much during the 

^ See "A true copy of a Manuscript found in the library of Mr 
DoTst?rn\f r"^" FatherTwill^f^ 

lo tTuHdinr^ t'lP'' ^'^"'^ D-;t?Sb^.'triibt iV 


seventeenth century. At Lincoln, where but one small 
brass, engraved with a coat of arms, remains, in 1 7 1 8 we 
find Browne Willis counting 207 " gravestones that had 
been stript of their brasses ; " though, fortunately, Gough 
adds,' "the better half of them preserved in Bishop 
Sanderson's MS. account of the monuments there, and 
printed in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa" Durham has been 
thrice despoiled. First, under the authority of Dean 
Whittingham, 1563-79, who "defaced all such stones as 
had any picture of brass or other imagery work." 
Secondly, by the Scots in 1640. Thirdly, by the destruc- 
tion of the Chapter House in 1799.' 

In the eighteenth century, not infrequently, the clergy, 
when non-resident, left the care of the church fabric in 
the hands of ignorant local agents and churchwardens, 
whose contempt for anything inexplicable by them, must 
have greatly aided the disappearance of brasses by more 
or less dishonourable means. Gough writes — "In the 
" body of York Cathedral, of an hundred and thirteen 
" epitaphs, not twenty were left at the time of new paving, 
" 1734, and half of these were cut in stone, which plainly 
"proves that the poor lucre of the brass was the great 
" motive to the defacing these venerable remains of an- 
"tiquity. Of fifty-two epitaphs in the church, which 
" Mr. Drake gives, near thirty were entire and legible 
" before the above paving, being preserved by the doors 
" being kept shut." A like fate befel the brasses^ at 
Hereford at the hands of workmen engaged in repairing 
the west front. The following quotation shows what 
happened at King's Lynn : — 

I Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., Part I., p. cxx. 

""See V 339» Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. II.; 
pp. 338-42, Durham Cathedral: An Account of the Lost Brasses, by R. A. S. 
Macalister and H. Eardley Field. 

3 Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., Part I., p. cxx. 

4 See Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. II., p. 57- "A 
list of Brasses existing in the Churches of St. Margaret and St. Nicholas, 
King's Lynn, in the year 1724," by E. M. Beloe, junr. 



" 17th lune, 1742 : resolved that eighteenpence be paid 
to the contractors for every grave stone they have 
taken up." 

1 6th May, 1746, "it was ordered that the old Brass 
and old Iron be immediately sold by the Churchwardens." 

From the same place the fine Flemish brass of Robert 
Attelath and lohanna his wife {^see p. 49) was taken 
some time before 18 13, and sold to a brassfounder for five 

In the collection of impressions made by Craven Ord 
and now in the British Museum, is one of a knight (Sir 
Miles Stapleton, c. 1400) from Ingham Church, Norfolk.^ 
Cotman says "In 1800 the chancel at Ingham was 
" completely swept of all its beautiful memorials of the 
" Stapleton family. They were sold as old metal, and it 
"was commonly reported by whom they were sold and 
" bought ; but nobody sought to recover them : neither 
"mmister nor churchwarden cared for any of those things " 
A similar fate overtook the brasses at Sheepy Magna 
Leicestershire, in 1778. It is not uncommon to find de- 
spoiled slabs used again, without compunction, as tomb- 
stones, as at Christchurch, Hants. Probably, in course of 
time many slabs will be discovered to have been turned 
over, in some cases, even, retaining their brasses. Amon^ 
the uses to which brasses have been put may be mentioned 
the following :-At Meopham, Kent,3 they were added to 
the metal of the bells when these were recast. At Luton 
^eds, they were melted down, to make a chandelier. At 
Koyston, Herts, an inscription was found employed as a 
door-scraper. ^ ^ 

The revival of interest in brasses, which has taken place 

c2c^rstT\x m'TT ^-^^f^^-'t^ ^-ociatlon of Brass 

^^'^T^^^^^ '^^'^ ^^^^''-^ - Norfolk, 

^See Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., Part I., p. cxx. 



during the nineteenth century, has led in many parts of 
the country to the exercise of an intelligent care for the 
well-being of these monuments. But, in spite of good 
work done, there are only too many instances to record of 
irreparable damage wrought by deliberate dishonesty, by 
ignorant carelessness, or by an injudicious and misdirected 
zeal. Losses by theft have been far too frequent/ In 
1857 the important brasses at Oulton, Suffolk, were 
stolen. In August, 1 8 8 9, two of the Washington brasses 
were stolen from Sulgrave Church, Northants.^ At 
Wicken, Cambs., the effigy of John Peyton, c. 1520, was 
taken, the thief fortunately leaving the inscription. _ 

The mania for restoration, consequent on the revival ot 
Gothic architecture in the middle of the century, and the 
demolition of churches have contributed their share to the 
causes of the mutilation and disappearance of brasses. 
The GifFard brass suffered severely when the church ot 
Bowers Giffard, Essex, was rebuilt in 1830. The brasses 
in St. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury, were lost when that 
church was pulled down in 1871 ; those at Chipping 
Norton, Oxon, have been much disturbed and shame- 
fully treated.3 At St. John's College, Cambridge, a brass 
from the old chapel is now fixed to the wall in the new 
building; the slab from which it was taken lying ex- 
posed to the weather in the court. In several churches 
alterations have been made detrimental to the objects of 

I When such occur the Incumbent should make every effort in his 
power to recover the Church property, as becomes " a good steward 
This we fear, in some cases, has not been done. We have seen it stated 
;ha bra ses are sold for large sums in America, a fact that reflects nothmg 
but dishonour on the parties to such sordid and questionable proceedmgs 
™s hou"d set the clergy and their officials on their guard; the loss of 
a brass should be made an occasion for the exercise of archidiaconal 
functions. . . 

^See the correspondence in the Standard newspaper, beginning in 
August and continuing throughout September, 1889. 

3 W the Rev H. W. Macklin's List, in the Transactions of the Cambridge 
UniversUyLdation of Brass Collectors, No. VII., February, 1900, P- H- 


our care, such as the removal of portions of monuments 
the concealing of brasses under organs, pews, or stoves' 
and the unscholarly, and truly feminine desire for uni- 
formity of pavement and for general, so-called, tidiness, 
including frequently much ecclesiastical upholstery. We 
may hope that these exhibitions of bad taste are not on 
the increase. It would be unreasonable to demand the 
same high level of intelligence from all the clergy; but 
where such lapses occur, quis custodiet custodes? 

We have, however, much cause to be thankful that 
several discoveries have been made, leading to the restora- 
tion of brasses to their churches, or to the removal of the 
obstructions that have concealed them. A notable example 
is that of the brass of Bishop Bell, of Worcester (d. icr6) 
in St. James's, Clerkenwell. On the destruction of the 
old church in 1788, the brass was sold, coming into the 
possession of Richard Gough, the antiquary, and later of 
Mr J. B. Nichols, till, in 1884, it was placed on the wall 
ot the present church at the expense of the late Mr. Stephen 
Tucker, Somerset Herald. The discovery at Roding in 
Essex, of the Borrell brass, long lost from Broxbourne, 
Herts, led to its return. At Aldermaston, Berks, three 
brasses were found beneath the floor of the Forster chapel 
A hne mihtary effigy, 1408, was discovered in 1804' 
beneath pews in Otterden Church, Kent. 

We must not leave unnoticed the practice that has 
grown of late years, usually during the "restoration" of 
a church, of taking a brass from its slab on the floor and 
placing It against the wall. This seems to us justifiable 
only in extreme cases, in which it is the sole means of 
preserving brasses, and in that of "palimpsests" (see p. 41) 

lould no^b 'T'''^' monument, tnd 

should not be separated. Together, and in their or ginal 
position and state,^ they often form valuable histoHcal 

r:r^r:-.^i:::.X "-LetrellT^ of architecture or of archaeological 

weight with'the ' °^ 



evidence. The Purbeck marble, frequently, is very 
beautiful, forming a fine setting and background for the 
metal plate ; indeed, the position of the brass on the slab 
is the result of design. It is, therefore, well-nigh as un- 
reasonable to remove a brass from its original slab, as it 
would be considered to cut out the background of a 
portrait, leaving only the figure intact. Moreover, the 
fixing of a brass on the wall often leads to the disappear- 
ance of the slab, and to the impossibility of finding the 
original site of the brass. But if removal to the wall has 
become indispensable, the whole monument should, with 
the utmost care to prevent damage, be taken up and fixed 
in the wall ; for a brass, if fastened to the plaster, may be 
injured by corrosion from the lime. At Cheriton, Kent, 
a small slab has been placed in the floor to indicate the 
original site of a brass, removed to the wall. 

But it seems to us that there are few churches in which 
the space, occupied by the brasses in their position on the 
floor, cannot, with a little consideration, be spared to 
them ; to say nothing of a sentiment of reverence, pro- 
ducing a disinclination to disturb a tomb. Besides which 
we know that mural brasses were not in general use before 
the sixteenth century, and should be careful not to be 
guilty of a kind of anachronism in dealing with those of 
an earlier date. The preservation of the brass with its 
slab can easily be secured, and at much less expense than 
by its removal to the wall— by placing a rope-rail round 
it or even by covering it with a piece of matting or carpet ; 
though, in the case of the adoption of the latter expedient, 
the dust that accumulates beneath the covering should be 
frequently and regularly removed. 

If placed on the wall, a brass should be fixed at no 
great distance from the ground. When fastened at a 
height like that of the Beauchamp brass at Warwick, or, 
in a less degree, like the brass at Aldborough, near 
Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, great difficulty is experienced 
in examining it at all thoroughly, and, as a memorial, its 
value is obviously decreased. 



Before passing to the consideration of " Palimpsests," 
we may mention that several restorations have been carried 
out with much care and ability during the nineteenth cen- 
tury by the Messrs. Waller and others. A good example 
is furnished by Winchester College Chapel, where the 
brasses, the originals of which disappeared in 1877, faith- 
fully reproduced from rubbings, were laid down in 1882, 
at the expense and under the supervision of Dr. Fresh- 

The term ''Palimpsest^' ' first employed for this purpose palimpsest 
by the late Mr. Albert Way, has become so generally ^^^^^^^ 
used of a brass appropriated for other than the person 
originally commemorated, that it might appear pedantic 
to discard it. At the same time, strictly speaking, its use 
is only justifiable in the case of very few and exceptional 
monuments. Terms such as " retroscript^' " rescript^' " re- 
-versed;' ''adapted,'' seem better suited accurately to describe 
the condition of the brass ; but for our present purpose 
we will retain the word " Palimpsest," contenting ourselves 
with pointing out where the term is applied more or less 

Three classes of Palimpsest may be said to exist :— ^ Three classes 

I. In which the brass plate, turned over, is re-engraved ^'p'""^^''"' 
and again laid down. 

'"iraXif^xprtfTTOQ (i^^w) scratched or scraped again ; usually of parch- 
ment from which one writing has been erased to make room for another " 


^The best authority on this subject is, « A List of Palimpsest Brasses 
compiled by Mill Stephenson, F.S.A.," in Vol. IV. of theXlf/ ^^ 

-thi^r '''u Appropriated and converted brasses. B. Brasses 

-dS oTeZv C'' ^T'-^^'^S^ ^^^g""--' inscriptions, etc 

either of English or foreign workmanship. This class mav he .nb 
divided into three heads : (i) Wasters froS. the workshop ^'(.)%p'u 

country. (3) Imported plate and spo from the destrurtinn nf f-K« 
"religious houses in the Low Countries » P .26 Vol TV t . 
^/Monun^enfat Brass Society (Part 8, Oct ber, 1903). ^^"^ ^'^^'^'''^""^ 



2. In which the original engraving is altered, without 
reversing the plate. 

3. In which the original effigy is appropriated either 
entirely or in part, a new inscription replacing the true one. 

Cases are known in which two or even three of these 
classes are represented in one monument. 

(1) Of the first class many examples are known, and 
probably many more will be discovered as from time to 
time brasses become unfixed from their slabs. Sometimes 
we find the whole original memorial reversed, as in the 
case of that of Amphillis Peckham, 1545, at Denham, 
Bucks, in which a fifteenth-century effigy, representing 
John Pyke, probably a schoolmaster, an inscription to his 
memory, and a shield have, all three, been reversed to 
form a memorial for that lady.' In other cases part only 
of the original is used, or the whole of the original forms 
a part of a later memorial, as at Denchworth, Berks, where 
the reverse of the inscription below the effigies of William 
Hyde, 1557, and wife, records the laying of the founda- 
tion-stone of Bisham Priory by Edward III. {see p. 21); 
or the figure is mutilated to suit the outline of the usurp- 
ing effigy, as at Fryerning, Essex, c. 1560; or the later 
brass is made up of pieces of others, frequently of Flemish 
design,^ in which case it is often difficult to decide whether 
the fragments are parts of memorials, once in proper 
position, or merely the waste from the engraver's work- 
shop. A good example of a brass composed from pieces 
of others, probably brought from Bury St. Edmund's 
Abbey, is that of Margaret Bulstrode, 1540, at Hedgerley, 
Bucks. Another is to be seen at St. Lawrence's, Reading, 
composed of portions of that of Sir John Popham, 1463. 

(2) Examples of the second class are rare, in spite of 
the fact that it is the only one which can be said to affi^rd 

1 Illustrated in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries y 2nd Series, 
Vol. XV. 

2 For Flemish palimpsest fragments, see below, p. 44. 



a sufficient analogy to the palimpsest manuscript, to make 
the use of the term a scholarly one. The best instance is 
that at Waterpery, Oxon (Walter Curzon, Esq., and wife, 
1527), in which the details of the armour have been altered 
to suit the fashion of a period nearly a hundred years later 
than that of the original brass. ^ Another interesting 
specimen, now practically destroyed, was that at Okeover, 
Staffs, to Humphrey Oker, Esq. (1538), his wife and 
children ; curious, moreover, as belonging to all three 
classes. The brass appears to have been that of William, 
Lord Zouch, and his two wives (c. 1447), beneath a triple 
canopy. The central figure was altered by the addition of 
a tabard over the plate armour ; the figure of one Lady 
Zouch left untouched (class 3) to represent Oker's wife ; 
that of the other reversed and engraved with figures of 
the children and arms of the appropriator ; whilst other 
shields were inserted in the canopy.^ At Chalfont St. 
Peter, Bucks, is the effigy of a priest, c. 1440. This has 
been altered by shading and by rounding the pointed toes, 
and furnished with a fresh inscription attributing the 
memorial to Robert Hanson, vicar of that place and of 
Little Missenden, who died 1545. 

(3) The third class, in which the original brass is adapted 
with as little expense as credit to the requirements of a 
later monument, by merely adding a new inscription in 

^ See Haines' Introduction, p. xlviii, *' In the male figure a new head 
" and shoulders have been substituted for the original ; a skirt of plate 
" armour has been altered into mail, the plates in front of the armpits have 
"been partially erased, additional defences placed over the breastplate, 
** gussets of mail added at the insteps, the pointed toes rounded, and the 
various edges of the armour invecked and shaded : in the lady's figure 
the upper half is a fresh plate, or the old one reversed ; the lower half 
engraving of the original brass, altered by the addition of 
shading and an ornament suspended by a chain." 

=^5^^ illustrations in the Portfolio of the Oxford University Brass-Rubbing 
Society, Part I., February, 1898, and in the Portfolio of the Monumental Brass 
Society, Vol. I. 



place of the old, is represented by several examples. At 
Bromham, Beds, the brass, attributed to Thomas Widville, 
1435, two wives, was, by the substitution of a 

different inscription, used to commemorate Sir John Dyve, 
1535, with his mother and wife. Among other instances 
we may mention the Dalison brass at Laughton, Lines 
{c. 1400 and 1549), and the Wybarne brass at Ticehurst, 
Sussex {c. 1370 and 15 10). A curious case of adaptation 
occurs at Hampsthwaite, near Ripley, W. Yorks, where 
the small brass of a civilian of the fourteeth century has 
been converted to the use of another some two hundred 
years later, by the simple expedient of cutting an inscrip- 
tion across the figure, " Prayse god for ye | soule of Ad 
dyxon | Uncle to | vycar | dyxon | Aug 18 | 1570." 

The chief cause of the existence of these so-called 
Palimpsest brasses was, undoubtedly, the spoliation con- 
sequent on the suppression of the monasteries. This is 
sufficiently proved by the fact that the greater part of the 
obverse figures or inscriptions belong to the sixteenth 
century, and that they disclose when reversed older en- 
gravings, which may be taken for genuine memorials torn 
from their original positions. " Palimpsests " previous in 
date to the Dissolution are uncommon, and, when they 
occur, must be attributed either to dishonesty or to errors 
in workmanship, the latter explanation probably being 
correct, when the two engravings are of about the same 
date. An example may be seen at St. Albans, where part 
of the figure of an abbot, attributed to John de la Moote, 
c. 1400, shows, when ireversed, the lower half of a female 
figure with a dog at the feet. At the Temple Church, 
Bristol, is the figure of a priest vested in cassock, surplice, 
and cope, c. 1460, the reverse of which reveals the figure 
of a widow of similar date. In St. Margaret's, Rochester, 
the half-length figure of Thomas Cod, Vicar, 1465, vested 
in cassock, surplice, amice, and cope, when reversed shows 
a figure similarly vested, with the exception that an almuce 
takes the place of the amice. This alteration probably was 



effected soon after his death, if not before that event. 
But the most remarkable example of alteration is that at 
Burwell, Cambridgeshire, in the brass, commemorating in 
all probability, John Laurence de Wardeboys, last Abbot of 
Ramsey, Hunts (i 508-1 539, died 1 542), He was origin- 
ally represented, probably during his lifetime and under 
his own supervision, in full vestments befitting his rank, 
the lower part of the figure revealing these when reversed. 
But owing, very possibly, to prudential reasons, either by 
his directions or those of his executors, the figure was 
altered to that of a canon in cassock, surplice, and almuce, 
the upper part of the figure being engraved on a new 
plate, since the old piece |must have been unsuitable for 
turning owing to the mitre and other differences of 
costume affecting the outline. A fine triple canopy 
originally completed the design, but of this only the 
central pediment remains, on the reverse of which por- 
tions of an early engraving (c. 1320?) are found, ap- 
parently representing a deacon, vested in amice, dalmatic 
and maniple. 

Occasionally a brass may be suspected of being palimp- 
sest, if it is a thick piece of metal, whilst its date is later 
than the first quarter of the sixteenth century, since the 
later sheets of brass used were thin and very inferior in 
quality to those of a former period. When found to be 
palimpsest a brass should not be fixed either on its slab 
or on the wall, so as to prevent the reverse from being 
seen, but should be fastened by means of screws, or placed 
in a hinged frame, in order to make it accessible for in- 
spection. ^ This may appear a violation of what we have 
already laid down as to the undesirability of unfastening 
brasses from their slabs; but in the case of paHmpsests 
it seems but a tardy act of justice to the person originally 
commemorated. Indeed, could we be sure that they 
would receive skilful and harmless treatment in the 
process, we should hail a systematic examination of 
the reverse of every brass and slab in the kingdom. For 
thereby much valuable information would be gained, and 



any doubts as to the palimpsest nature of a brass finally 
set at rest.' ^ 

braS estimate with any degree of accuracy all the influ- 

ences which continental art may have exercised over 
English brass engraving would be no easy task. But we 
are fortunate in possessing in England some specimens of 
a style which is as superior to as it is difl^erent from the 
ordinary work of the English school. This style, from 
the position of similar work in Europe, is known as that 
of the Flemish school — and, as from its marked charac- 
teristics it is^ easily recognized, we are able to attribute to 
it, with certainty, a few brasses now existing in this country. 
Belonging to the fourteenth century, and, in England, 
speaking broadly, attributable to the reign of Edward III., 
they illustrate in a signal way, and form a most appropriate 
accompaniment to the most beautiful, as, indeed, the most 
ornate, period of Gothic architecture, constituting a series 
of designs of remarkable richness, ere the fifteenth century 
ushered in the Perpendicular style. In enumerating these 
Flemish brasses it is more than ever necessary to bear in 
mind that the date given on the brass, though doubtless a 
trustworthy genealogical statement, is at the same time but 
an approximate date to which the engraving of the work 
may be attributed. The style of treatment is the surest 
guide. For the practice, instances of which occur in all 
ages, of the person commemorated personally superin- 
tending the execution of his memorial, is sufficient indica- 
tion that in many cases the date on the brass itself cannot 

List of identified with that of its engraving. 

those in The examples of this school in this country are as 

England, foUowS ^ !— 

^ Mr. Mill Stephenson's List of Palimpsest Brasses, already referred to, 
gives a detailed account of all brasses of this nature known to exist in 
England, up to the date of publication. 

2 The brass of Robert Attelath, and wife, 1 376, stolen from King's Lynn 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century, was a good example of this 
class. It is possible that the fine brass at Higham Ferrers, Northants 
(Laurence de St. Maur, 1337), is of foreign work. Bishop Beaumont's 
brass at Durham, of which the matrix survives, was similar in style. 




Fourteenth century : — 

Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsing, Norfolk - 1347 

Adam deWalsokne, and wife, St. Margaret's, 

King's Lynn ----- 1349 

Robert Braunche, and two wives, in the 

same church - - - - - 1364 

Alan Fleming, Newark, Notts - - - 1361 

Abbot Thomas Delamere, St. Albans' 
Abbey, dated 1396, but probably en- 
graved - - - - - -^r. 1360 

Priest in mass vestments, called Sir Simon 

de Wenslagh, Wensley, Yorkshire - ^. 1360 

Priest in mass vestments, Thomas de 

Horton, North Mimms, Herts- - c. 1360 

Ralph de Knevynton, Aveley, Essex - 1370 

Thomas de TopclifF, and wife, Topcliffe, 

near Thirsk, Yorkshire - - - 1391 

A fragment of a large brass, representing 
an abbot, formerly in the possession 
of the late Mr. Pugin, but now in the 
British Museum ; which Boutell sup- 
posed might be that of Michael de 
Mentmore, Abbot of St. Albans,' who 
died 1342 - - - - - c. 1350 

Here it will not be out of place to mention some brasses Some fine 
of the same school on the Continent, to which reference 
will be made below ^ : — ^''^'"^ " 

^ But see "The Brasses and Indents in St. Albans' Abbey," by William 
Page, F.S.A., p. 12 (reprinted from the Home Counties Magazine, Vol. I., 
1899). "But Mr. Mill Stephenson has ascertained that Mr. Pugin 
" obtained his brass from abroad, it is therefore improbable that it could 
" have come from St Albans' Abbey." 

2 Reproductions of these brasses are in Creeny's book of Facsimiles of 
Monumental Brasses on the Continent of Europe, 1884, folio. The brass of 
St. Henry of Finland (Bishop of Upsala, d. c. 1 158), representing him in 
pontificals, at Nousis in South Finland, is a fine example of Flemish work 
of the next (fifteenth century). It will be found illustrated in Proceedings 
of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Vol. X., p. 215 (No. iii., 1903) 




King Eric Menved and Queen Ingeborg 
of Denmark, at Ringstead, in Zea- 
land - - - _ _ _ 

Bishops Ludolph and Henry de Bulowe, 

at Schwerin, in Mecklinburg - 1339, 1347 
Bishops Godfrey and Frederic de Bulowe, 

at Schwerin - - - -131 4, 137^ 
Burchard de Serken and lohn de Mul, at 

Liibeck - - _ _ _ j^ij, 1350 
Albert Hovener, in the Church of St. 

Nicholas, Stralsund - - - 1357 
Johan von Zoest and wife, at Thorn, in 

Prussian Poland- - - - 1361 
John de Heere, and Gerard de Heere, at 

Brussels ----- 1332, 1398 

Flemish These seven brasses may well be considered the finest 
palimpsests -^^ existcncc, and form the best examples of the Flemish 
school. It is to be noticed that they all belong to the 
fourteenth century, the period which gave us the finest 
Gothic architecture and for its appropriate concomitant 
the finest brass-engraving. 

Several palimpsest brasses are known, the reverse sides 
of which show portions of Flemish work. Waller finds 
a cause for this in those events in Flanders, following 
"the establishment of the league of the Gueux in 1566, 
"when so large a number of churches in Brabant and 
" Hainault were completely ravaged." ^ For it is remark- 
able that the greater part of these remains occurs on the 
reverse of brasses of the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It is probable, moreover, that in addition to pieces 
sacrilegiously torn from tombs, many spoiled plates were 
imported into this country from the Continent. Such 

" The Sepulchral Brass of St. Henry of Finland," by Dr. M. R. James, 
and also in the Portfolio of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. II., plates 
35-8. Dr. James' paper is reprinted in the Transactions of the latter 
society. Vol. IV., p. 336. 

^ J Series of Monumental Brasses, Introduction, p. ix. 



may be the case at Topcliffe, where the reverse of the 
Flemish brass (1391), when removed from its slab, was 
found to be engraved. An early example of a Flemish 
palimpsest occurs at Great Bowden, Leicestershire. On 
the reverse of an inscription to William Wolstonton, 1403, 
rector, is an engraving of a civilian, c. 1350. Waller 
mentions ^ that a fragment found in Leicestershire proved 
to be a piece of a fine brass at Stralsund. Of fourteenth 
century Flemish work paHmpsests exist at, amongst other 
places^: — Ewelme, Oxon. (1494); Tolleshunt Darcy, 
Essex, c. 1375, where the obverse and reverse are portions 
of ornate Flemish borders, similar in treatment to the 
palimpsest at Margate (1582); Sail, Norfolk {c. 1480); 
Winestead, E. Yorks (c. 1540) ; Pottesgrove, Beds (1563) ; 
Cookham, Berks (1577); Wardour Castle, Wilts, on the 
reverse of memorials of the Arundell family (1573 to 
1586), removed from Mawgan, in Cornwall; Constantine, 
Cornwall (1574) ; Isleworth (1544) ; Harrow (1574) ; and 
Pinner (1580), Middlesex. Of the fifteenth century at 
Hadleigh, Suffolk (1555); Yealmpton, Devon (1580); 
Aveley (1584); Stondon Massey (1573), Essex ; Camber- 
well, Surrey (1582); Walkern, Herts (1583). Of the 
sixteenth century at Aylesford, Kent (1545); St. Peter 
Mancroft, Norwich (1568) ; St. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford 
(1574); Paston, Norfolk (1596). 

The presence on some of these brasses of fragments of 
inscriptions ; as at Harrow and Margate, " Int Jaer + 
ons + heren " (in the year of our Lord) ; at Constantine 
" bidt • voer . die • ciel " (pray for the soul) ; ^ and at 
Pinner Hier + Licht " proves that they were never in- 

^ The same, p, xii. 

* These fragments present similar characteristics to the brasses described 
below. They are dealt with in Mr. Mill Stephenson's List, referred to 
above. The dates, given in the text, are those of the obverse sides 
of the brasses. 

3 For similar inscription existing at Topcliffe, see Waller's Series of 
Monumental Brasses, p. ix. 



tended for English memorials, nor laid down as such in 
this country, but merely imported to be re-engraved. 
Deiamere Among the illustrations will be found one of the brass 


of Abbot Deiamere in St. Albans' Abbey, considered by 
many the finest brass in England. The following descrip- 
tion will furnish most of the characteristics which dis- 
tinguish this class from the ordinary brass memorials in 
this country. Originally on a large marble slab in the 
choir, easily distinguished by its quadrilateral matrix, this 
brass now lies on a wooden frame, placed on the slab in 
the chantrey of Abbot John of Wheathamstead on the 
south side of the altar, in which chapel are other brasses 
taken from different parts of the church. Engraved 
during his lifetime (he died 1396), and probably under 
his personal supervision, we have no adequate reason for 
doubting that this is a thoroughly satisfactory representa- 
tion of the abbot, clad in his pontificals, about the year 
1360. It is well to mention the pecuharities common to 
this and other works of the same school. The monument 
is composed of several square pieces of brass, not shaped 
to the figure or making use of the slab for background in 
the ordinary English way, but joined together to make 
one large rectangular plate, in this instance 9 ft. 3 in. by 
4 ft. 4 in. in size. Over this plate is spread diaper work 
which acts as a background to the whole, and from which 
the figure and architectural details stand out, as though 
in relief This diaper work, which is practically the same 
as that in the Fleming brass at Newark, is very similar to 
that on the Continental brasses, enumerated above, and to 
the apparel of the alb and other embroidery on the Wensley 
brass. In the centre of the plate is the figure of the abbot, 
clad in amice, alb, stole, maniple, tunicle, dalmatic, and 
chasuble.^ On his head is the mitra pretiosa ; on his hands, 
which lie crossed downwards, the right hand over the left, 
are jewelled gloves ; on his feet, resting on two fighting 
winged dragons, embroidered sandals. On his left arm 

^ For descriptions of these vestments, sec pp. 65 et seq. 

St. Alban's Abbey, Herts.,] 

■ i 



rests his pastoral staff in the crook of which is a representa- 
tion of Agnus dei. The embroideries on the vestments 
are very fine. Dragons occur on the apparels of amice 
and alb ; leopards' heads alternate with quatrefoils on the 
maniple; on the orphreys of the chasuble, and on the 
mitre, as on the vestments of Bishop Burchard de Serken 
at Labeck, occur medallions of heads. The method of 
treating the mouth should be noticed, as it seems similarly 
treated in the other brasses of this style. The effigy is 
enclosed in a rich canopy of tabernacle work, in the com- 
partments of which are figures and geometrical tracery, as 
in an elaborate shrine, outside which on three sides we see 
the diapered background continued between the architec- 
tural ornament and the marginal inscription. In the centre 
over the abbot's head sits Christ enthroned, two angels 
standing on each side, two of whom swing censers. In 
the top compartments of the side shafts sit St. Peter (dexter) 
and St. Paul (sinister). Beneath St. Peter is a larger figure 
of St. Alban with cross and sword ; facing whom, under 
St. Paul, occurs St. Oswyn, King of Northumbria, with 
crown and spear. Beneath these on each side are three 
double compartments, in which the background behind the 
canopies in the upper part, is made to appear " masoned." 
The inner ones contain, apparently, six apostles with bare 
feet, nimbus, and implement of martyrdom ; the outer 
ones six prophets or Old Testament saints, shod, wearing 
caps, and with labels. This difference of attire Creeny 
notes as prevalent in Western art since the schism between 
the Eastern and Western Churches. Between what we 
may well call the shrine and the inscription the diapered 
background is visible. The inscription, which was never 
completed, runs as follows, in Lombardic capitals : — 


and is preceded by a saltire, evidently referring to the 
arms of the Abbey, azure, a saltire, or. At the corners 
were the evangelistic symbols within quatrefoils, one of 



Effigy of 

The Lynn 

which has disappeared. In the centre of each of two sides 
within a quatrefoil, is a shield bearing on a bend three 
eagles displayed. Outside the inscription runs a marginal 
border of quatrefoil flowers. 

Very similar in treatment, and indeed more ornate is 
the fragment of an abbot's brass, now preserved in the 
British Museum. Boutell's conjecture that it might be 
the effigy of Michael de Mentmore, Abbot of St. Albans ' 
(died 1342), IS probably disproved by the fact that Pu^'n 
obtained it from the Continent. Here the curious treat- 
ment of the soul, a characteristic of the Flemish school is 
noteworthy. Held in a sheet by the Deity, it appears as 
a diminutive nude figure, in this case wearing a mitre." A 
similar convention is to be seen in the Topclifl'e brass ; 
whilst in the Walsokne one at King's Lynn the soul is 
upheld in a sheet by two angels. 

The Lynn brasses are, perhaps, our best examples of 
the Flemish school, bearing, as they do, so striking a 
resemblance in treatment to the Continental examples 
mentioned above. Each consists of a large rectangular 
sheet, composed of smaller pieces, on which is the diapered 
background, and beautiful architectural work, in the manner 
described above in the account of the Delamere brass. 
In the Walsokne brass we have a husband and wife ; in 
the Braunche a husband between two wives. The cos- 
tumes of Adam de Walsokne, Robert Braunche, and Alan 

^See Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., p. 96, quoting inscrip- 
tion, extant in Weever's time. 

* Bee Viollet le Due's Dictionnaire Raisonne de V Architecture Franfaise, 
Paris, 1868, Vol. IX., p. 53, for illustration {sub mm. Tombeau) of a 
similar mitred soul painted at the head of the tomb of Archbishop Pierre 
de la Jugee, in Narbonne Cathedral. In the Exhibition of Pictures of 
the School of Siena, held at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1904, was 
shown a panel, belong to the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, representing 
Scenes from the lives of the Hermits of the Thebaid and the Founders of 
the Religious Orders, "possibly by some Pisan follower of Pietro Loren- 
zetti," in which is depicted, inter alia, "a bishop's soul held by two devils 
in a boat." The little nude figure wears a mitre. 


Fleming are very similar; the Newark figure, however, 
has slits for pockets in the cote-hardie^ 

It is fortunate that in the Douce collection at the British 
Museum, an impression is preserved of the brass of Robert 
Attelath. This fine brass was stolen early in the nine- 
teenth century, owing to local unscrupulousness or igno- 
rance.^* It must have much resembled the other Lynn 
brasses and that at Newark. The costume is almost 
identical with that of Johannes von Zoest at Thorn. A 
long tunic, or cote-hardie, is fastened with many buttons 
in pairs. Attached by four buttons on the right shoulder 
(m the Zoest brass there are six) hangs a loose mantle or 
cloak with a small hood. The under-tunic is visible at 
the wrists, whence the sleeves are continued over the hand, 
and are fastened by a row of small buttons. They are 
finely embroidered as at Thorn. The dress is completed 
by a narrow waistbelt and long pointed shoes, with buckles 
The inscription, given by Gough, runs as follows :—•« Hie 
"jacet Robertus Attelath, q'dam burgensis Lenne, qui obiit 
;Ao Dni MCCCLXXVl! xii die mensis NovTmbris! 
Orate pro eo. Hie jacet Johanna, q'dam uxor Roberti 

Attelatte, que obiit A° Dni MCCC Anime eorum 

per misericordiam Dei requiescant in pace. Amen " 

as dso ^77^-''^^ ^1?'£ ^"^"^'^ V^^nd.y, Those at Nonh 

as also that of Sir Hugh Hastings at Elsin^, differ from "^^^'^ Wen- 
those mentioned above in that they are not rectangular ^^^^'^ ^""^ ^^^-^ 
and that the diapered background is omitted ; but their^ 
style IS unmistakeably Flemish. 

^ In the North Mimms brass, Thomas de Horton, vicar 
IS represented c ad in mass vestments, with a chalice and 
paten lymg on his body below his clasped hands.3 The 
^_!!!j;!!i^;^_^Jtag^_^^ a kind of bracket is 

' The costume on these brasses will be found described in Chap IV 

Vol.^t PIate%J;vi";nd^^' 'l^^/v /"r ^'^"^'^''^ Monuments, 

J. S. do.^ "^^^^X:^ ^' It was engraved b; 

thet: E^'bt.^'^'^^ -^-^ - -ssed as in 


supported by two lions addorsed, between which is a shield, 
a saltire between four crosses-crosslet fitche. On this 
bracket rest the bases of the shafts of the beautiful canopy 
of tabernacle work, with saints in niches, and the Deity 
holding the soul whilst two angels swing their thuribles. 
The mutilated Elsing brass possessed a less ornate canopy, 
though of great interest from the historical personages repre- 
sented in the niches ; but it probably gained in enamelling 
what it lacked in architectural detail. The Wensley brass 
is composed of at least three pieces, forming the figure of a 
priest, similar to that at North Mimms; but the embroi- 
dered work is finer. The head reclines on a cushion upheld by 
graceful angels, treated very similarly to the Albert HOvener 
brass at Stralsund. The slab is used as background for 
the brass, and originally there was a marginal inscription 
with evangelistic symbols in quatrefoils at the corners. 
Characteristics Bcforc leaving the fourteenth century, it were well to 
of Flemish mcntion some of the characteristics which distinguish this 
Flemish school of brass-engraving. We have already 
noticed the rectangular shape of the plates, as in the seven 
Continental instances given, and in the St. Albans', Lynn, 
Newark, Aveley, and TopclifFe examples, and the excep- 
tions to this shape at Wensley, North Mimms, and Elsing. 
The diapered groundwork, too, has been noted, of varied 
pattern, a favourite one being dragons and foliage in 
trefoils. In the Walsokne diaper, butterflies and other 
curious figures are introduced. The place of diaper in 
the Wensley and North Mimms brasses is supplied by 
the stone slabs which act as background. The architec- 
tural details are strikingly similar in the various examples 
of the Flemish school, taking the form of ornately taber- 
nacled canopies of geometrical Gothic with side and centre 
shafts, the niches filled with figures of apostles and prophets 
as at St. Albans, of civilians as in the Braunche and 
Fleming brasses, of members of noble families as in the 
Hastings brass, of angels playing musical instruments as 
at Topcliffe, or of mournful figures called "weepers." 
The canopies are single or double according to the number 



of effigies to be represented. In the Braunche brass we 
have an instance of a triple-arched canopy. An attempt 
to give in perspective the vaulting of these arches is 
sometimes observed, as in the Braunche brass, and in the 
foreign brasses of Zoest and Heere. Sometimes the centre 
shaft of the canopy is made to pierce the marginal inscrip- 
tion, as on the Thornton brass, at Newcastle- on-Tyne (to 
be mentioned below). The central compartment of the 
canopy above the effigy is usually treated in a manner that 
we may call peculiar to Flemish brasses. A venerable 
figure, seated on a throne, evidently intended for the 
Deity, holds in a sheet a little nude male or female figure, 
representing the soul of the deceased. In the fragment in 
the British Museum the little figure wears a mitre. On 
either side we find angels with thuribles, as at St. Albans, 
Topcliffe, and King's Lynn, or bearing candles as in the 
palimpsest fragment at Wardour Castle. In the Hastings 
brass at Elsing a somewhat different treatment was adopted, 
the soul being held in a sheet by two angels beneath the 
canopy, immediately above the knight's head, whilst above 
it on brackets are figures of the Deity and the Virgin, an 
angel above censing them. 

In the faces of the principal figures the conventional 
treatment of the mouth is noticeable. Another feature, 
frequently observed, is the cushion of elaborate embroidery 
placed under the head of the deceased. Those in the 
Havener, Zoest, and Heere brasses bear a striking resem- 
blance to those at Wensley, Newark, and King's Lynn. 
These cushions are usually supported on each side, as in 
the above instances, by angels, sometimes of most graceful 
design, as at Wensley and Stralsund. At Topcliffe one 
angel holds the cushion from above. The brass of 
Archdeacon William de Rothewelle, 1361, in Rothwell 
Church, Northants, shows many signs of Flemish influence 
including this on e of a cushion upheld by angels.^ ' 

J In the brass at Hever, Kent, the head of Margaret, wife of William 

Trnirr^d dh°"TT '^'^'^^^^^ "PJ^eld by two angels, clad in 

amice and alb. This convention is frequently found in sculptured effigies 



Beneath the feet a favourite design seems to have been 
that of two animals addorsed, as at Wensley, North 
Mimms, and in the lost Attelath brass. Another form 
displays monsters fighting; winged dragons, as at St. 
Albans; a lion or eagle attacking a savage man, as at 
King's Lynn, Newark, and Thorn in Prussian Poland. 

Between the feet of the figure and the marginal inscrip- 
tion an historical or legendary scene is sometimes shown. 
The famous instance of the former is what is known as 
the " Peacock Feast " on the Braunche brass at King's 
Lynn, representing a banquet, at which peacocks are being 
served, supposed to depict the entertainment of King 
Edward III.^ The same place in the Walsokne brass is 
occupied by rustic scenes and fables, in which a windmill 
figures. In the foreign brasses mentioned above we find 
wild men or " wodehouses " feasting, in the Zoest, and 
Godfrey and Frederic de Bulowe brasses ; scenes from the 
life of St. Nicholas below the effigy of Bishop Burchard 
de Serken, and from that of St. Eligius below that of 
Johan de Mul at Liibeck ; a stag-hunt in the HOvener 
brass, and a woodland scene beneath the lady's feet in the 
Zoest brass. 

The inscription, which is sometimes in Lombardic 
characters, as at St. Albans, sometimes in black letter, as 
at TopclifFe, acts as a border to the whole work, supple- 
mented on the outside by a row of conventional flowers, 
as in the Walsokne, Braunche, and Topcliff brasses, or by 
a border of foliage, as at Newark. The corners of these 
inscription-borders usually bear the Evangelistic symbols 

^ An excellent description of this part of the brass is in the Surrey 
Archeeolo^cal Collections, Vol. IV., 1869, pp. 285-6, in "Remarks on 
Timber Houses," by Charles Baily, Architect. 

In The Arts in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, by Paul Lacroix 
(English edition, revised by W. Armstrong. London, Virtue, 1886), this 
representation is reproduced (p. 1 1, fig. 8), where it is described as "A 
" State Banquet in the Fifteenth Century, with the service of dishes 
" brought in and handed round to the sound of musical instruments 
" (Miniature from a MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris)." 



in quatrefoils. Frequently we find the centre of each of 
the two sides ornamented with a quatrefoil containing, as 
in the Delamere, Braunche, and Topcliff brasses, a coat of 
arms, or as at Newark, a merchant's mark. 

In the Introduction to Cotman's work,' the presence of 
Flemish brass work at King's Lynn is, doubtless correctly, 
attributed to the intercourse with Flanders occasioned by 
the wool trade. The fact of the whole plate being com- 
posed of separate pieces is explained as due to the greater 
facility of transport thereby obtained, and the great pre- 
valence of brasses in the county of Norfolk as owing, in 
great measure, to these Flemish examples. 

It may, perhaps, be doubted whether the North Mimms 
and Wensley brasses were originally intended for the 
places which they occupy, since they seem somewhat too 
ornate for memorials of parish priests, but we know so 
litde of Thomas de Horton or of Simon de Wenslagh 
that we are not justified in belittling their importance 
during their lives. We should rather be grateful for the 
fine quality of their monuments. 

Of the general characteristics of this school of brass 
engraving, Haines wrote ' : " The foreign brasses are dis- 
" tinguished from the English by a peculiarity of engraving. 
" The principal lines are broader and more boldly drawn, 
" though less deeply cut, and wrought with a flat chisel- 
" shaped tool, instead of the ordinary engraving burin. 
" J Stippling ' or dotted shading is found on early examples ^ 
"in the^ folds of the drapery, bases of canopies, etc." 
Except in the case of the Hastings brass we can only 
conjecture to what extent these brasses were enamelled or 
coloured in any way. But colour adds so greatly to the 
richness of these memorials that it is reasonable to suppose 
that the lines of the figure, coats of arms, etc., in several 

J Engravings of the most remarkable of m Sepulchral Brasses in Norfolk 
1 8 19, p. V. 

2 Introduction, pp. xx-i. 

3 At Wensley, for instance. 



instances, were filled in with enamel or some substitute 
for it, and the surface burnished and polished, to produce 
a splendid effect. 

XV. and XVI. The following are some brasses, later in date, of Flemish 
Flemish workmanship, but inferior to those mentioned above ' : — 
brasses Roger Thornton and Agnes his wife, 1429, at Newcastle, 

excepting palimpsests, the only example of Flemish 
work of the fifteenth century in this country. Two 
figures in civilian costume, their heads on cushions 
supported by angels, are placed beneath fine canopies, 
containing in niches figures of saints. Fourteen 
children are represented below the parents under small 
canopies. There is a marginal black-letter inscrip- 
tion, bearing at the corners evangelistic symbols and 
in the centre of each side a coat of arms.^ 

Thomas Pownder and wife, 1525, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich, 

^ The following contract for brasses of Flemish workmanship, to com- 
memorate Sir William Sandys, Knt., and Margaret, his wife, and William 
Lord Sandys, formerly in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, annexed 
to Holy Ghost Chapel, Basingstoke, Hants, is taken from A History 
of the Ancient Town and Manor of Basingstoke, etc., by Francis Joseph 
Baigent and James Elwin Millard, 1889, pp. 158-9. "A contract for 
" two tombs between Thomas Leigh, merchant, and Cornelius Herman- 
" zone, acting on behalf of Lord William Sandes, with Arnold Hermanzone, 
" native of Amsterdam, established at Aire in Artoise, was proved before 
"a notary at Antwerp on Monday the ist March, 1536. One tomb 
" was to be of Antoing stone, eight Flemish feet long, by four and a half 
" broad, and four feet and a quarter high ; the slab to be inlaid with a 
" copper or brass cross, of similar length, and the name of William Sans 
" and Margare Sans, and dates also in brass three inches wide. On each 
" side of the tomb were to be three coats of arms. The other tomb was 
" to measure seven feet by four, but only the slab and sides were to be of 
" Antoing stone, as the ends would join a wall ; the cross to be four feet 
" long and four inches broad, and the inscription three inches. The tombs 
" to be delivered at Antwerp, in all respects conformable to the design 
" given, within seven months, and thence to be shipped to England ; the 
" said Arnold to go over and set them up and finish them oft' properly. 
" He was to receive ^^30, Flemish currency, and also the expenses of his 
" maintenance during his journey and stay at Basingstoke." 

2 S,ee illustration in Arckteologia Aeliana, New Series, Vol. XV. 

All Hallows' Barking, London. 





having merchants' marks and the arms of Ipswich 
and of the Merchant Adventurers. The inscription 
is in black-letter. 

Margaret Svanders, 1529, Fulham, Middlesex, wife of 
Gerard Hornebolt, showing half-effigy in shroud, two 
angels holding the inscription. On a lozenge-shaped 
plate fixed to the wall. 

Andrew Evyngar, and Ellyn, his wife, 1536, All Hallows, 
Barking, London. The Ipswich brass is very similar. 
A merchant's mark appears at the base. At the top 
on the dexter side are the arms of the Merchant 
Adventurers, on the sinister those of the Salters' 
Company. The classical treatment of this brass well 
exemplifies the change in style forming a great 
contrast to the splendid geometrical Gothic of the 
fourteenth century brasses. 

Boutell' classes the brass at East Sutton, Kent, 1638, 
of Sir Edward Filmer, his wife and eighteen children as 
Flemish, being on one large plate of metal, but without 
diaper work. But this alone is no proof of Flemish origin. 
Waller attributes it to foreign manufacture, as also that of 
Archbishop Harsnett, 1631, Chigwell, Essex, to which he 
compares it.^ 

Three foreign brasses are in London Museums : — 

^Monumental Brasses and Slabs, 1847, p. 23. 

2 See J Series of Monumental Brasses, drawn and engraved by J. G. and 
L. A. B. Waller, but the instructions in the Archbishop's will, dated 
Feb. 13, 1 630- 1. "My body I will to be buried within the Parrishe 
" churche of Chigwell, withoute pompe or solempnitye at the foote of 
" Thomazine late my beloved wief havinge only a Marble stone layde 
" uppon my grave w'" a Plate of Brasse moulten into the stone an ynche 
" thiclce haveinge the effigies of a Bysshoppe stamped uppon it w"' his 
" Myter and Crosiers stafFe but the Brasse to be soe rivited and fastened 
" cleare throughe the Stone as sacrilegious handes maye not rend off the 
" one w'^o-t^ breakinge the other" (PCC. 78. St. John), would seem 
to pomt to the employment of local workmen. Moreover, the Filmer 
brass is signed "Ed. Marfhall sculpfit." 


1. Ludowic Cortewille and wife, 1504, from Cortville, 

near Li%e, formerly in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn Street, but nowat South Kensington. 

2. Henry Oskens, priest, 1535, originally at Nippes, near 

Cologne, now at South Kensington. 

3. Nicolas le Brun (Bailly de Jeumont), d. 1547, and wife, 

Fran9oise du Fosset, ^.1531, in the British Museum. 

Two curious Flemish palimpsest ^inscriptions exist, 
(i) At Norton Disney, Lincolnshire, recording, on the re- 
verse of a memorial to William Disney, 1540, his wife, and 
son (1578), the foundation in 151 8 of a mass by Adrian 
Adrianson and the lady Paesschine van den Steyne at the 
altar of St. Cornelius. (2) At West Lavington, Wilts, 
recording on the reverse of a brass to John Dauntesay, 
I559> a gift to the masters of the Holy Ghost at West- 
monstre, a church at Middleburgh in Walcheren, destroyed 
in 1575 ; and apparently referring to the same matter and 
persons as the Norton Disney inscription.' 

Brasses show- Brasscs showing a French influence are rare in England. 

Infl/encT^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ instance is that at Minster, Kent, in which the 
costume of Sir John de Northwode and his wife, Joan de 
Badlesmere, c. 1330, has many features in common with 
that of French monuments, preserved to us in the pages 
of Montfaucon's Monumens de la Monarchic Franfoise. The 
lady's dress, in particular, resembles that worn at the 
French Court during the fourteenth century.^ Another 

^ See Mr. Mill Stephenson in the Transactions of the Monumental Brass 
Society, Vol. IV., Part v. The Norton Disney inscription was offered by 
the Rev. Dr. Disney to Gough the Antiquary, whose refusal did him much 
credit. 5^-^ Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., p. cxxii. (Part i). 
Other examples of palimpsest Flemish inscriptions are at Oxford, St. 
Mary Magdalene (Jane Fitzherbert, 1 574), St. Peter-in-the-East (Richard 
Atkinson, 1574). 

2 Varieties of the same peculiarity in her dress, a kind of fur-lined tippet, 
may be observed in the effigies of Jeanne de S. Veraen, d. 1 297 ; of Jeane 
Reine de Navarre, wife of Philippe le Bel, d. 1304; of Marguerite de 
Beaujeu, wife of Charles de Montmorency, d. 1336; of Marie de France, 



instance of French influence may be the brass of Margaret 
de Camoys, 1310, at Trotton, Sussex, whose dress was 
ornamented with nine small enamelled shields, now lost. 
A similar treatment may be seen on the surcoat of William 
de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 1296, in Westminster 
Abbey. The slab of Sir John de Brewys, 1426, in Wiston 
Church, Sussex, is semee with scrolls, alternately bearing 
the words " Jesus " and " mercy." Several examples 
similarly designed are known ; and it is not unreasonable 
to suppose that this very decorative treatment originated 
in France. Some authorities consider the brass at Hors- 
monden, Kent, to John de Grovehurst, priest, c. 1340, to 
be French work. 

Having now dealt with foreign brasses in England, it English brass of 
will not be out of place to mention an instance of an consSnce"* 
English brass on the Continent. Such is that of Robert 
Hallum, Bishop of Salisbury, envoy of Henry V. to the 
Council of Constance, who, dying there in 141 6, was 
buried in the Cathedral. It represents the bishop in full 
pontificals, beneath a canopy, with a marginal inscription 
on fillet with Evangelistic symbols. It is noteworthy that 
after the manner of English brasses, the metal is cut to 
the shape of the figure, and is laid in a marble slab, pre- 
pared to receive it. Of this method there are other 
examples on the Continent, the earliest being the brass 
of Bishop Bernard de Lippe, 1340, at Paderborn. At 
Florence, in San Lorenzo, is the gravestone of John 
Caterick, Bishop of Exeter, 14 19, with a brass marginal 

daughter of Charles IV., ^. 1341 ; of Jeanne, wife of Philippe, Comte 
dEvreux, d. 1349; -ind of Jeanne, wife of Jean d'Aragon, Due de 
Crironde, d. 1373 ; all given by Montfaucon. See below, Chap. VI. 

' See Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. III., p 114 but 
sec Transactions of Devon Association, Vol. XVIII., 1886, p. 229 "The 
Bishopric of Exeter, 1419-20 : a Contribution to the History of the See," 
by T. N. Brushfield, M.D., wherein the slab is illustrated ; is stated to 
be in the Church of Santa Croce, and the inscription and shields said to 
be of black marble inlaid. 


Note. — The following account of costume is divided 
into large and distinct groups : — 

A. Ecclesiastical, with a sub-branch — Academical. 

B. Military. 

C. Civilian, contiguous to which we have placed brasses 
of Lawyers. 

D. Female. 

Notes on Royal In England there is one brass of a king/ a half-effigy 
brasses representing Ethelred, King of the West Saxons, 872 

(engraved c. 1440) at Wimborne Minster, Dorset {see 
p. 17). The costume consists of a close-sleeved under- 
garment, a mantle, and a cape or tippet of ermine. His 
right hand is placed on his breast ; his left holds a sceptre ; 
on his head is a crown. At Ringstead, in Zealand, is the 
fine brass of King Eric Menved, of Denmark, and his 
Queen, Ingeborg, 13 19. The king holds in his right 
hand a sword, in his left a sceptre. His long cote^ over 
which is a mantle, bears the arms of Denmark (or semee 
of hearts gules three lions passant guardant in pale az. 
crowned or). This brass is reproduced by Creeny, who 
also gives the fine series of brasses ranging from 1464 to 

divided into 
four main 

^ In Lincoln Minster a brass once existed, representing Queen Eleanor, 
which was placed there f. 13 10. 5^^p, 33. " The Architectural History 
of Lincoln Minster," by the Rev. G. A. Poole in Transactions of the Lincoln 
Diocesan Architectural Society {Associated Architectural Societies Reports and 
Papers, Vol. IV., 1857-8). A small brass inscription in Peterborough 
Cathedral commemorates Queen Katherine of Aragon (1536). At 
Tewkesbury Abbey a brass plate marks the supposed site of the grave of 
Prince Edward of Wales, killed 1471. At Sherborne, a modern brass 
marks the place of burial of the Saxon kings, Ethelbald and Ethelbert. 
At Malmesbury, Wilts, an inscription shows the probable site of the 
interment of King Athelstan (914). In St. Martin's, Canterbury, is a 
brass with inscription, composed by Bishop Claughton to commemorate 
Bertha, Queen of Ethelbert, King of Kent, who is supposed to have been 
baptized through her influence in 597. 

King of the West Saxons. 

Engraved c. 1440. 
WiMBORNE Minster, Dorset. 




1539, Ducal House of Saxony at Meissen.' At 

Basle is the brass of Isabella, Duchess of Burgundy, 1450 ; 
at Nymwegen that of Katharine de Bourbon, wife of 
Adolphus, Duke of Gueldres, 1469; at Cleves, 1483, 
that of John and Elizabeth, Duke and Duchess of Cleves. 

''They are — 1464 Frederick the Good, Duke of Saxony. 

i486 Ernst, Duke of Saxony. 

I 500 Albert, Duke of Saxony. 

1502 Ameleie, Duchess of Bavaria. 

1 5 10 Sidonia, Duchess of Albert, Duke of Saxony. 

I 5 10 Frederic, Duke of Saxony. 

1534 Barbara, Duchess of Saxony. 

' 537 John, Duke of Saxony. 

1539 Frederic, Duke of Saxony. 
The brass of John Ernst, Duke of Saxony, 1553, is at Coburg. 




In dealing with ecclesiastical vestments it is no part of 
our scheme with St. Jerome ^ spiritualis intelligentice vela'' 
pandere, by discussing the various symbolical meanings 
which have grown up round them in course of centuries. 
Such meanings may be of importance from a devotional 
aspect, but do not come within the scope of this book.^ 
Vestments cannot reasonably be considered to be either 
the outcome of divine revelation, or a legacy from the 
Levitical priesthood, but they represent the adaptation 
of Roman civil costume to the special needs of a class, 
the conservative tendencies of which have preserved for 
us through many centuries, with comparatively slight 
alterations, a dress of great antiquity. We do not propose 
to enter into a minute discussion of the origin of these 
vestments or of the constitutions of the Church regulating 
their assumption. They concern us only so far as they 
are represented on brasses. We are, therefore, brought 
direcdy to the thirteenth century, in which we find the 
earliest ecclesiastical brass known to exist, that of Bishop 
Yso Wilpe, 1 2 3 1 , at Verden. Another thirteenth-century 
instance is that of Bishop Otto de Brunswick, 1279, 
the Cathedral of Hildesheim. We have shown above 
(Introduction, p. 17) that some ecclesiastical brasses 
were laid down in England during this century, but none 
survive." There are but few examples left of the early 
part of the fourteenth century, towards the latter part of 
which they become numerous. Among these may be 
mentioned the demi-figure of Richard de Hakebourne, 

I Some sensible remarks on the many meanings given to vestments may 
be read in Eccclenastical Vestments; their Development and History, by R A S 
Macahster. London, Elliot Stock, 1896. 

^ A fragment, representing St. Ethelbert, from the brass of Bishop 
Cantilupe, 1282, is preserved at Hereford Cathedral. 


c. 1311/ Merton College, Oxford, in the head of a floriated 
cross (lost); Archbishop Grenefeld, 13 15, York Minster; 
Nichol de Gore, c. 1320, Woodchurch, Kent (figure in 
cross); and a Priest (head), c. 1320, Chinnor, Oxon. (in 
floriated cross). With the Minor Orders, which include 
osiiarius, lector^ and acolytus, we are not concerned, as they 
do not occur on brasses. The Major Orders (an elabora- 
tion of the three orders. Bishop, Priest, and Deacon), in 
which are ranked sub-deacon, deacon, priest, bishop, and 
archbishop,^ are represented chiefly by efligies of priests, 
and by a small number of bishops and archbishops. 

^ The brass of Adam de Bacon (?), priest, c. 13 10, was stolen from 
Oulton, Suffolk, in February, 1857. It is engraved in Cotman, Boutell, 
and Haines. 

^ We have no brasses in England of cardinals. The crypt of Canter- 
bury contains the slab which held the brass of Cardinal John Morton ( 1 5 00), 
in which is the indent of his Hat. At Cues is the brass of Cardinal 
Cusanos, 1464; at Cracow that of Cardinal Cazmiri, Archbishop of 
Gnesen, 1493 {see Creeny). At Great Berkhampstead, Herts, is a palimp- 
sest brass, the reverse of which commemorates Thomas Humfre, goldsmith 
of London, and Joan, his wife, c. 1500. The initial letter O of the in- 
scription contains the seated figure of St. Jerome attired as a cardinal, 
holding a cross-staff in the right hand. William Whappelode (1446), on 
his brass at Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, is described as Seneschalliis domus to 
Henry, Cardinal of England and Bishop of Winchester. At Carshalton, 
Surrey, was the brass of Thomas Ellenbridge, Esq., 1497, hostiarius to 
Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury. His will is printed in 
The Reliquary, Vol. XXI., 1 880-1, p. 196: "The Will of Thomas 
Elyngbrigge, of Carshalton, co. Surrey, Esq., a.d. 1497. P.C.C. 15 
Horne," by Robert Garraway Rice. On the palimpsest inscription lost 
from the brass of John Marsham, 1525, and wife, St. John Maddermarket, 
Norwich, was a request for the prayers of the faithful, ending " xii 
" Cardinals have granted you xii"^ dayes of Pardon." On the pardon 
brass of Roger Legh (1506) and Elizabeth his wife (1499), Macclesfield, 
Cheshire, St. Gregory is represented kneeling before an altar, on which 
stands a chalice with a missal, and wearing a triple crown, and a chasuble 
with cruciform orphreys on front and back. This subject is well shown 
in the little triptych La messe de St. Gregoire, by Hans Memling (1435- 
1495), formerly in the Huybrechts Collection (illustrated in The Con- 
noisseur, Vol. IV., p. 20, September, 1902). See also a piece of sculpture 
at Stoke Charity, Hants (illustrated in Journal of the British Archaolo^cal 
Association, Vol. V., 1850, p. 258, "On certain Church Brasses in 
Cheshire and Lancashire," by J. G. Waller). 


Brasses of the monastic orders, monk and nun, prior and 
prioress, abbot and abbess, form a small but important 
class, after which we have to consider some other forms of 
clerical habit, and academical costume as it is represented 
in brasses, principally in the college chapels of Oxford and 
Cambridge, a subject closely connected with that of the 
costume of the clergy. 

Ecclesiastical Vestments may be divided into two main 
groups : — 

1. Mass (sometimes called eucharistic) to which the term 
vestment pre-eminently belongs. 

2. Processional (a rather loose title). 

The Mass Vestments, as their title implies, were worn 
at mass time. They were put on in the following order, 
a short prayer being said with each : — 

I. Amice {amictus, anaholagium^ epomis^ humerale, super- 
humerale), of mediaeval origin, intended primarily for 
a , hood, was a rectangular piece of linen (about 36 in. 
by 25 in.) with an apparel,^ sewn along one edge, and 
a cross embroidered in the centre. Being placed for 
a moment on the head, it was then lowered to the 
neck, to which the apparel, resting on the shoulders, 
afforded a kind of loose collar, to the ends of which 
strings were attached, which, carried under the arms, 
crossed on the back, and tied in front, kept the vest- 
ment in position. The amice appears constantly on 
brasses, and must not be confused with the almuce, 
amys, or amess, a kind of fur cape (described below^ 

^ Apparel {parura, etc., tarare) is the name given to the strips of em- 
broidery, often of great elaboration and enriched with jewels, adornine 
the amice and alb. The term is used, apparently, only of the decoration 

^re sLn V^" 'T- ^^^^ P'"'^"' "^"^^ ^^"^^y of ornament, and 

are seen at the wrists and in front at the foot of the alb. 

Phrvlir'"' ^'''''f'^^^P^m^o, an embroiderer in gold, for which art the 
Phrygians were famous) : term applied to the narrow strips of embroidery 
on other vestments, such as the chasuble and cope ^ 


p. 86) ; a mistake rendered easy by the similar 
sounding of the words. 

Alb {alha^ tunica alba, aroiyapiov). The ancestor of the 
alb and of its apparels would seem to have been the 
tunica talaris of the Romans with its lati clavi for 
senators, and angusti clavi for equites. This garment 
was long and loose ; being originally sleeveless, it was 
called colobium, but afterwards becoming sleeved, was 
known as tunica manicata or dalmatica, which latter 
variety seems to have been established for ecclesiastics 
instead of the former in the fourth century. The 
alb being inconveniently loose for baptisms, a close- 
fitting variety came into use, which is the mediaeval 
alb known to us on brasses. The ecclesiastical dal- 
matic and tunicle, to be described below (pp. 72-3), are 
probably derived from the loose variety. The alb, 
as we know it, is a long, close-fitting vestment reach- 
ing to the feet, usually of white linen, though occa- 
sionally coloured or of more costly material. Passed 
over the head, it is fastened round the waist by a 
girdle or cord [haltheus, zona, cingulum). But, as the 
alb is drawn through the girdle, so as to obscure it, 
the latter is not seen on brasses, though its presence 
is evident, where the crossing of the stole is visible, 
as at Horsham, Sussex, 141 1, and Upwell, Norfolk, 
1435. The alb is decorated with six pieces of em- 
broidery, which are possibly the remains of the clavi 
(purple bands), and segmenta or callicuU on the 
tunica talaris. These apparels are placed one on the 
back, one on the breast, one on each wrist, and on 
the lower skirt of the garment in front and behind. 
They were either sewn on the alb, or attached to it 
by strings, thereby causing less injury to the embroi- 
dery when removed for the necessary washing of the 

Stole (orarium, k-rriTpayjiXiovy Mpapiov) originally a napkin 
or scarf for wiping the face (w), which was worn outside 


the outer cloak {pallium), thereby rendering the de- 
rivation of the shape from the clavi of the tunica 
improbable. The ovarium seems to have become a 
mark of distinction or favour, the use of which as 
such by the Roman people was first granted by 
Aurelian ; indeed, the archiepiscopal pall may be 
be derived from a like distinction. Since the seventh 
century the stole has been worn in the Western 
Church by priests round the neck, crossed on the 
breast and passed beneath the girdle ; ' by deacons 
over the left shoulder. It consists of a long strip of 
silk, embroidered throughout, nine or ten feet long, 
and two or three inches wide. Originally of equal 
width throughout, this has varied from time to time. 
The ends are fringed. Nowadays, in the middle and 
at each extremity a cross is embroidered; though, 
from the evidence afforded by brasses, the terminal 
cross does not appear to have been by any means 
obligatory.^ Being worn beneath the chasuble, usually 
only the fringed ends are visible, which fact may have 

_ Bishops are said to wear it not crossed (an accessible example is shown 
in the painting by Jacopo da Empoli (1554-1640) of San Zenobio re- 

V'^.^^'v Gallery. The stole passes 

beneath the girdle of the alb, and is worn with a cope and mitre) f but 
instances of bishops with crossed stoles are known : a small figure of 
uI^ Z brass of Ralph, Lord Cromwell (1455), Tattershall, 

Lines, IS vested m cope and crossed stole. A wood-carving of late 

an exalT. ^ NorthanTs, affords 

an example, showing a bishop m alb, crossed stole, cope, and mitre 

T^fr Pk'" Y }-\ specimens of Ancient Painting and Sculpture) 

Assisf f °' Annunziata, Florence, Angelo Marzi, Bishop of 

^r^ed^ alb^;;' ''5'"'"/''^ ^"."^^'.^^^ ^''''''''^ ^aUo, wearing 
JVeatherley. Jncient Sepulchral Monuments, ^ 

^ Indeed, we know of no instance of the presence of crosses on stole, 
m brasses, unless the so-called Fylfot-cross be so considered We W 
the" ntre Thr'"^^°" ' brass) whether a cross were embroidered In 
thL r f °^ t^'^s^ '^^osses is probably of late rather 

InriLrutge"^ ' -'^^ to'constit'ut™;f t: 


led to the concentration of ornament at the extremi- 
ties. But the brasses with copes at Horsham (where 
the stole is embroidered throughout) and Upwell, 
mentioned above, show its arrangement ; as does that 
at Sudborough, Northants (c. 1430), which gives a 
figure without chasuble or cope. 

4. Maniple or Fanon {mappula^ k-^yi'ipiov^ oOovriy fanon, 
sudarium, manipulus)^ originally a napkin. Pope 
Sylvester in the third century ordered deacons to 
wear ?i pallium Unostimum on their hands. Gregory 
the Great mentions a mappula. It would appear that 
the use of this vestment was first confined to Rome ; 
then granted to Ravenna, and so spread. The 
maniple, originally of linen, was worn over the fingers 
of the left hand, as seen in the figure of Archbishop 
Stigand in the Bayeux tapestry; but on brasses it 
has lost its original use, having become like the stole, 
a piece of silk, some three feet in length, with orna- 
mental embroidery and fringed ends, forming in 
shape a kind of miniature stole, hung over the left 
fore-arm, beneath which it is secured by a button or 
hook. On the maniple, possibly of the tenth century, 
found in 1827 with the remains of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham, is worked a figure of Pope St. Sextus (third 
century) wearing this vestment.^ An instance of the 
maniple being represented on the right arm may be 
seen atNewnton, Wilts (John Erton, 1503), probably 
an engraver's error ; but in the case of the brass at 
Naudhausen, of Jacob Capillan, 1395 (a kneeling 
priest, holding up a chalice), it may be that this 
change is intentional. In the MS. known as the 
Bible of Charles le Chauve (840) is a representation 
of that monarch receiving a Bible, in which ecclesi- 

^ Figured p. 33, and described p. 206, of "Saint Cuthbert, with an 
account of the state in which his remains were found upon the opening 
of his tomb in Durham Cathedral in the year MDCCCXXVIL," by the 
Rev. James Raine, M.A., Durham, 1828. 


astics appear wearing maniples over their right hands 
(reproduced in Planche's Cyclopedia of Costume, Yo\. II., 
1876, p. 31). 

Chasuble {^aivoXiov, casula, planeta. Old English, 
chesihle, vestment) J- The Roman toga seems to have 
become a very inconvenient garment, and was super- 
seded by successive modifications, the penula, casula, 
and planeta. From one of these forms, probably the 
planeta, the ecclesiastical chasuble is derived. Its 
use, except when worn folded at certain seasons 
{planeta plicata), was confined to the celebrant at 
Mass. Its earlier form was circular with a large 
aperture in the centre through which the head passed. 
Later it seems to have become a pointed oval (vesica 
piscis), a shape known now as the Gothic chasuble; 
which form would give more freedom in the use of 
the hands.^ As the vestment became heavier with 
embroidery it was found necessary to split up the 
sides, as in the modern Roman chasuble. At the 
period when it appears frequently on brasses, it was 
a vestment of great costliness, made of silk, cloth of 
gold, etc., often elaborately decorated. The material 
used in earlier brasses, such as Bishop Yso Wilpe's, 
is much more pliable than the stiff fabrics of a later 
day. The orphrey work sometimes took the form 

^The word vestmentum is occasionally found applied to a set of mass 
vestments. In the provincial constitutions of Walter Gray, Archbishop 
ot York, I250,_the parishioners are to provide "Vestimentum ipsius 
^^ecclesi^ pnncipale, viz., casula, alba munda, amictus, stola, manipulus, 

zona. Wilkms Concilia Magna Britannia, Vol. I., 1737, p. 698. 

^ This is a disputed point. The pointed or Gothic chasuble of modern 
times may be without authority. Father Lockhart contends {The Chasuble; 
us Genuine Form and Size, 1891) that the pointed form seen on sepulchral 

Th^^M '"''c ' "T"^ °^ ^^"^^ '-^ff^^^^^g the rounded 

chasuble^ ^'f ^"^P^^ rounded chasuble worn by St. Cuthbert in 

on tt Ritl /r?7'\""T'"^ °^ Commentaries 

on the Bible of Nicholas de Lyra, at Durham (reproduced, p. 131, in 
Rames 5/ Cuthbert, 1828) But the chasuble of St. Thorn s^ Becket 
at Sens seems to support the contrary view. 


of a border alone, round the edge of the garment. 
At others a perpendicular strip appears, as in the 
brass of Bishop Yong at New College, or a Gamma 
(y) or Psi (xf) shaped orphrey is seen. Occasionally 
the chasuble is quite plain.^ 

The following are good examples of priests in mass 
vestments ^ : — 

1337. Laurence de St. Maur, Higham Ferrers, North- 

c. 1340. John de Grovehurst, Horsemonden, Kent. 
c. 1360. Esmound de Burnedissh, Brundish, Suifblk. 
c. 1360. Thomas de Horton, North Mimms, Herts 

c. 1360. Simon de Wenslagh, Wensley, Yorkshire 

c. 1370. A priest (with a franklin), Shottesbrook, Berks. 
c. 1370. A priest (.? Nicholas de Caerwent), Crondall, 

c. 1370. A priest, Stoke-in-Teignhead, Devon. 
c. 1375. Peter de Lacy, Northfleet, Kent. 

1380. A priest, Beachamwell, Norfolk (.? Thomas 
c. 1390. A priest, Fulbourn, Cambs. 

1395. John de Swynstede, Ashridge House, Bucks. 
c. 1400. A priest, Stanford-on-Soar, Notts. 
c. 1430. A priest. Saffron Walden, Essex. 

1432. William Byschopton, Great Bromley, Essex. 

1477. Geoffrey Byschop, Fulbourn, Cambs. 
c. 1500. Philip Eyre, Ashover, Derbyshire. 

1 519. Hen. Dodschone, Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. 

^e^., c. 1380. Thomas Chervyll (?), Beachamwell, Norfolk. 
c. 1400. A priest, Stanford-on-Soar, Notts. 
c. 1425. Robert Fyn, Little Easton, Essex. 
c. 1460. John Spicer (?), Monkton, Kent. 
1522. Edmund Assheton, Middleton, Lanes. 
The chasuble of Richard Thaseburgh, 1389, Hellesdon, Norfolk, has 
a very simple hem-like border. 

' Other examples are mentioned, p. loi. 



There are numerous examples of demi-figures in similar 
vestments : — 

1311. Richard de Hakebourne, Merton College, 

c. 1320. Thomas de Hop, Kemsing, Kent. 

c. 1320. A priest, Wantage, Berks. 

c. 1340. Richard de Beltoun, Corringham, Essex. 

c. 1340. A priest, Great Brington, Northants. 

c. 1360. Walter Frilende, Ockham, Surrey. 

c. 1364. William Darell, Brandsburton, Yorkshire. 

c. 1365. Radulphus Perchehay, StifFord, Essex. 

c. 1370. John Verieu, Saltwood, Kent. 

c. 1380. John Alderburne, Lewknor, Oxon. 

1398. , Roger Campedene, Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berks. 
c. 1430. A priest, Upton Lovel, Wilts. 
c. 1450. Esperaunce Blondell, Arundel, Sussex. 

1474. Robert Warde, Arundel, Sussex. 

1494. John Taknell, Winchester College. 

1498. William Branwhait, Ewelme, Oxon. 

1 5 14. John Tylbert, Winchester College. 

1 5 14. John Crewaker, Winchester College. 

Some variant brasses must be mentioned, which, with 
the exception of the first example given below, appear to 
show a combination of mass and processional vestments: — 

c. 1430. John West, Sudborough, Northants, in amice, 
alb, and crossed stole. 

^.1411. Henry Clark, Vicar, Horsham, Sussex; 1432, 
John Wyllynghale (half eff.). Fellow, Win- 
chester College ; 1435, Henry Martin, Rector 
of Yaxham, Upwell, Norfolk, vested in amice, 
alb, crossed stole, and cope, thereby allowing 
the arrangement of the stole to be seen. The 
orphreys of the cope in the first instance bear 
the initials H.C. 

1472. Thomas Tonge, LL.B., Beeford, Yorks; (a 
similar efligy to which was formerly at Romald- 
kirk, N. Yorks), and two half effigies of 



Fellows at Winchester College (1445, Richard 
North, and 1473, Edward Tacham) vested in 
amice, alb, and cope. 
1465. Thomas Cod, Vicar, St. Margaret's, Rochester 
(half efF.), in cassock, amice, surplice^ and cope 
(see p. 40). 

In addition to the vestments, above mentioned, bishops 
wore the following : — 

I. Dalmatic {tunica dalmatica). The origin of this vest- 
ment has been touched on whilst considering the alb. 
Its name is derived from that of the country whence 
it came. Its use as a separate vestment was given, 
as a privilege, to the Roman deacons ; and it is still 
worn by the Deacon at Mass. Originally a close 
white linen robe reaching below the knees, with 
sleeves and purple or black clavi, it soon became a 
subject for ornament, being decorated, before the 
twelfth century, with vertical or horizontal bands of 
embroidery. Later it became embroidered through- 
out, as on Bishop Goodryke's brass, 1554, at Ely, 
and was made of similar material and colour to the 
chasuble. The bishop wore this vestment immedi- 
ately beneath the chasuble. The episcopal dalmatic 
was fringed on both sleeves and on both sides ; the 
deacon's properly on the left sleeve and side only. 
Examples of deacons on brasses are exceedingly rare. 
The reverse of the canopy of the brass at Burwell, 
Cambs, shows an ecclesiastic, c. 1320, so vested {see 
p. 41).^ The brass of Eghardus de Hanensee, 

^ The figure of St. Lawrence, vested in the dalmatic, occurs on the 
following brasses : — 

1 40 1. William Ermyn, Rector, Castle Ashby, Northants, in which the 
saint wears the episcopal dalmatic and a stole (priest-fashion). 

1429. Roger Thornton and wife (Flemish), Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1468. John Byrkhed, Harrow, Middlesex. 
A saint in deacon's vestments appears on the brass of Laurence de 
St. Maur, 1337, Higham Ferrers, Northants, and on that of Bishop 
Rudolphus, 1482, at Breslau ; a figure of St. Quentin on that of Abbot 
Leonardus Betten, 1607, at Ghent. 


Provost, 1460, at Hildesheim (figured by Creeny) 
shows the dalmatic fully exposed. 

Tunic LE (tunica pontificalisy tunicelld)^ a plainer variety 
of the dalmatic, with narrower sleeves and frequently 
a fringed border. It was the vestment peculiar to the 
Sub-Deacon at Mass. The bishop wore it immediately 
below the dalmatic, but not until about the twelfth 
century. Originally of white linen, it underwent 
similar enrichment to the dalmatic. In the brass of 
Bishop Trilleck (1360) at Hereford, this vestment 
does not appear, probably because it is hidden beneath 
the dalmatic. This difficulty was solved by repre- 
senting the dalmatic as shorter than the tunicle, the 
fringed hem of which, thereby, appears.' 

Buskins or Stockings {caliga, sotulares, tibialia. Old 
English sabatyns), fastened at the knee, were first 
made of linen, then of silk embroidered. Originally 
reserved for the Pope, their use was gradually ex- 

Sandals {sandalia^ campaga). These, from an inter- 
mediate state of open work or fenestration, passed to 
shoes with strings (in the fourteenth century), on 
which three orphreys, somewhat of a ?si (^) shape, 
frequently occur. 

Gloves {chirotheca^ manica) had come to be of white 
netted silk or other delicate material, though origin- 
ally, probably of leather and intended for warmth. 
Jewels were set in the gloves, or a plate enamelled or 
jewelled, called a monial^ was placed in the centre of 

_ In the directions for revesting the Abbot of Westminster at Evensong, 
instructions are given to lay ready the dalmatic with longest sleeves above 
tlie other. This implies that the tunicle had longer sleeves than the 
fe mh . ' f "dalmatic" is applied to both Ltments, the four! 

IT^OTT^^'T'' fTT'""'''' °f P^^" of dalmatics. 

1.88 " Rv T W ^7 Westminster Abbey, taken in 


the back of the glove.^ In the brasses of Bishops 
Stanley (1515), Yong (1526), Goodryke (1554), Bell 
(1556), and Pursglove (1579), the gauntlets are wide, 
ending in tassels. 

6. Ring (annului) was worn, not near the knuckle, but 

above the lower finger-joint on the middle finger of 
the right hand, and was kept in place by a guard ring. 
Either it was passed over the glove, or the finger of 
the glove was cut away so as to show it. The stone 
was frequently a sapphire, unengraved, set in gold.^ 
Sometimes rings appear on several fingers, as on the 
brass of Bishop Yong, 1526, at New College. These 
rings were called ^'■pontificals." That there should be 
but one episcopal ring seems fitting, but in the Re- 
vesting of the Abbot of Westminster (quoted foot- 
note, p. 73) " hys glovys and pontyfycales " are 
mentioned, implying more than one ring.^ Bishop 
Stanley (15 15) wears a large ring on his right thumb. 

7. Mitre'* {rnitra^ cidaris^ borrowed from similar Greek), 

' " Item, a paire of gloves with broches sowedde upon eche of them 
with perles and stones." At St. Paul's, in 1552. See Hierurgia Angli- 
cana, revised and considerably enlarged by Vernon Staley. London, 
Moring, Part I., 1902, p. 60. 

2 " Item, a pontificale of golde with a great saphyer in it of playne 
worke." St. Paul's, 1552. See the same, p. 60. 

3 See " On an Inventory of the Vestry at Westminster," by J. Wickham 
Legg, F.S.A., Archceoh^a, Vol. LII., 1890, p. 214, note b. " Item fouer 
tinges of silver called pontificalles " in Henry VIII. 's Jewel Book. It 
has been held that the ring symbolizes a mystical marriage. This idea 
would be supported by the fact that the see impales with its arms those 
of the bishop. On the brass of Bishop Bernhard de Lippe, 1340, at 
Paderborn, the coat of Lippe (azure, a five-petalled rose gules) is borne 
on an escutcheon of pretence in the centre of the arms of the see, gules 
a cross or. An article, " On Episcopal Rings," by Edmund Waterton, 
F.S.A.,will be found in the Archceolo^calJournal,Vo\. XX., 1863, p. 224. 

'^Sce Papers "Ecclesiastical Head Dress," by Charles Browne, M.A.» 
F.S.A., Transactions of St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Vol. III., 1895* 
p. 155, and "The Evolution of the Mitre," by Henry Philibert Feasey> 
O.S.B., The Reliquary and Illustrated Archeeolo^st, Vol. x., 1904, p. 73. 


the head-dress of a bishop, probably developed from 
a plain skull-cap. An illumination (reproduced in 
Marriott ^) in a MS. in the British Museum (Cotton, 
Claud A3) shows St. Gregory the Great wearing a low 
cap with two lappets (infuU^ vitt^e) which, originally, 
in all probability, being tied under the chin, kept the 
cap in place.^ Possibly it was not before the eleventh 
century that the mitre began to show signs of the 
shape with two peaks, with which it is usually asso- 
ciated. The earlier forms are comparatively low and 
triangular, as in that of Archbishop Grenefeld, 13 15, 
at York,3 but later they become higher and are 
crocketed in accordance with Gothic taste (1395, 
John de Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, Westminster 
Abbey; 1554, Bishop Goodryke at Ely); finally 
they become curved and bulged (1631, Archbishop 
Harsnett, Chigwell, Essex). They were made first 
of linen, then of silk or other costly material, and 
were of three kinds, worn on occasions of varying 
dignity : — 

1. Mitra simplex, of white linen or silk, without 

much ornament. 

2. Mitra aurifrigiata, with gold-embroidered 


3. Mitra pretiosa, overlaid with gold plates, set 

with jewels frequently of great value. 
8;_Pasto ral Staff or Crozi er^ {virga or haculus pastoralis, 
'Plate XLIV, Vestiarium Christianum, 1868. 

^In the brass of Lambert von Brun at Bamberg, 1390, the hfuU 
appear as though tied behind. In the Westminstef InJen o y quS 
above, the stnngs {JabelU) of a mitre are mentioned adorned with^edous 
stones and eight silver-gilt bells. Archaologta, Vol. LII., p. .^^^P""'^""^ 

3 Bishop Pursgloye (1579) wears a mitre, similarly depressed but that 
of Bishop Stanley (15 15) was of a considerable height. ' 

befoTetSIhoT'V' X^'Tt^'^^J '^^"^''^ the cross-stafF borne 
yilTf^^-- ^'f^^^'"^^^''%'^' Vol. LI. (and Series, Vol 1) 
DD FS A ' Staves," by the Rev. Frederick George Lee 

D.D., F.S.A., and Vol. LII. (znd Series, Vol. II.), 1890, p. 70^" On 


camhuca^ ferula^ pedum). The usual form is ob- 
viously adopted from the shepherd's crook, denoting 
the bishop's pastoral authority. The staff was fre- 
quently of some precious wood, such as cedar, and 
often overlaid by plates of metal. The shape of the 
head varied greatly. Early instances occur of knobs 
or Y-shaped tops. Some Irish staves have a crook 
shaped like an inverted U. The usual form, how- 
ever, is that of a volute, richly carved, frequently 
having in the centre a sacred symbol, such as the 
Agnus Dei. Below the crook a knob is seen, pos- 
sibly used as a reliquary. Figures of saints in taber- 
nacle work are not uncommon. To the knob a scarf 
or veil (infula^ vexillurn) is seen fastened, often having 
a tasselled end. This by some has been derived 
from the banner of Constantine ; but a more likely, 
though humbler, explanation is that it served as a 
napkin to prevent the plated staff from getting tar- 
nished : a view that is adequately supported by the 
manner of holding the staff seen on brasses. Much 
misconception exists as to the representation of the 
pastoral staff on sepulchral monuments, a popular 
idea being that the crook of a bishop's staff is turned 
outwards to show his diocesan authority ; that of an 
abbot turned towards his body to show a jurisdiction 
restricted to his convent. But monuments give us 
no such clue ; the heads of staves being turned, in- 
differently, either way. 

It is held usually in the left hand, or rests between 
the left arm and the body ; but in instances such as 
the palimpsest at Burwell, Cambridgeshire, it is on 
the right side; the reason for it being held in the 
left hand probably being that the right hand is raised 

the use of the terms Crosier, Pastoral Staff, and Cross," by the Rev. J. T. 
Fowler, M.A., F.S.A. In the Westminster Inventory (" Revestyng of 
the Abbot") we read : " Hys myter and crose beyng Redy" {Jrchceologia, 
Vol. LIL, 1890, p. 214), Archbishop Harsnett's will (1630) mentions 
a crozier-staff, which on the brass is identical with a pastoral staff. 


to give a benediction. The pastoral staff has a pointed 
end, with which a bishop took off the vestments of 
an ecclesiastic on deprivation. Mr. R. A. S. Mac- 
alister ^ gives the following inscriptions, as supposed 
to have been engraved : — round the crook, " Cum 
iratus fueris, misericordias recordaberis " ; on the ball 
of the crook, " Homo " ; on the spike at the bottom, 
" Parce." On the brasses of Bishop Henry Robinson, 
1616, at Carlisle, and at Queen's College, Oxford,'' 
the pastoral staff bears : — on the shaft, "Ps. 23. Cor- 
rigendo svstentando " ; on the crook, encircling 
an eye, "Vigilando, Dirigendo " ; on a short veil, 

Besides these vestments, archbishops have two addi- 
tional ornaments : — 

I. Cross Staff, which, as its name denotes, has for its 
head a cross or crucifix. That this ornament does not, 
in the case of an archbishop, necessarily supply the 
place of the episcopal crozier or pastoral staff is suffi- 
ciently demonstrated by the presence of both cross- 
staff and crozier on some archiepiscopal monuments; 
notably the brass of Bishop Lambert von Brun, 1399, 
in Bamberg Cathedral,^ who holds the cross-staff in 
his right hand and the pastoral staff in his left ; the 
brass of Archbishop Jacobus de Senno, 1480, at 
Gnezen, with pastoral staff in right hand and cross- 
staff in left; and the monument of Archbishop 
Albrecht von Brandenburg, 1 545, at Mayence. For, 
although the cross-staff was usually borne in front of 
the archbishop, rather than held by him ; yet, as in 

^Ecclesiastical Vestments, p. 132. 
Febiurr^Tsgg" '■^^^■^"''^ University Brass Rubbing Society, Part I., 

3 The Bishops of Autun, Bamberg, Le Puy, Lucca, Ostia, Pavia, and 
Verona are entitled to the archiepiscopal pall. Hence, probably, the 
presence of the cross-staff in this instance may be similarly explained. The 
Bishops of Dol were entitled to an archiepiscopal cross-stafE 


the case of Archbishop Cranley's brass at New College 
141 7> It IS shown on his left side, partly, probably' 
for pictorial effect, and also to accentuate the evidence 
afforded by the pallium, of his metropolitan rank. 

2. Pall {pallium, ^/^o<l>6piov), like the stole, probably de- 
rived from the orarium. Dr. Rock, however, con- 
siders It to be descended from the Roman toga.^ ' The 
ecclesiastical vestment is very dissimilar from the 
Roman pallium, or cloak. It was early set apart as 
the symbol of authority delegated by the Pope to the 
Metropolitans, and was sent by him to each of them 
when consecrated. Made of white wool, of three 
fingers' breadth, in the sixth century mosaics at 
Kavenna, it appears in a different form to that of later 
times.* But, finally, the vestment assumed a T or Y 
shape in front and behind, as we see it represented in 
the few brasses on which it occurs, and in the arms 
of the See of Canterbury. In earlier examples it is 
represented as of great length, as in Bishop Yso 
Wilpe s brass, where it has a Tau-like end.^ Later 
It becomes somewhat shorter, as in Archbishop 
Cranley s effigy. The pall was at first fastened by 
gold pins to the chasuble, to keep it in place. These 
may,^ possibly, be represented by the purple crosses 
{patefitchi in the Cranley brass) shown on the pall 
which vary in number. Later a plummet of lead,' 

; The Church of our Fathers, Vol. II., 1849, P- For an account of 

th vestment see "The Blessing of the Episcopal Ornament called the 
Pal , by J. WicL.iam Legg, F.S.A., Yorkshire Jrchaological Journal, 
Vol. XV., 1900, p. 121. * ' 

^ Being passed from the front, over the left shoulder, then from behind, 
over the right, looped round in front, and passed again over the left 
shoulder, thereby appearing double on that shoulder and single on the 
right, the two ends hanging loose, one in front and one behind; but 
afterwards, by being knotted, the tails (W) were brought to hang 
symmetrically before and behind. 

3 It is difficult to understand why this bishop wears a pall, unless it 
were conferred as a mark of favour, as in some modern instances. 


sewn inside at the end, was found to have this effect 
without injuring the orphrey of the chasuble. The 
pall was worn, correctly, only within the archbishop's 
province, and at his death was buried with him. The 
effigy of Albrecht von Brandenburg, 1545, at May- 
ence, shows two short palls, probably denoting there- 
by that he was Archbishop of IMagdeburg as well as 
of Mayence. Care must be taken not to confuse the 
pall with the Y-shaped orphrey, frequently seen on 
the chasuble. 

A list of brasses of Archbishops and Bishops in Pon- 
tincals : — ^ 


1315- William Grenefeld, Archbishop of York York 
Minster. ' 

1397- Robert de Waldeby, Archbishop of York West- 
mmster Abbey. ' 

1417. Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin, New 
College, Oxford. 

At Edenham,_ Lincolnshire, is a small sixteenth-century 
brass, representing an archbishop, 18 in. high, fastened 
some forty feet from the ground on the ou'tside of the 
west wall of the tower.^ But it may be questioned whether 
It be a sepu chral hr^,,. One theory suggests that it is a 
representation of St. Thomas of Canterbury, who s de- 
picted , he canopy of Thomas Nelond, PrL of ,L wes, 
1433, at Cowfold, Sussex, and also, possibly, as the arch- 
bishop on the orphrey of the cope of SimonVhf 14 ^ 
at Knebworth, Herts. At All Saints', Maidstone waJ 
formerly a brass for Archbishop William Cou^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
i^tr 2 V^^' ^^^i^d at Canterbury, ^fn the 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^ of the Martyrdom, lie the 

-one is unsuitable for carved 
case i^ son.; Glouc«ter hTre ,t t" ^V^'^^^^^^^- ^his is the 

is a brass to TWas^Sn^tratrwife^ X'!''' ^^^^^^^ 


matrices of the brasses of Archbishop John Stafford,' 1452, 
and Archbishop Henry Dene,^ 1502-3. At Sandal Parva, 
W, Yorks, was formerly the kneeling effigy of "William 
Rokeby, Archbishop of Dublin, 1521. The inscription 
alone remains. 


1360. John Trilleck, Bishop of Hereford, Hereford 

1375. Robert Wyvill, Bishop of Salisbury, Salisbury 

1395. John de Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, West- 
minster Abbey. 

1478. John Bowthe, Bishop of Exeter, East Horsley, 
Surrey ; a kneeling figure, in profile, showing 
the vertical orphrey on the back of the chasuble 
and its jewelled border.^ 

1496. Richard Bell, Bishop of Carlisle, Carlisle Cathedral. 

15 1 5. James Stanley, Bishop of Ely, Manchester Cathe- 

1526. John Yong, titular Bishop of Callipolis, New Col- 
lege, Oxford, of which society he was Warden. 

1 554. Thomas Goodryke, Bishop of Ely and Lord Chan- 
cellor, Ely Cathedral ; holding book and great seal. 

1556. John Bell, Bishop of Worcester, St. James', Clerk- 
enwell, Middlesex. 

^ See illustration of matrix. Wiltshire Notes and Queries, No. 29, March, 
1900 (Vol. III., p. 193). 

2 This brass had disappeared before 1778. His will is printed in the 
Archceolo^.cal Journal, Vol. XVIII., 1 861, p. 256. "The will of Henry 
Dene, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 1502-3, communicated by the 
Rev. John Bathurst Deane, M.A., F.S.A." 

3 An example of a priest kneeling in mass vestments is at Blockley, 
Worcs. (William Neele, 15 10). For some account of the Bowthe 
family, see " The Booths or Bothes, Archbishops and Bishops, and the 
Derbyshire Family to which they belonged," by Llewellynn Jewitt, The 
Reliquary, Vol. XXV,, 1884-5, p. 33. With the Boothe brass may be 
compared the matrix of that of Thomas Cornish, 1513, Bishop of Tenos, 
in Wells Cathedral. 

Bishop of Callipolis, 1526, 
New College, Oxford. 





1579. Robert Pursglove, suffragan Bishop of Hull, 
Tideswell, Derbyshire. 

At Adderley, Shropshire, is a full-length figure in epis- 
copal vestments, c. 1390, without tunicle, stole, or gloves, 
holding a crozier in the right hand and a book in the left.' 
At Hereford Cathedral is preserved a figure of St. Ethel- 
bert, which is all that remains of the brass of Bishop 
Thomas Cantilupe, 1282. In the same cathedral is a plate 
beanng twelve Latin hexameters, part of the memorial of 
Bishop John Stanberry, 1474. At St. Andrew's, Norwich, 
a scroll and shield survive from the cross-brass of Bishop 
John Underwood, 1541, titular Bishop of Chalcedon, and 
suffragan to the Bishop of Norwich. 

At St. John Maddermarket, Norwich, is a palimpsest 
brass commemorating Robert Rugge, 1558, the reverse 
of which shows portions of a figure in episcopal vestments, 
of early date, c 1320, holding a pastoral staff in the ri^ht 
hand and a book on the breast in the left.^ At Upminster 
Essex, a small brass of a civilian, 1540, has on its reverse 
side a lower part of a figure in pontificals, probably of 
ear y fifteenth century date. Other instances occur at 
Bucks Darcy, in the same county, and at Hedgerley, 

Several matrices of episcopal brasses exist. Perhaps the 
most notable IS that of Bishop Beaumont (1333) at Durham.3 
tn ^ f^'i ^^'l^^'^^ ^ small brass to tL east of the 
tomb of Bishop Richard Mayo (1516), representing h^m 
kneeling in pontificals before a figure of the Virgiif 

shield bearinf Argent 

" Haec sp'cs mZ \n sTu ^ea" " ^'^'^ "^"'^^ °" ^^-^ is inscribed, 

"-^ Vol. I., 


on a fess sable between three roses gules a lily of the first. 
This was well restored in 1857 by Magdalen College, 
Oxford, of which the Bishop was President. A small 
brass is preserved in the cathedral library at Lincoln, con- 
sisting of a crocketed mitre {pretiosd) surmounting a shield 
bearing a chevron between three crosses-croslet fitch^, with 
a curious inscription, through which it has been ascribed 
to Bishop John Russell (1494). The reverse of the shield 
on the brass of Thomas Fromond, Esq., 1 542, at Cheam, 
Surrey, shows the arms of the see of Lincoln, c. 1420. 

A few general remarks will now be in place as to the 
representation of the foregoing vestments on brasses. The 
earlier examples of the fourteenth century have the hair 
long and flowing, the ears large, and the shaven part of 
the face represented by dots. The vestments are less 
rigid than in later monuments ; the chasuble, especially, 
showing by its many folds, that it was of pliant material. 
In the earlier examples, the ends of the stole and maniple 
are frequently broadened, and the apparels of the alb are 
continued round the wrists (as at Corringham, Essex, 
Richard de Beltoun, half efF., c. 1340), being represented 
later by a square piece only, on the upper side of the 
sleeve. In some instances the mitten sleeves of the under- 
garment appear over the hands beyond the alb. In the 
fifteenth century a greater stiffness in the vestments be- 
comes visible ; the hair is shown straight, and not in the 
graceful manner noticed at first. The Reformation brings 
this class of brass to an end. Instances of omission are 
well known, due, in all probability, to the mistakes of the 
engraver. For example, the stole is omitted at Blisland, 
Cornwall (John Balsam, 1410) ; Chelsfield, Kent (William 
Robroke, 1420); and at Newton Bromshold, Northants 
(William Hewett, 1426) ; the maniple in Bishop Yong's 
effigy at New College, 1526; both stole and maniple 
at Coleshill, Warwickshire (William Abell, 1 500) ; at 
Sawston, Cambs. (Edmund Richardson, 1522); and at 
Middleton, Lanes. (Edmund Assheton, 1522). The 


JOHN VERIEU, c. 1370, 
Saltwood, Kent. 


tunicle is not visible on the brass of Bishop Trilleck, 
1360, at Hereford. The stole worn by Bishop Goodryke' 
I554j at Ely, is placed between the tunicle and the 

The ornamentation of the mass vestments is usually of 
a geometrical kind, the lozenge being a favourite device, 
squares and circles also being found. These are fre- 
quently filled in with the quatrefoil, or simple forms of a 
floral origin. The cross is exceedingly rare. It occurs on 
the brass of John de Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury in 
Westmmster Abbey.^ The device known as the "fylfot" 
cross may be seen on several brasses (e.g. Richard de 
Hakebourne, ^. 1311, Merton College, Oxford; Walter 
Frdende, c. 1360, Ockham, Surrey, half-eff., etc.). Per- 
sonal devices seldom occur on the chasuble, probably 
because of its superior sanctity, but the initials I. B 
(arranged ^ ) occur on the vertical orphrey of that vest- 
ment at Arundel, Sussex (John Baker, fellow 1445). On 
the chasuble worn over his armour by Sir Peter Le^h 
(1527), Winwick, Lanes, (which shows an embroidered 
collar, usually concealed in the priestly effigy by the 
apparel of the amice), a large shield of six quarterings is 
placed. On the brass of Bishop Bernhard de Lippe 
1340, at Paderborn, the orphrey of the chasuble bears 
hve-petalled roses in reference to his arms, and in the 
Schwerin brasses the arms of de Bulowe occur in a similar 
position, in one case also on the amice. On the latter 
vestment at Posen on the brass of Bishop Vrielis de Gorka 
1498, the letters p a t and i v s occur, which Creeny 

J. Crosses occur on the maniple of Archbishop Grenefeld, I3i5,in York 
Minster; that of Abbot Leonardus Betten, 1607, at Ghent, has thr^e 


The description of the brass of Bishop Lewis de Beaumont Riven in 
he Durham Book of Rites shows that his arms occurred on his chasuble 
his owne armes of France, being a white lyon placed uppon t^e £ 
of h,s vestment beneath his verses of his breaft with flLer de W 
about the lyon." His seal shows a similar heraldic chlsuZl (7. ?l! 
engravings, Proc. Soc. Ant., Series IL, Vol XIII ^ "^"^ 


supposed to be the first and last three letters of " Pater, 
Spiritus, Filius."' Figures of saints on chasubles are 
rare.^ The Waltham brass, 1395, at Westminster, with 
the Virgin and child, the arms of the See of Salisbury, 
furnishes an English instance, which is shown alternately 
with a cross on the vertical orphrey of the bishop's 
chasuble. Palimpsest brasses at Upminster, Essex, and 
Bayford, Herts, show, when reversed, portions of the same 
brass of an abbot or bishop, probably of fifteenth-century 
Flemish work, whose finely-embroidered chasuble has an 
orphrey with saints.^ The chasuble orphrey of Leonardus 
Betten, 1607, Abbot of St. Trond, on his brass, now in 
Ghent Museum, shows figures of SS. Quentin, Trond, 
Peter, Paul, and James. In each case the orphrey is 
vertical. Across the chasuble of Laurence de St. Maur, 
1337, at Higham Ferrers, Northants, is written, " Fili dei 
miserere mei." Across that of Thomas Ouds, 1500, 
Great Musgrave, Westmorland, " Reposita est spes mea 
in sinu meo.""* 

1 In "Inventories of Christchurch, Canterbury, etc., edited by J. 
Wickham Legg, F.S.A., and W. H. St. John Hope, M A., 1902, quoted 
p 165 Vol. I., HzVra;-^'/z^«^/zV'7«^, 1 9°2, occurs the following:— item 
"'i falbe] of redwelvet embrodered the Image of St. Laurence and St. 
" Stephens ye amyse whereof is imbrodered w' y« nameof wiUiam hull m 

" letters of golde." , <^ 1 j 1 

2 The apparel of the amice found in 1892 in Canterbury Cathedral on 
the body of Archbishop Hubert Walter {d. 1205) was embroidered with 
seven figures : Christ enthroned, the four evangelistic symbols, and the 
archangels Michael and Gabriel. See " Burial Places of the Archbishops 
of Canterbury," by Canon Scott Robertson. Jrchaologta Cantiana, Vol. 

Another ^exWe (fifteenth-century Flemish) is on the reveneofa 
man in armour, c. 1 560, in the possession of Sir. M. Boileau, of Ketter- 

ingham Park, Norfolk. , . . 

4Bishop Beaumont "In pectore... Reposita est haec spes mea m sinu 
meo. Domine miserere." " Durham Book of Rites (see ^'m. Soc. Jnt., 
Series II., Vol. XIII., p. 37)- The lost brass of Richard Stondon, priest 
(early sixteenth century), formerly at St. Albans, showed him in a chasuble, 
the orphreys of which were engraved with the inscription : Jesu Christ, 
Mary's son, Have mercy on the soul of Sir Richard Stondon priest. See 
" The Brasses and Indents in St. Albans' Abbey," by William Page, 
F.S.A. Home Counties Magazine, Vol. I., 1899. 


The Processional or Choral Vestments have now 
to be considered. These, unhke the foregoing, cannot be 
said to possess a sacramental significance, but form the 
dress of dignity of ecclesiastics of rank, worn to show a 
temporal rather rather than a spiritual position. 

First it will be convenient to mention a garment, by no 
means confined to the Processional Vestments proper, but 
worn by clergy as an ordinary course. 

The Cassock (camisia vestis, tunica talaris, cassacca^ pelliciuni) 
was the ordinary dress of the western ecclesiastic, 
worn beneath the eucharistic as beneath the proces- 
sional vestments, though in the former case obscured 
by the alb, as we know was the case with the monastic 
habit. It is well seen when worn with the surplice. 
Intended for warmth, we find it lined with fur {peliis), 
indications of which appear at the wrists on some 
brasses {e.g., a Priest, c. 1520, St. Just-in-Roseland, 
Cornwall, a broad fur cufF). Its form was that of a 
close-fitting garment, open in front, with sleeves. 
Its colour is usually black, though sometimes red, as 
in the west window of Cirencester Abbey, Gloucs., or 
purple for distinction of dignity." In the same 
church is a small brass (c 1480) representing the 
cassock with nothing worn over it. Another in- 
stance is afforded by the second son, kneeling, on 
the brass of Nicholas Gaynesford, Esq., and wife, 
c. 1490, Carshalton, Surrey. The bracket brass with 
the figure of John Whytton, 1420, Merton College, 
Oxford, shows it worn in conjunction with tippet and 
hood {see p. 104). The tight-fitting buttoned sleeves. 

' Professor E. C. Clark (in his account of English Medieval Academical 
Costume m Vol. L., Archaolo^cal Journal) deals with the question of the 
significance of the scarlet cassock ; an eminent colour suitable for canons 
and cardinals ; but originally connected, in his opinion, rather with law 
than with divinity, though writers usually attribute it to doctors in the 
ktter faculty, whose use of the scarlet gown is well known. Archbishop 
1 arker, at Morning Prayer on the day of his consecration (December i6th, 
1559), wore a toga talaris coccinea. 


prolonged over the hands, like mittens, seen in some 
effigies, may possibly be identified with those of the 
subtunica, mentioned by Professor Clark ; for, as in 
the brass of Archdeacon Rothewelle, 1361, they 
appear to belong to a body-garment worn under the 

Surplice {superpellicium), so named from being worn over 
the fur-lined cassock, is a loose-fitting vestment of 
white linen, as a rule unadorned, with long hanging 
sleeves. Not being of so great a length as the alb, 
it allows the cassock to appear beneath it, except in 
some early instances, such as St. Cross, Winchester 
(John de Campeden, 1382), or Cobham, Kent 
(Reginald de Cobham, 1402), in which the cassock is 
hidden by a long surplice. Not open in front, it is 
passed over the head, like the alb. On brasses it is 
frequently represented as crimped. Marriott points 
out ' that the first mention of a surplice {superpelliceum) 
belongs to the twelfth century, when Stephanus, 
Bishop of Tournay, sent one to Cardinal Albinus 
with a sermon, " de mystica superpellicei confec- 

Almuce {almutium^ aumusse, amys^ amess ; muce^ Teutonic 
for cap or hood, to which is prefixed the Arabic 
article), originally a hood, worn to protect the head 
from the cold, the use of which was granted to vari- 
ous monastic, cathedral, and collegiate bodies, and as 
such appears in the arms of the Chapter of Laon.' 

^Vestiarium Ckristianum, 1868, Appendix G., p. 227. 

2 See " The Black Scarf of Modern Church Dignitaries and the Grey 
Almuce of Medieval Canons," by J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A., Transactions 
of St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Vol. III. 

On an incised slab in Paris, engraved in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations, 

Vol. I., lohn D , Canon of Poitiers, and Chancellor of Noyon, 1350, 

is shown in mass vestments, wearing the almuce as a head covering. It 
is used as such on two small sepulchral effigies at Bitton, Gloucs , worn 
with cassock, surplice, and choral cope (illustrated p. 34, Vol. I^., 2nd 
series, 1878, Transactions of Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Ihe 


This hood was made of dark cloth lined with fur, 
which in the case of canons and ecclesiastics of dignity 
was of a grey colour. About the end of the thirteenth 
century it appears to have assumed a cape form, by 
being allowed to fall back on the shoulders, whereby 
the fur lining became outermost, establishing the 
form of the garment, as the fur cape with a kind of 
roll-collar, with which we are familiar on brasses of 
priests in processional vestments. At first open in 
front and fastened with a morse or strings,' it later 
became closed, so that it had to be passed over the 
head. In the fourteenth century, we find it with two 
long pendent ends, hanging down in front, which are 
well shown on brasses, and must not be mistaken for 
the stole. One of the earliest brasses in processional 
vestments is that of Archdeacon Rothewelle, 1 361, at 
Roth well, Northants, in which the almuce seems' to 
lack the cape-characteristic, so evident in later brasses, 
especially those in which the cope is not worn, as at 
Great Haseley, Oxon. (Thomas Butler, 1494) and at 
Christ Church, Oxford (James Courthope, 1557), in 
each of which appear the small pendent tails or tufts 
of the fur attached to the edge of the cape. Fre- 
quently the almuce is represented on brasses in a 

Prebenda Church of St. Mary Bitton, Gloucestershire," by the Rev. 
K T. Ellacombe M.A., F.S.A." See also Proceedings of the Society of 
Jntt^uanes, Vol. IL, 1849, P- 9°. Bloxam writes : " In winter thi 
aumasse was worn as a hood as well as a tippet, and in the representations 
o ecc esiastics of canonical rank on French incised monuments, we fre- 
quently hnd the aumasse used as a hood, and worn on the head, but 
in monumental brasses in this country we rarely find it otherwise than 
Council or°M-7"^ t ^A ^"^ breast. In the fifth provincial 

"to?ho? f ^'^•'^"'^^IdA.D. I 579, the aumasse is declared to be peculiar 
to those of canonical rank, ' Almutia pellicea insigne canonicorum est ' " 
Mtdland Counttes^ Herald, Thursday, March 5th, 1 846. ""''"'""^ 

^The former can be seen at Cobham, Kent, William Tannere IA18 • 
the latter m sculptured figures of canons of the fifteenth cen"ury at Wells' 
Criry^ '"^^^^^^--'^^^ ^^b---' ^50S,at BambergYfiglTdt; 


white metal, engraved to resemble fur ; the ends of 
the long pendants, unlike those of the stole, being of 
a rounded shape, though at Mawgan-in-Pydar, Corn- 
wall, c. 1420, they are squared. In a few brasses, 
where the cope is seen, the almuce is omitted : 
{e.g., 1438, John Lovelle, St. George's, Canterbury; 
1458, William Kyrkeby, Theydon Gernon, Essex; 
c. 1460, a Priest, Temple Church, Bristol; 1508, 
Henry Wykys, All Saints', Stamford, Lines; 1541, 
Thomas Dalyson, LL.B., Clothal, Herts; d. 1559, 
Bishop John White, Winchester College.) 

Cope {cappa, pluviale^ juav^vag). The necessity of protec- 
tion from the weather in open-air processions at 
Rome ' probably gave rise to the use of this vest- 
ment.^ It is a large outer cloak, sleeveless, of semi- 
circular shape, worn over the surplice and almuce, 
and fastened in front by a brooch, called a morse. 
Originally a hood {caputium, diminutive of cappd) was 
attached to it, which could be drawn over the head ; 
but when the cope became a costly vestment, made 
of silk {cappa sericd) and cloth of gold, etc., and worn 
in church by high ecclesiastics, its use disappeared,^ 
and in its place a flap was worn, which lent itself to 
the most elaborate embroidery. This flap is very 
rarely met with on brasses. The following are four 
examples : — 

14 1 3. William Langeton, canon, Exeter Cathe- 
dral (kneeling sideways). 
c. 1520. A Priest, St. Just-in-Roseland, Cornwall (a 
plain cope). 

^ On the shape of the cope, resembling that of the ancient chasuble but 
for being cut up the front, see The Chasuble; its Genuine Form and Size, 
by Father William Lockhart, B.A., 189 1. 

2 Its ancestor was, probably, the Roman lacerna. 

3 The use of the almuce may have rendered the hood of the cope un- 
necessary. Just as, later, the almuce was superseded by a cap as a head- 
covering, itself becoming a cape. 


1530. Adam GrafFton, Withington, Salop. 

1550. Thomas Magnus, archdeacon, Sessay, York- 

Hoods appear in a few instances on plain copes, 
which, in all probability, form part either of the 
monastic habit as at Dorchester, Oxon., 15 10, or of 
academical costume, as at All Souls, Oxford, 1461. 
Along the straight sides of the cope, and sometimes, 
to a less extent, as a border round the edge, are 
placed orphreys of different degrees of richness ; and 
in some few cases the whole cope is represented as 
richly worked, e.g. : — 

1414. Simon Bache, Knebworth, Herts. 
1450. Robert Thurbern, Winchester College, 

1462. John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambs. 
1472. Thomas Tonge, Beeford, Yorks. 
1 51 8. Dr. Robert Langton, Queen's College, 

^. 1520. A Priest, Dowdeswell, Gloucs. (embroi- 
dered with fleurs de lis in lozenges, as is 
Langton 's cope). 
1529. Edmund Frowsetoure, S.T.P., Dean, Here- 
ford Cathedral. 

c. 1548. Bishop John White, warden, Winchester 
College {d. 1559). 

But, as a rule, only the orphreys appear embroidered, 
in the decoration of the cope, unlike that of the 
chasuble personal devices are not infrequently found. 
At l^ulbourn, Cambs., the cope of Wilham de 
l;^ulburne 1391, bears the initials W.F. ; at New 
«^ollege, the orphrey on the cope of Richard Malford 
warden, 1403, has the initials R.M. ; that of Walter 
Wyll warden, 1494, the letters W.H. At Tredine- 
ton, Worcs., the orphrey on the cope of Richard 

^ With initials R.T. on orphreys and ihc on morse. 


Cassey, Canon of York, 1427, " Inceptor legum," 
bears the initials R.C. ; that of Thomas Mordon, 
1458, at Fladbury, in the same county, the initials 
T.M. ; that at Broadwater, Sussex (John Mapilton, 
1432), has the letter M. and maple leaves. The 
name of " Thomas Patesley " is worked on the orphrey 
and morse of a cope at Great Shelford, Cambs., 141 8. 
An instance of heraldic ornament on orphreys is 
furnished by the garbs on the brass of Thomas Aile- 
ward, at Havant, Hants, 141 3.' An adaptation from 
Job xix. 25-26 is seen on the cope of William 
Prestwyk, 1436, Warbleton, Sussex. Figures of 
apostles or saints occur on the orphreys at Balsham, 
Cambs.; Castle Ashby, Northants ; Bottesford, 
Leics. ; Knebworth, Herts ; Ringwood, Hants ; 
Harrow, Middlesex; and Merton College, Oxford, 
all of the fifteenth century. 

The morse is sometimes decorated with the con- 
traction IHS or mC (as at Winchester College, 

1548, Bishop John White, where IHS appears 
within a circle). The word " lESUS " occurs on 
that of the M agnus brass, 1 550, at Sessay, Yorkshire. 
Heraldic morses are found at Castle Ashby, North- 
ants, William Ermyn, rector, 1401 (ermine, a saltire 
gules ; on a chief of the last a lion passant gardant 
or), and at Fulbourn, Cambs., William de Fulburne, 
1 39 1 (argent, a saltire sable between four martlets 

I It is always well to obtain corroborative evidence before stating 
positively that such heraldic decorations represent the family_ bearings of 
the person commemorated. For, although such an assumption may be 
justifiable, as a rule, in the case of sepulchral monuments, this is by no 
means always the case with vestments, extant or mentioned in inventories, 
as concerning the donors. In the Havant brass the arms are probably 
those of the deceased : but an instance occurs at Flamstead, Herts, ot the 
Beauchamp arms on the brass of John Oudeby, rector, d. 1454, who was 
canon of the collegiate church of Warwick, and chamberlain of the royal 
treasury for the Earl of Warwick. The arms of Thomas Arundel, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, are found on the brass of John Byrkhede, 1468, at 


gules). Sometimes the morse contains the initials 
of the deceased, as on the Aileward brass mentioned 
above. Sometimes the Vernicle or face of Christ is 
represented, as at Knebworth, Herts, Simon Bache, 
14 14, or at Tattershall, Lines, 1510, or an emblem 
of the Trinity, as at Bottesford, Leics. (Henry de 
Codyngtoun, 1404). At Dowdeswell, Gloucs., c. 1 520, 
the rose-en-soleil is seen. 

Choral Cope. — The cope of dignity described above 
. {cappa sericd) must not be confused with the choral 
cope {cappa nigra) of plain cloth with a hood, but 
without ornament, worn in choir by canons and 
monks, or by the cantores, as at Westminster. Pos- 
sibly the cope of Archdeacon Rothewelle, at Rothwell, 
Northants, 1361, may be a slightly ornamental form' 
of this garment. Quite plain ones may be seen at 
Watton, Herts (an Ecclesiastic, 1380) ;^ at Arundel 
Sussex (Adam D'Ertham, 1382, half effigy); at Cot- 
tingham, Yorkshire (Nicholas de Louth, 1383); at 
St. Andrew's, Auckland, Durham (a Priest, c. 1400, 
whose cope is gathered about the shoulders, similarly 
to the mantle of the Garter, mentioned below) • at 
Shilhngton, Beds (Thomas Portyngton, 1485)-' at 
Bampton, Oxon. (Robert Holcot, M.A., 1500) ; and 
at St Just-in-Roseland, Cornwall (a Priest, c. ic2o). 
The brass of Archdeacon Philip Polton, 1461, at All 
bouls College, Oxford, may furnish an academical 
exaniple. The monastic cope, as seen at South Creak, 
Norfolk (John Norton, 1509), and Dorchester, Oxon. 
(Richard Bewfforeste, 15 10), is probably identical 
with the choral cope. As a rule, on brasses angels 
are represented in amice and alb, but on the Thornton 
Ijlemish brass (1429) at Newcastle, those supporting 

_Jf^^_^^^^^^^or^^ choral copes i a lik? 

of 'mI'/""' u '^°"'^hant gardant. This is unusual The feet 


garment is worn over the alb by the Archangel 
Gabriel on the brass of George Rede, rector c. 
1492, at Fovant, Wilts. * 

The Mantle of the Garter. — Three brasses remain of 
canons of St. George's, Windsor, wearing the mantle 
of the Order of the Garter/ which was of a purple 
colour, with a circular badge on the left shoulder, 
bearing argent, a cross gules : — 

1. 1370. Roger Parkers, North Stoke, Oxon. (half 

effigy with inscription ; head lost). 

2. 1540. Roger Lupton, LL.D., Provost of Eton 

and Canon of Windsor, Eton College 
Chapel (mantle worn over fur-lined 
cassock ; no surplice). 

3. 1558- Arthur Cole, S.T.B., President of Mag- 

dalen, at Magdalen College, Oxford, 
showing a very ornate almuce, worn 
over cassock and surplice. 

The long cords which fasten the mantle are well 
represented at North Stoke and Magdalen College. 
On the Eton brass the mantle is fastened by a small 
morse, and in the two later examples it is gathered 
at the neck. 

The lost effigy of John Robyns, d. 1558, of which 
the inscription remains in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, may have shown him wearing the mantle 

» See " Brasses of Canons of Windsor," by the Rev. J. E. Field, The 
Antiquary, Vol. XV., 1887. For military examples, see Ch. III. Brasses 
of canons of Windsor are found vested in copes, without the Garter 
badge, as at Thurcaston, Leics. (John Mershden, 1425), and at Harrow 
(Simon Marcheford, 1442). A brass was discovered in 1890 at Ben- 
nington, near Stevenage, Herts, showing a small mutilated effigy of a 
priest in a cope with a round badge (?a rose) on the left shoulder. The 
cope has an orphrey. This has been supposed to represent a canon of 
Windsor. See Transactions of the Cambridge University Association of Brass 
Collectors, Vol. II., p. 24. 


of the Order. The effigy of Wilham Boutrod (1522), 
"Pety-canon of Windsor" at Eton, is vested in a 

The following are good instances, showing the Proces- 
sional Vestments. 

(The brasses marked x have the orphreys of the cope 
embroidered with figures of saints.) 

c. 1 361. William de Rothewelle, Archdeacon of Essex, 
Rothwell, Northants. 

1382. John de Campeden, St. Cross, Winchester, 

1 39 1. William de Fulburne, Fulbourn, Cambs. 

X c. 1400. A priest, Boston, Lines. .? John Strensall. 

X 1 40 1. John de Sleford, Balsham, Cambs. 

X 1 40 1. William Ermyn, Castle Ashby, Northants. 

1402. Reginald de Cobham, Cobham, Kent, on 

X 1404. Henry de Codyngtoun, Bottesford, Leics. 

14 1 3. Thomas Aileward, Havant, Hants. 

X 14 14. Simon Bache, Knebworth, Herts. 

X 141 6. John Prophete, Ringwood, Hants. 

1420. Robert Wyntryngham,Cotterstock, Northants, 
on bracket. 

1432- John Mapilton, Broadwater, Sussex. 

1436. William Prestwyk, Warbleton, Sussex. 

1450. Robert Thurbern, Winchester College. 

1454. Robert Arthur, Chartham, Kent, 

x 1462. John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambs. 

1464. John Heth, Tintinhull, Somerset. 

X 1468. John Byrkhed, Harrow, Middlesex, 

x 147 1. Henry Sever, Merton College, Oxford. 

1498- James Hert, Hitchin, Herts. 

1 5 10. Richard Wylleys, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

X 1510. Walter Hewke, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

X ^. 1 5 1 o. A Provost, Tattershall, Lines. 

1518. Robert Langton, Queen's College, Oxford. 


1529. Edmund Frowsetoure, S. T, P., Hereford 


1530. Adam Graffton, Withington, Salop. 

1535- Warin Penhalluryk, Wendron, Cornwall Chead 
lost). ^ 

1550. Thomas Magnus, archdeacon, Sessay, York- 

The following show the processional vestments without 
the cope, thereby fully exposing the almuce ^ :— 

1413. John Morys, warden, Winchester College 

141 8. Wilham Tannere, Cobham, Kent (half eff.) 

1419- William White, Arundel, Sussex. 

1458. John Huntington, Manchester Cathedral 

147 1; A son on the brass of Roger Kyngdon, Quethiock, 

1480. A Priest, Billingham, Durham. 
1482. Henry Sampson, Tredington, Worcs. 
1489. Thomas Teylar, Byfleet, Surrey. 
1494- Thomas Buttler, Great Haseley, Oxon. 
1508. Edmund Croston, St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford 

kneeling before St. Katherine. ' 
1508. Robert Sheffelde, M.A., Chartham, Kent. 
1 5 10. Ralph Elcok, Tong, Salop. 

1 5 14. John Fynexs, Archdeacon of Sudbury, Bury St. 

Edmunds, Suffolk. 

1 5 15. William Goberd, Magdalen College, Oxford. 

1 Possibly in some cases the almuce was worn over the surplice in 
summer, as a substitute for the cope, assumed in winter. See Du Cange, 
Glossartum ad Scriptores media et tnfima Lathtitatis. Frankfurt, 1710 (Vol I 
p. 158, Column 2, voc. Almucium) :— " Statuta Ecclesice Viennensis apud 
^ Joan Le Lievre, cap. 26 de Canonicis : A festo S. Martini usque ad 
^ Pascha portabunt capas nigras supra pellicium, et a Pascha usque ad 
^testum omnium SS. portabunt superpellicium sine capa, et in capite 

* capellum de gnso, quem vulgariter almuciam vocant." 

2 Other examples of children on brasses of parents in this costume are:— 

1487. Eldest son on brass of John Lambarde, Hinxworth, Herts. 
c. 1 530. Son on brass of Richard Bulkley, Beaumaris, Anglesea. 


1522. Richard Adams, East Mailing, Kent. 

1528. Robert Hacombleyn, King's College, Cambridge. 

1528. Robert Sutton, Dean, St. Patrick's Cathedral, 

Dublin, kneeling. 
1532. John Moore, M.A., Sibson, Leics. 
1537- Geoffi-ey Fyche, Dean, St. Patrick's Cathedral, 

Dublin, kneeling. 

1557. James Courthop, Christ Church, Oxford. 

1558. Robert Brassie, King's College, Cambridge. 

Monastic Orders (Male). 

The scarcity of brasses of- the Monastic Orders may be 
accounted for either by the destruction of religious houses, 
or by the comparative poverty of the monk. The me- 
morials of mitred abbots show them, as a rule, in their 
pontificals, similar to those of the bishops, described above. 
Foremost among such is the Flemish brass of Abbot 
Delamere, c. 1360, at St. Albans, in which church may be 
seen a palimpsest, the obverse of which shows the lower 
part of an abbot, c. 1490, similarly vested. The fragment 
m the Bntish Museum, c. 1350, has been already referred 
to m the account of Flemish brasses, p. 48. At West- 
minster Abbey is the brass of Abbot Estney, 1498, and 
at Burwell, Cambs, the reverse of the brass of Abbot 
Laurence de Wardeboys of Ramsey, shows the pontifi- 
calia, whilst the obverse gives him in processional vest- 
ments, cassock, surplice, and almuce.^ These brasses 
showing vestments similar to those of a bishop, do not 
illustrate the monastic habit ; but at Dorchester, Oxon. 

on'rtirrr^° ^"^^ Price, Abbot of Conway, 1528, in cope with crozier 
on nght arm, formerly existed in Saffron Walden Church, Essex See 
Illustration from Cole s MSS. in the British Museum, in wS^^^^^^^^^ 
Essex Arch^ologtcal Society, N.S., Vol. VI. At Wendon Lof s EsTex ht 
first son on the brass ofWilliam Lucas and wife, 1460, is adin p^nti 
wit ^d^/yf ^ H- '^°hf H ° represent John Luca^ Abbot tfW.S^m; 
a pastoral stiff ' ^'"'^ " '''''^ ^" benediction ; his left hold! 


(Austin or Black Canons) is the brass of Richard Bew- 
Itoreste, c. 1510, wearing over the processional vestments 
instead of the orphreyed cope, a plain cope-like pallium or 
cloak with a hood, and having a pastoral staff on the ri^ht 
arm; a similar brass is that of John Norton, 1509 at 
South Creak, Norfolk. At Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire 
IS the indent of a brass ' of an abbot, described by Mr! 
W. H. St. John Hope as wearing the Cistercian tunic and 
cowl with a pastoral staff on the right arm, and a detached 
mitre. The matrix of the brass of Abbot Godfrey de 
Croyland, 1329, at Peterborough, shows the indent of a 
crozier, leaning on the right shoulder. At Dorchester, 
Oxon, there is a slab, commemorating John Sutton, Abbot' 
c. 1349, containing the indent of a forearm with the hand 
grasping a crozier.^ At Tilty, Essex, is an inscription to 
Thomas of Takeley, Abbot of Tilty, c. 1450. 
_ The earliest monastic habit was the Benedictine, con- 
sisting of a tumca or cassock, over which was worn 
the cucuUus or cowl, a large loose gown with hanging 
sleeves and with a hood attached to it (see the plate 
in Dugdale's Monasticon). Examples of this habit 
occur at St. Laurence's, Norwich (Geoffrey Langley, 
^- I437j prior of the Benedictine monastery of St. Faith 
the Virgin, at Horsham, near Norwich), and at St. Albans' 
Abbey (a half effigy of a monk, fifteenth century; 
a monk, according to Haines, Reginald Bernewelt, 1443 ; 
Robert Beauner, who held various offices in the Abbey, 
c. 1460; and Thomas Rutland, sub-prior, 1521). A 
modern restored example is in Ely Cathedral (John de 
Crauden or Crowden, prior, d. 1341). The finest example 
of a similar habit is that of Thomas Nelond, Prior of the 
Clugniac Abbey of St. Pancras at Lewes, d. 1429, in 

'Figured in Mr. Mill Stephenson's "Monumental Brasses in the West 
Riding," m the Yorkshire Jrchteological Journal, Vol. XV. 

2 Engraved in Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. I., p. loi, and in 
Haines, p. Ivii. Matrices of brasses of abbots are at Waltham, Byland, 
Milton Abbas, etc. ^ 


Cowfold Church, Sussex.' At Norbury, Derbyshire, the 
palimpsest brass of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, 1538, and 
lady, shows on the reverse of the inscription part of the 
figure of a prior in cassock and cowl, c. 1 440. 

The Canons Regular of St. Augustine wore over a 
cassock a white rochet, girded, with close-fitting sleeves, 
and a plain cope or cloak with a hood. A good example 
occurs at Over Winchendon, Bucks, 15 15 (John Stodeley, 
Canon of St. Frideswide's, Oxford).^ Two palimpsest 
brasses show reverses of the fifteenth century, representing 
monastic attire ^ :— A bust at Halvergate, Norfolk, "ffrater 

Willms Jernemu " (Yarmouth); and at Denham, 

Bucks, John Pyke, wearing a gown with loose sleeves 
concealing the hands, girded with a knotted cord, hanging 
down in front; over this a tippet and hood covering the 
shoulders, similar to the Halvergate brass. The birch 
represented in saltire with a baton ^ on a shield may 
indicate a scholastic occupation for the deceased. 

^The remains of the canopy of Abbot John Stoke, 145 i, at St. 
Albans, show similar work and arrangement to that of Nelond. On the 
brass lectern in Yeovil Church, Somerset, is a figure of a monk (Frat"" 
Martin' Forester, c. 1460) habited in girded gown and hood ; illustrated 
in Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, Vol. IX., 1905, p. 71, "The 
Lectern, Yeovil Church," by W. H. H. Rogers. At Totternhoe, Beds, is a 
fifteenth century inscription for " Ffr Thoms greve q5da p'or isti' loci " ; 
another is at Boxgrove, Sussex, John Rykeman, " Monachi istius loci." 

^At Warter Priory, Yorkshire (Augustinian), is the incised slab of 
Thomas Bndlmgton, 25th Prior, 1498, representing him in cassock, 
rochet, and capa pluvtalts with hood. This is illustrated in Proceedins-s of 
the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. XVIII., 1900, p. 57, in "Account of Ex- 
cavations lately carried out at Warter Priory, Yorks, by W. H St John 
Hope, M.A.," who writes: " Efiigies of Black Canons similarly vested, 
^ but with the hoods of their cloaks drawn over the head, occur at 
Cartmel and Hexham. Brasses of Black Canons occur at Dorchester 
(Oxon), and South Creak (Norfolk), both abbots, and at Over-Win- 
chendon (Bucks). One of a prior was formerly at Royston, Herts, but 
is now lost ; the Society fortunately possesses a rubbing." The Warter 
VI ; l"'''"''"'^ 5" 'Transactions of the East Riding Antiquarian Society, 

3 Each IS engraved in Transactions of Monumental Brass Society, Vol IV 

4 This may be a ferule. See Archaologia Cambrensis, IV. Series, Vol XII 

on a scholastic ferule found in Melverley Church 



Monastic Orders {Female). 

The costume of abbesses and their subordinates re- 
sembled the mourning habit of widows, who, as is well 
known, often retired to end their days in a convent.' 

Abbesses are represented by but two existing examples: — 

1. Elizabeth Hervey, elected Abbess of Elstow (Bene- 

dictine) in 1520, at Elstow, Beds. 

2. Agnes Jordan, Abbess of the Bridgetine Convent of 

Syon, 1 544, at Denham, Bucks. 

The latter wears a long gown or cowl, bound at the 
waist by a girdle, with loose sleeves, beneath which appear 
the tight-fitting sleeves of the undergarment ; a barbe or 
chin-cloth ; a cope-like mantle, and a veil : rings are 
shown on some of her fingers, the largest appearing on the 
first finger of the right hand. The Elstow Abbess' cos- 
tume differs from this in having a plaited barbe, and on 
the right arm a pastoral staff; the sleeves of the gown, 
which is ungirded, are looser ; there is no ring. 

There remain a few representations of nuns on brasses. 
The three following are members of the Order of Vowesses, 
i.e., widows who have vowed never to remarry : Dame 
luliana Anyell, c. 1500, " votricis," Witton (Blofield), 
Norfolk; Diia Johanna Braham, 15 19, "vidua ac deo 
dicata," ^ Frenze, Norfolk ; Dame Susan Kyngeston, 
"vowess," 1540, Shalston, Bucks. 

At Nether Wallop, Hants, is the brass of Maria Gore, 
Prioress, 1436.^ At Dagenham, Essex, on the brass of 

^ See "Widows and Vowesses," by J. L, Andre, F.S.A., Archceological 
Journal, Vol. XLIX., p. 69. 

^ Her mantle has long cords, and she wears a strap-like girdle. 

3 In Somerset and Dorset 'Notes and Queries, Vol. III., 1893, p. 55, the 
Rev. C. H. Mayo gives the will of Elizabeth Martyn, 1584, last Prioress 
of Wyntney, Hants. She desires to be buried in Hartly Wintney 
Church. " I would that a stone should be layde over my graue w^*" a 
" picture made of a plate of a woman in a longe garment w^'' wyde 
" sieves her handes joyned together," etc. 


Sir Thomas Urswyk and lady (1470), the eldest daughter 
is habited as a nun ; as is one of the daughters, probably 
Cecily, on the brass of Thomas and Agnes Mountford, 
1489, at Hornby, Yorkshire; and the third daughter, 
kneeling, on the brass of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, 1503, 
Great Cotes, Lines.'' At Minchinhampton, Gloucs., the 
small figure of Dame Alice Hampton, probably a Syon 
nun,^ c. 15 10 (represented as a child on the brass of John 
Hampton, gent, 1556, and wife), has a rosary hanging 
from a girdle and a ring on the third finger of the right 
hand. The mantle is lacking in the effigy of Margaret 
Dely, 1 56 1, Treasurer of Syon, at Isleworth, Middlesex; 
which peculiarity is shared by one of the children on the 
reverse of the palimpsest brass of Nicholas Suttherton 
(1540), c. 1460, at St. John Maddermarket, Norwich. 
At St. Mary's, Kilburn, is a fragment, considered c. 1380, 
showing the head of a nun, which was found on the site 
of the Priory. The wimple or barbe, in this instance, 
seems to be attached to the veil by a short string. 

A Note on the Chalice-brass. 

The Chalice, with or without the Wafer or Host is fre- 
quently found, either alone with an inscription, as a 
memorial for a priest, or held in his hands, when shown 
m mass vestments. The representation of this symbol 
on ecclesiastical monuments fell into disuse at the Re- 
formation, but has been revived in the nineteenth century 
For convenience sake we may treat of this class of brass 
in two divisions : — 

1. The chalice with or without the wafer, with an in- 
scription, but no effigy. 

2. Effigies supporting the chalice, with or without the 

•J^^c uTn^^^'^TT^" °^ Margaret Hyklott, whose effigy is lost (probably 
' On the same brass her eldest brother is shown as a monk. 


I. Norfolk possesses the greater number of these 
brasses, mostly of the sixteenth century ; but in Yorkshire 
are four examples of the fifteenth century, consisting of 
chalices without wafers, and with inscriptions. These 
are : — 

1429. Richard Kendale, M.A., rector, Ripley, West 

1460. Peter Johnson, vicar. Bishop Burton, East 

1466. William Langton, rector, St. Michael Spurrier- 
gate, York. 

1469. Thomas Clarell, vicar, St. Peter's, Leeds. 

Examples of the sixteenth century (chalice with 
wafer : — 

1502. Richard Grene, rector, Hedenham, Norfolk. 

1508. Robert Northen, vicar, Buxton, Norfolk. 

1 5 15. Robert Wodehowse, rector, Holwell, Beds (ac- 
companied by two woodhowses or wild men). 
c. 1520. Robert Wythe, chaplain, North Walsham, 

c. 1525. Geo. Cunynggam, vicar, Attlebridge, Norfolk. 
1540. William Curtes, South Burlingham, Norfolk. 

At Bawburgh, Norfolk, is a chalice with wafer (William 
Richers, vicar, 1531), in which the chalice is upheld by 
two hands, of which the thumbs only are seen, issuing 
from clouds. A similar brass is at Little Walsingham 
(William Weststow, c. 1520), in the same county. At 
Blockley, Worcs., the brass of Philip Warthim, M.A., 
vicar, 1488, shows him in cassock, tippet, and hood, 
kneeling beside a chalice incised in the slab. At Aid- 
bourne, Wilts, Henry Frekylton, chaplain, 1508, in mass 
vestments, lies beside a chalice, the bowl of which is lost. 
At Fishlake, in the West Riding, was formerly the brass 
of Richard Marshall, vicar, 1505, having the chalice with 
wafer, shown on each side of his effigy. Above the effigy 
of Sir Arthur Vernon, M.A., 1507, at Tong, Salop {see 

JOHN FRYE, S.T.S, 1507, 
New College. Oxford. 

Little Walsingham, Norfolk. 



p. 136) is a chalice with wafer. A chalice and missal are 
shown on the altar, before which St. Gregory kneels, in 
the brass of Roger Legh and wife, 1506, at Macclesfield, 

2. Examples of the second division (in mass vestments). 

{a) Without Wafer. 

c, 1400. A Priest, Stanford-on-Soar, Notts. 

1429. Roger Godeale, Bainton, E. Yorks. 

c. 1470. A Priest, Broxbourne, Herts. 

1531- John ap Meredyth, Bettws, Montgomeryshire. 

{b) With Wafer. 

1461. Robert Lond, St. Peter's, Bristol. 

1498. Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

1504. Alexander Inglisshe, Campsey Ash, Suffolk. 

1507. John Frye, S.T.S. Fellow, New CoKe^e, 
Oxford, (half eff.). 

1507. John Scolffyld, Brightwell, Berks. 

1510. A Priest, Littlebury, Essex. 

1 5 12. William Bisshop, Wiveton, Norfolk. 

1 52 1. Radulph Babyngton, Hickling, Notts. 

1531- John Athowe, Brisley, Norfolk. 

1 53 1. Richard Bennett, M.A., Whitnash, Warwick- 

1535- Thomas Westeley, Wyvenhoe, Essex. 

The Chalice is shown on the two Flemish brasses, c. i q6o 
at Wensley, Yorks, and North Mimms, Herts, (see p. 49) 
lying on the breast, in the former case above, in the latter 
below the hands. At Walton-on-Trent, Derbyshire a 
priest, c. 1490, with Chalice and Host, is represented 'in 
the act of blessmg them. Another instance, c. i C2o is 
supposed to have come from the dismantled chapel' of 
North Weston, Oxon.^ ^ 

^' I^-^-ber, 1900, Journal of 


In the cope, worn with amice, there is one instance :— 
1478. William Langley, rector, Buckland, Herts- 
(chalice with wafer). 

In processional vestments without the cope : — 
1522. Richard Adams, vicar. East Mailing, Kent.' 
(chalice with wafer). 

In academicals : — 
c. 1480. A Priest, with a chalice, Barking, Essex. 

15 1 8. Thomas Coly, Bredgar, Kent (chalice with 


15 1 9. John Bowke, M.A., Merton College, Oxford. 

(chalice with wafer), half efF. 

John Yslyngton, S.T.P., c. 1520, Cley-next-the-Sea, 
Norfolk, of whose costume we treat below, wearing 
apparently a scarf over a fur-lined cassock, and a cap, holds 
a chalice with wafer. 

The chalices diifer considerably in shape and size, and 
sometimes have feet {e.g., 1 500, William Abell, Coleshill, 
Warwickshire; 1522, Edmund Assheton, Middleton, 
Lanes., each in mass vestments). 

The wafers are usually engraved, either with t/is, as in 
the two brasses just mentioned, or on that at Littlebury, 
Essex, c. 1 5 10; or Wc, as at Tong, Salop, 1507, and 
Brisley, Norfolk, 1531, each of which wafers is rayed; or 
on that of Dr. Yslyngton, c. 1520, mentioned above;" or 
with a cross-crosslet as at Higham Ferrers, Northants, 
1498 ; Campsey Ash, Suffolk, 1 504 ; East Mailing, Kent, 
1 522 ; or Wyvenhoe, Essex, 1535. An instance of a plain 
wafer^ occurs on the brass of John Stokys, Rector, 1500, 
Wimington, Beds. 

1 Prebendary "magne misse" in the monastery of West Mailing. 

2 The wafer at Holwell, Beds, 151 5, has in addition to IHC a small 
spray of foliage. 

3 The First Prayer Book of Edward VI., 1 549, directs that the wafers be 
" unleavened and round, as it was afore, but without all manner of print : 
the Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth, 1559, direct that the sacramental 

Merton College, Oxford. 



Before considering the dress of post-reformation ecclesi- 
astics, a small class of brasses claims our attention. 
These show neither the mass nor processional vestments, 
and it is doubtful whether the garments bear any academ- 
ical significance. Probably they represent the habitus 
clericalis worn when out of church, the chief characteristic 
of which was the cassock {yestis talaris). By the time when 
any such costume is met with in brasses, the hahit seems 
to have become firmly established, though there appears to 
have been some difficulty in making it so in the thirteenth 
century, when the laity was shocked "de habitu clericorum, 
qui non clericalis videtur, sed potius militaris." ^ A 
possible early instance of a clerical habit may be afforded 
by the small brass, in the head of a cross at Merton College, 
Oxford, representing a tonsured figure, .''1372; though 
this may be an early instance of academicals. ^ At Car- 
dynham, Cornwall, is the brass of Thomas Awmarle, rector, 
c. 1400 (figured in Dunkin), showing the tonsure and clad 
in a girded cassock, having twelve buttons, in pairs below 

bread, which is to be similar to wafers or singing cakes, "be made and 
"formed plain, without any figure thereupon." See Hierurgia Anglicana, 
New Ed., Part II., 1903, pp. 129, 130. 

1 ^ee "The Ecclesiastical Habit in England," by the Rev. T. A. Lacey, 
M.A., in Transactions of the St. Pau/'s Ecclesiological Society, Vol. IV., 1 900, 
p. 126, wherein evidence is produced of the wearing of the clerical habit, 
cassock and gown, down to the nineteenth century; the latter is considered 
a modification of the cappa clausa. See The Constitutions of Cardinal Otho, 
1237, XIV. "De habitu clericorum. Quoniam de habitu clericorum, 
" qui non clericalis videtur, sed potius militaris, grave scandalum laicis 
"generatur." Wilkins' Concilia, Vol. I., 1737, p. 652. 

2 But see account of fourteenth century civilian costume. Chap. IV. The 
Merton effigy wears a garment much like the longer cote-hardie worn by 
Nichole de Aumberdene, Taplow, Bucks, c. 1350, though without liripipes, 
but with lappets or bands at the neck, not unlike those of Thomas Rolf, 
S.L., 1440, Gosfield, Essex, where they are probably connected with the 
Coif {see Chap. V.). In Paul Lacroix's Manners, Customs, and Dress during 
the Middle Ages, and during the Renaissance Period, London, 1874, will be 
found similar lappets from Fourteenth Century MS. p. 6, and of Fifteenth 
Century, p. 370. 


the waist, an anelace (see Chap. IV.) hanging from the girdle 
on the left side. 

In a few instances, in some of which we find a figure 
kneeling before a saint, the cassock is worn supplemented 
by tippet and hood. In the absence of information 
establishing the degrees of the persons so represented, it 
would be unsafe to call this costume academical ; at the 
same time it seems probable that some connection exists 
between the two. We find, however (see pp. 139-40), two 
instances of LL.B., wearing this dress (i) at Great St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate, 1482, and (2) at All Souls' College, 
Oxford, 1490. Other examples are as follows: — 

1405. Magister John Strete, Upper Hardres, Kent, 
kneeling at the base of a bracket on which 
stand SS. Peter and Paul. He wears a pointed 
pileus, (see p. 128).' 
1410. A Priest, Aspley Guise, Beds, kneeling on the 
dexter side of a cross (lost) ; on the sinister 
side of which stands St. John Baptist. 
c. 14 10. Sir Wilham Calwe, Ledbury, Herefordshire, 
kneeling before an effigy (lost) of St. Peter. 
1420. John Whytton, Merton College, Oxford, stand- 
ing on a bracket. 
1422. John Lewys, rector, Quainton, Bucks, kneeling. 
c. 1430. A Priest, Melton, Suffolk, standing. 
c. 1450. Half Effigy, Harrow, Middlesex (.? Robert 

1474. John Child, M.A., rector, Cheriton, Kent, 

c. 1480. A Priest, Strethall, Essex, standing. 

c. 1485. The eldest son, kneeling, Clavering, Essex, 

I The matrix of a similar figure, probably without pileus, is at Wotton- 
^ under-Edge, Gloucs, (Richard de Wotton, rector, c. 1320). A brass lost 
from Cirencester, Gloucs., probably John Avenyng and wife, c. 1500, 
showing the second son kneeling behind his father in cassock, tippet and 
hood, is illustrated, p. 209, TAe Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire, by 
Cecil T. Davis, London, 1 899. 


(part of the brass of — Songar, civilian, and 
wife, much mutilated).' 

1488. Philip Warthim, M.A., vicar, {see p. 138), 

Blockley, Worcs, kneeling. 

1489. Henry Mountford,"clericus," standing, Hornby, 

N. Riding ; one of the group of sons on the 
brass of Thomas and Agnes Mountford. 
c. 1492. George Rede, rector, Fovant, Wilts, kneeling 
before a representation of the Annunciation, 
with his beads on his left arm. Here we have 
no hood, and the tippet seems closely related 
to the scarf-like garment, about to be 

? 1512. William Geddyng vicar. Wantage, Berks, 

In a few brasses ■ of the first quarter of the sixteenth 
century we find a curious short scarf (fastened to one 
shoulder by a rosette, and passed behind the neck on to 
the other), replacing theitippet and hood, above mentioned: 
though it would be difficult to tell whether it were a modi- 
fication of either one or of both of them. It seems to be 
more closely connected with the tippet, and may possibly 
be a form of almuce, though the latter was still in use.^ 
An early stage in the development of this scarf is illustrated 
by the brass of an ecclesiastic {c. 1500, at North Creak, 

1 Another instance may have been at Crishall, in the same county,^. 1 5 30, 
see Transactions of the Essex Archaological Society, New Series, Vol. VIII., 
1903 : "Some interesting Essex Brasses," by Miller Christy and W. W. 
Porteous, pp. 15-54. 

2 In Seroux d'Agincourt's Histoire de P Art par les Monumens, 1823, 
(Peinture, Planche CXLVII.) is an engraving after Masaccio (Fifteenth 
Century), showing a church dignitary standing behind a kneeling bishop, 
and wearing a cap, a gown with two slits for the arms, and a scarf, fastened 
to the right and passed round the neck on to the left shoulder. 

In The Reliquary and Illustrated J rchceologist, Vol. VII., 1901, p. 39, 
are reproduced two paintings on Norfolk rood-screens, showing John 
Schorne, at Cawston, clad in cassock, tippet, hood and pileus ; but at 
Gateley, wearing the scarf-like tippet of which we are treating. See the 


Norfolk, supporting a model of a church on his right arm), 
who wears a cassock, from the girdle of which hang his 
purse and beads, and round the neck a scarf, the ends of 
which are fastened together in front by a button, giving a 
cape-like appearance to the garment. Another probable 
example represents William Warham, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and buried there in 1 532, the eldest 
of four sons shown standing on the brass of Robert and 
Elizabeth Warham, 1487, at Church Oakley, Hants. In 
other examples the extremities are not fastened together, 
but the scarf is usually attached by one end to the left 
shoulder, the other end lying loose on the right shoulder. 
Examples : — ^ 

1 50 1 . The second of thirteen sons on the brass of Robert 
and Elizabeth Baynard, Laycock, Wilts, with 

1 • The second son, kneeling, on brass of Sir Thomas 
Barnardiston, Great Cotes, Lines. 

15 10. WiUiam Smyght, Ashby St. Legers, Northants 
(head lost). 

1 5 1 8. Richard Bethell, Shorwell, Isle of Wight. 

c. 1520. One of four sons, kneeling, Worlingworth, 
Suffolk (parents and inscription lost). 

c. 1520. John Yslyngton, S.T.P., Cley-next-the-sea, 
Norfolk, wears besides the scarf,^ a fur-lined 
cassock, turned back towards the feet, and a 

paper John Schrne, a Mediaeval Worthy, by T. Hugh Bryant, pp. 37-44. 
Other papers dealing with this ecclesiastic are Master John Sihome, by the 
Rev. W. Hastings Y^oSke., Records of Bucks, Vol. II., 1863, p. 60, and 
Vol. III., 1869 ; Master John Schorn, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, 
M.A., F.S.A., p. 354 ; and by the same author in Journal of the Brit. Arch. 
Association, Vol. XXIII., 1867, pp. 256, 370; Vol. XXV., 1869, p. 334; 
and Vol. XLI., 1885, p. 262. 

' A doubtful example represents a tonsured son kneeling behind RafFe 
Caterall, Esq., 15 15, Whalley, Lanes., with wide-sleeved cassock. 

2 The Rev. N. F. Robinson in his Pileus Quadratus, {see p. 121, note i) 
describes the cap as the canon's pileus rotundus without tuft or apex, and 
considers the scarf to be a veil for chalice or paten, with an embroidered 
cross (p. 5). 


large cap with no point. He holds a chalice 
with wafer {see p. 102). 
Robert Godfrey, LL.B., East Rainham, Norfolk. 
William Lawnder, Northleach, Gloucs., kneeling 
in cassock and surplice before the Virgin and 
Child (lost). 
Thomas Leman, Southacre, Norfolk, in cassock 
and surplice, kneeling before the Virgin and 
Child. This effigy is remarkable as affording 
the earliest instance on a brass of a priest 
without the tonsure. 

Post-Reformation Ecclesiastics. 

The religious disturbances of the sixteenth century 
were the cause of much alteration in ecclesiastical costume. 
The mass vestments practically disappeared in Edward 
VI. 's reign,' becoming superseded by other garments, which 
excepting in those cases in which a calvinistic influence is 
seen to predominate, are pre-reformation in origin and 
character, though partaking more of the nature of clerical 
habit than of sacred vestment. The First Prayer-Book of 
Edward VI. (1549) prescribed for Holy Communion a 
white alb plain {alba pura, i.e. without apparels) with a 
vestment or cope ; assistant priests or deacons wearing albs 
with tunicles ; a cope to be worn with a plain alb or surplice, 
instead of a vestment, on Wednesdays and Fridays when 
there was no Communion ; a bishop to wear besides rochet 
a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment " and also his 
pastoral staff in his hand or else borne or holden by his 
chaplain." In other ministrations the minister was to use 

^The three last instances, given on pp. 80-1, of bishops in pontificalia, 
can hardly be said to illustrate a post-reformation use of these vestments. 
For the two first died in Queen Mary's reign, and the third, Bishop 
Pursglove, refused to take the Oath of Supremacy to Elizabeth, and was 
described as "stiff in papistry." Some valuable remarks on the post- 
reformation use of vestments may be found in Vestments : what has been said 
and done about them in the 'Northern Province since the Reformation, by James 
Rainc, M.A., London, Rivington, 1866. 


c. 1530. 



a surplice. The Second Prayer-Book of 1552 prohibited 
alb, vestment and cope to the minister, allowing only a sur- 
plice, and to the archbishop or bishop a rochet. But the 
Act of Uniformity . of the first year of Queen Elizabeth 
upheld the ornaments rubrick of the First Prayer-Book 
of Edward VL, which rubrick has never since been super- 
seded.' Unfortunately brasses throw but little light on 
the observance of this rubrick ; that of Archbishop Har- 
snett, 1 63 I, at Chigwell, Essex, shows the mitre, pastoral 
staff, and cope ; but there is abundance of independent 
evidence for the continuous use of these ornaments.^ 

The garments not already described are as follows : 

Rochet {rochetum. It. rocheito, from word of German 
origin rock), a kind of modified alb, of white linen, 
either, as originally, sleeveless {sine manicis^) like the 
colobium, or with close-fitting sleeves. We are con- 
cerned only with its use by bishops, who wear the 
chimere over it.'^ The abnormal size to which the 
sleeves, familiar to us as lawn sleeves, attained, led 
to their removal from the rochet, to be fastened to the 
properly sleeveless chimere, thereby solving the diffi- 
culty of passing the chimere over these huge sleeves 
without soiling them. 

^ See Haines, p. ccxxviii. ; also Marriott's Festiarium Christianutn, p 
223, self. 

The sculptured effigy of Bishop Creyghton, 1672, at Wells, shows cope, 
mitre, and pastoral staff. Other instances of the use of the two last on 
monuments of the last part of the seventeenth century, may be found 
cited in Hierurgia Jnglicana, New Ed., Part I., 1 902, pp. 232-3. 5^-^ also 
the Reliquary, Vol. XXII., 1881-2, p. 65, "The Mitre and Crozier of 
Bishop Wren at Pembroke College, Cambridge," by W. B. Redfarn. 
(Matthew Wren, D.D., Bishop successively of Hereford, Norwich and 
Ely, born 1585, died 1667). This mitre is reproduced in Hierurgia 
Anglicana, Part III., p. 335, 1904. Also in the Connoisseur, Vol. VII., 
p. 158 (Nov., 1903). 

3 So defined by Lyndewode, possibly owing to the fact that sleeves were 
an impediment " in baptizando pueros." 

4 When worn uncovered, the rochet is said to denote episcopal iuris- 
diction. ^ 


Chimere (It. zimarra, Fr. simarre), a sleeveless gown of 
black satin or silk/ open in front, with arm-holes, 
possibly derived from the gown with two slits 
{taherdum talare\ the alternative for the cappa clausa 
{see under Academical costume, p. 123, as also the Rev. 
T. A. Lacey's paper, p. 128, referred to above, p. 103, 
note i). If so, it has become open in front, as did the 
surplice to accommodate the wig, which form is still 
preserved at the Universities. We have already noted 
that the chimere became, in a manner, sleeved by the 
transference to it of the lawn-sleeves of the rochet. 
The Rev. N. F. Robinson {Pileus Quadratus) illustrates 
the habitus episcopalis of a fifteenth century bishop, 
from a MS. French Pontifical (fifteenth century) in 
the British Museum (Egerton MS. 1067, fol. 12), in 
which a bishop wears a rochet under a taberdum 
talare, and a pointed pileus. Were this tabard but 
slit up the front, it would bear a striking resemblance 
to the chimere. 

Scarf or Tippet.'' The theories of the origin of this 
garment are as full of interest as of difficulty. Dr. 

^ Its colour has varied ; scarlet being sometimes found. See the Rev. 
N. F. Robinson's The Black Chimere of Anglican Prelates, etc., referred to on 
p. 121, note I. At Methley, in Yorkshire, St. Jerome is depicted in glass, 
wearing over his rochet a blue taberdum talare with white lining. See " On 
the Painted Glass at Methley," by James Fowler, F.S.A., Part II., Tork- 
shire ArchaologLcal Journal, Vol. II., 1873, p. 226. 

2 "Tippet, a kind of kerchief for womens Necks (commonly of Furs). 
Also a long scarf which Doctors of Divinity wear over their gowns." — 
Bailey's Universal Etymological Dictionary, London, 1 72 1 . 1 549. — " Whit- 
" sundaie the cannons and petie canons in Paules left of their grey and 
" calabre amises and the cannons wore hoodes on their surpleses after the 
" degrees of the Universities and the petie cannons tipittes like other 
"priestes." — Wriothesley, II., 14, quoted by the Rev. Mackenzie E. C. 
Walcott, in paper on " Old St. Paul's " : Transactions of St. Paul's Eccle- 
siolo^cal Society, Vol. I., p. 177. The use of a scarf as an insigne was not 
confined to the clergy. Up to about the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the Mayor of Christchurch in Hampshire, wore a broad scarlet-silk 
scarf with a narrow border of black velvet, over his gown, to distinguish 
him from the councillors. 


Wickham Legg in his paper The Black Scarf of Modern 
Church Dignitaries and the Grey Almuce of Medieval 
Canons (referred to above, p. 86, note 2) derives it from 
the latter, as does Bloxam,' traced through the tippet 
of sables as worn in the sixteenth century, by Cardinal 
Wolsey, Archbishops Warham and Cranmer, and 
Bishops Fox, Ridley and Fisher, and later by Arch- 
bishop Parker, immediately after his consecration 
December i6th, 1559.^ The Rev. N. F. Robinson 
considers this fur tippet, as also the black tippet, re- 
ferred to on p. 104, to be a different garment alto- 
gether from the almuce (see The Black Chimere, etc.), 
and in his Bileus Quadratus produces evidence, that 
spems to make it probable that the black scarf is de- 
rived from the mediaeval hood of the clergy, worn 
turban-wise, with the liripipe hanging down in front 
Another author^ considers the black scarf a contracted 
form of the cappa nigra or canon's cope ; an origin 
that seems to us, to say the least, improbable. From 
Its being considered a kind of stole, it became super- 
seded in many places in the nineteenth century by a 

^ The scarf, which is m reality the tippet answering to the ancient 

• aumasse, and is not, as some have considered, perhaps from the pendant 
bands hanging down in front on each side from the shoulders, derived 
from the fanon or stole, a vestment nowhere prescribed as such by the 

' Anglican Church. For the ancient aumasse, or tippet of sable or fur 
' continued to be worn by bishops and other dignitaries of the Church 
' of England in the reign of Elizabeth, during which it was in a great 
^' measure superseded by a similar habit of silk, the precursor of the present 
' scarf, which continued to be called a tippet down to the last century " 
—"Monuments in St. Martin's Church, [Birmingham], Letter II ," by 
Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, Rugby, March 2nd, 1846, in The Midland 
Counties Herald, Thursday, March 5th, 1846. 

2 "circa collum vero collare quoddam ex preciosis pellibus sabellinis 

* (vulgo 'sables' vocant) consutum," worn with episcopal alb, surplice and 

3 The Rev. George Smith Tyack in his Historic Dress of the Clergf, 
London, 1897, p. 29. ^ 


black stole/ and by some Doctors of Divinity a broad 
stole has been substituted for the scarf. Its use by 
the prelates, mentioned above, as part of their ordinary 
dress in which they went * abroad,' seems to militate 
against any connection with the eucharistic stole. We 
have already noted, p. 105, a peculiar kind of scarf 
that occurs on a few brasses of the first quarter of 
the sixteenth century. The form in which we now 
find it is that of a broad silk or sarcenet scarf worn 
round the neck, with the ends hanging down in front. 
This was worn by doctors of divinity, heads of 
colleges, members of cathedral bodies, and chap- 
lains of noblemen.^ At South Pool, in Devonshire, 

^ " It was retained by dignitaries, who wore it as they still do, in quire. 
" Bishop Blomfield, of London, for some reason wished all his clergy to 
"use it, and from them it spread to other dioceses. Then it came to be 
" called a stole, and that soon led to its being made like one. Thus it 
" comes that the stole is now generally used, though sixty years ago it was 
"as obsolete as the chasuble was." — "The Ornaments of the Rubric," by 
J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A., Alcuin Club Tract I., London, Longmans, 
1897, p. 59. 

2 The Rev. F. G. Lee, in Dtrectorium Anglicamm, p. 359, states that the 
scarves of chaplains should be of the colour of their patrons' livery. On 
this Professor J. C. Robertson comments as follows : — " In the Dtrectorium 
Jnglicanum, p. 359, it is said that the scarf of chaplains 'is made of silk 
" of the colour of the nobleman's livery to whom the cleric is chaplain.' 
" As the editor of the Dtrectorium describes himself as chaplain to a noble- 
" man, this is probably not to be interpreted as satire; but I do not know on 
" what ground it is said." — How shall we Conform to the Liturgy of the Church 
of England? 3rd Ed. revised, London, Murray, 1869, p. 108 (footnote). 

The Rev. Percy Dearmer in the Parson^ 5 Handbook, London, 1899, 
interpreting Canon LVIII., 1604, says, "the tippet should be worn by all 
" the clergy ; of stuff by non-graduates (and presumably also by Bachelors) ; 
"of silk by Masters and those above that degree" — p. 86; and p. 85, 
" There is no known authority for confining the use of the tippet to 
" dignitaries and chaplains ; that custom grew up in the days when the 
" direction of the canons as to copes also fell into abeyance, and is paral- 
" leled by the general disuse of the hood among the parish clergy at the 
" same time." . . . "At Court the youngest curate is still required to 
" wear the tippet with his cassock and gown " (footnote). For an interest- 
ing reference to the wearing of " graduates hood, tippet and square cap," 
1604, at Badelsmere, see "Some East Kent Parish History," The Home 
Counties Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 213 (July, 1905). 


IS a stone effigy representing a priest, without 
tonsure, of the sixteenth century, wearing cassock 
surplice and scarf.' ' 

Three forms of gown are met with on brasses, chiefly 
in the seventeenth century : — 

1. A gown open in front with false hanging sleeves, after 

the manner of the Oxford M.A., the arm of the 
doublet coming through near the shoulder ; practically 
identical with the civilian gown of the period. 

2. A gown, open in front, with surplice-like sleeves, like 

the Oxford B.A.^ 

3. The preaching gown, the sleeves of which were narrower, 

and close at the wrists.^ 

The pileus quadratus or square cap is found on a few 

^ Plate xxu., illustrating " The Sepulchral Effigies in the Parish Churches 
of South Devon," by W. H. H. Rogers, Transactions of ih Exeter Diocesan 
Architectural^ Society, 2nd series, Vol. II., 1872. At Ruthyn, Denbigh- 
shire, Gabriel Goodman, D.D., Dean of Westminster, is shown on the 
brass of his father and mother (Edward and Ciselye Goodman, 1560), 
in close-sleeved gown, and a scarf. ' 

2 Canon LXXIV., 1604, prescribes for ordinary dress "gowns with 
" standing collars, and sleeves straight at the hands, or wide sleeves, as is 
" used in the Universities "— « togis cum collaribus erectis manicisque ad 
"manura contractioribus, vel laxioribus, prout in academiis usitatum est." 
Wilkins' Concilia, Vol. IV., p. 393. 

3 " The clerical gown is described in the Canon, as having a * standing 
" collar,' that is, not falling back in a lappet like the civilian's gown, and 
" 'straight at the hands,' that is, with a narrow wristband : modern custom 
" having, however, tucked up the full sleeve to the elbow, the narrow 
" wristband no longer appearing. This gown has been objected to as not 
" so regular a dress as the other ; as adopted from the Puritans, and as less 
" distinctive, since dissenting teachers use it. But, in reality, it is more 
"regular, as marking the clerical order, which the academical gowns do 
" not. It is not adopted from the Puritans, since the Geneva gown or cloak 
" was in fashion altogether different : and the dissenters may rather be 
" regarded as having usurped an ancient clerical dress. Old pictures, etc., 
" will fully bear out these observations. It is always worn at the Court 
"of the Sovereign. In fact, the whole tendency of our times has been, 
" especially at the Universities, to mark the academical rank, rather than 
" the order of the Church." T:he Choral Service of the United Church of 
England and Ireland, by the Rev. John Jebb, M.A., London. Parker, 1 843 

Bishop of Salisbury, 1578, 
Salisbury Cathedral. 


brasses. Its origin is dealt with by the Rev. N. F. 
Robinson, who appears to derive it, as well as the scarf, 
from the mediaeval hood. 

The following list, which, except in the case of episcopal 
brasses, makes no attempt at completeness, gives some 
characteristic examples of the garments mentioned : — 

1578. Edmund Geste, S.T.P. Cantab.,— Bishop of Salis- 
bury, in Salisbury Cathedral, wears rochet, 
lawn-sleeves, chimere and scarf, holding in his 
right hand a curious short pastoral staff with 
no head, and but for its pointed extremity, more 
like a walking-stick, possibly corresponding to 
the irarkptaaa or pastoral staff of the Greek 
Church ; in his left hand a book or Textus.' 

1 61 6, Henry Robinson, SS.T.D.— Bishop of Carlisle 
(where he is buried, and where a similar brass 
is erected to his memory). Queen's College, 
Oxford, clad in rochet, chimere, lawn-sleeves, 
and scarf, and a skull-cap, with ruffs at the neck 
and wrists, and a curious pastoral staff (sur- 
mounted by a crane, holding a stone in one claw), 
the inscriptions on which have been given above, 
page 77. In the background is a representation 
of Carlisle Cathedral, in the doorway of which 
three bishops, similarly vested, appear to be or- 
daining a kneeling figure, wearing a gown with 
false sleeves. In front of Queen's College, also 
represented, stand three figures in square caps, 
two of them in gowns with false sleeves, and 
a third in one with surplice-like sleeves. 

1 63 1. Samuel Harsnett, S.T.P. — Archbishop of York, 

^ Bishop Geste, when Archdeacon of Canterbury, was one of the two 
chaplains (the other being Nicholas BuUingham, Archdeacon of Lincoln), 
who officiated as Epistoler and Gospeller, vested in cappa sericce, at the 
consecration of Archbishop Parker, 1559. 


Chigwell, Essex/ wears a slightly ornamented 
rochet, a chimere, and a fine cope embroidered 
throughout, mitre and pastoral staff. This is 
the only brass of a post-reformation bishop in a 
cope. At Winchester College is the headless 
palimpsest brass of John White, Warden, died 
1559, shown wearing cassock with undergarment, 
surplice, and rich cope embroidered throughout 
with pomegranates, marguerites, and Tudor roses 
and with IHS on the morse, but without almuce. 
This brass was probably engraved before he was 
consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in 1554, from 
which see he was translated to Winchester in 
1556, but was deprived on refusing to take the 
oath of Supremacy to Elizabeth. 

The mitre, without effigy, is used in three instances as 
a memorial for a bishop. These are : — 

1626. Arthur Lake, D.D., Bishop of Bath and Wells, 

in Wells Cathedral. 
1650. John Prideaux,^ D.D., Bishop of Worcester, at 

Bredon, Worcs. 
1 66 1. Henry Feme, S.T.D., Bishop of Chester, in 

Westminster Abbey. 

^ Illustrated in Waller. Also in A Catalogue of the Harsnett Library at 
Colchester, by Gordon Goodwin, 1888, which latter is reproduced in 
Hierurgia JngUcana, Vol. III., 1904, p. 229. See also the illustrated 
edition of Green's Short History of the English People, Macmillan, Vol. III., 
1903, p. 1056. 

2 The celebrated Rector of Exeter, and Regius Professor of Divinity 
at Oxford. He married Anna, daughter of William Goodwin, Dean of 
Christ Church. She died 1627, and a brass inscription at St. Michael's 
church, Oxford, commemorates her and two children. At Harford, near 
Ivybridge, Devon, is a painting on copper representing John Prideaux and 
wife Agnes, with seven sons and three daughters, erected by their fourth 
son in 1639, who is depicted kneeling, wearing a black cassock and over 
it a scarlet sleeveless doctor's gown or academical cope (closed in front), 
with black armholes, and small black hood, a black skull-cap on his head, 
and a square cap lying beside him. 


In Holy Trinity Church, Guildford, is the mural brass 
of Maurice and Alice Abbot, 1606. Of the six sons, 
shown kneeling, the third is Robert Abbot, D.D., Bishop 
of Salisbury, d. 1 617/18, and buried at Salisbury; the 
fourth is George Abbot, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury, 
d. 1633, who lies buried in this church. Each wears a 
gown with close sleeves, probably the cassock and a hood.^ 

At St. John's College, Oxford, is preserved a small 
plate with arms and inscription. "In hac cistula con- 
duntur exuviae Gullielmi Laud." Beheaded 1644/5.'' ^ 
brass inscription commemorating Samuel Rutter, Bishop 
of Sodor and Man, 1662, is in St. Germain's Cathedral, 
Peel, Isle of Man.3 

In the following examples, where not otherwise men- 
tioned, the gown with false hanging sleeves is worn,'^ the 
ruff is usual, and moustache and beard become common: — 

1560. Leonard Hurst, Denham, Bucks, in cassock and 

scarf. (Lost, see Trans. Monumental Brass Society^ 
Vol. v., p. 75.) 

1 56 1. William Bill, S.T.D., Dean, Provost of Eton, 

Master of Trinity, Westminster Abbey, in cassock 
and hood lying loosely on the shoulders. 

' See " Remarks on a brass plate formerly in the Church of the H0I7 
Trinity at Guildford, and now remaining in the Hospital there," by 
Thomas William King, F.S.A., York Herald. — Surrey Archaological 
Collections, Vol. III., 1865, p. 254, 

2 Buried in All Hallows, Barking, London, but his body removed to St. 
John's College, Oxford, July 1663 ; see Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesia Anglicance, 
edited by T. DufFus Hardy, Vol. I., p. 27, 1854. 

3 It was found in 1844, in a well in Peel Castle (see Arch: Cambrensis, 
series III., Vol. XL, 1865, p. 430) and in 1875 was restored to its slab. 
See "Monumental Brass to Bishop Rutter, Peel, Isle of Man," by A. Knox, 
Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. II., p. 100. At Cawood, 
Yorkshire, is a brass inscription to George Mountain, Archbishop of York, 
1628. At Croydon, Surrey, the brass coffin-plate of William Wake, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 1737, was placed in the pavement after the 
iire in 1867. 

4 At Christ Church, Oxford, are three brasses of Masters of Arts, wear- 
ing this gown. — 1584, Thomas Morrey ; 1 587, Stephen Lence ; 1613, 
Thomas Thornton. Other examples are known. 


1566. John Fenton, Coleshill, Warwickshire, in preaching 

gown, with tight wristbands and full sleeves, 
holding in left hand a Bible inscribed Werbu dei.* 
'Bachelor of Law.* 

1567. William Dye, parson of Tattisfylde, Westerham, 

Kent, in cassock, surplice and narrow scarf' 
1582. Nicholas Asheton, " sacre theologias Bacchalaureus 
Cantabr." Rector, Whichford, Warwickshire, 
chaplain to the Earl of Derby, wearing over 
doublet a gown open in front with wide sleeves 
and scarf. 

1587. Richard Woddomes, (with wife and seven children) 
Ufton, Warwickshire, "Parson and pattron and 
vossioner," (occupying his own advowson). 

1589. John Garbrand, * Doctor in Divinity,' Crawley, 
Bucks, kneeling in close-sleeved gown, probably 
the cassock, and hood. 

1595. Thomas Reve, D.D., Monewden, Suffolk, kneeling 

in close-sleeved gown like the last, and hood ; 
a senior fellow of Gonville and Caius College, 

1596. Griffin Lloyd, Rector, Chevening, Kent. Doublet. 
1 602. William Lucas, ' Maister of Arte,' Clothall, Herts. 
1608. Erasmus Williams, Tingewick, Bucks, gown 

edged with fur ; doublet. 
1608. John Burton, Burgh, Norfolk. 
1610. Peter Winder, Whitchurch,Oxon. "Hujus ecclesi« 

Curatus." Kneeling. 
1 6 10. Isaia Bures, Northolt, Middlesex, M.A., kneeling. 
1 6 1 4. Humfrey Tyndall, D.D., Dean, Master of Queens' 

College, Cambridge. Ely Cathedral. Wearing 

over doublet the gown with false sleeves, scarf 

and skull-cap.^ 

^Illustrated in Hierurgia Anglicanay Vol. III., 1904, p. 143. 

^ A somewhat similar brass was sold at Newark, 1904, and is now in 
private possession. 

Westerham, Kent. 




1 6 14. John Torksay, B.D., Barwell, Leics., shown in a 

pulpit, ' wearing preaching gown. 

1 615. John Wythines, D.D., Battle, Sussex, scarf and 

square cap. 

1 61 6. Henry Airay, D.D., Provost, Queen's College, 

Oxford, (an allegorical plate similar to that of 
Bishop Robinson) shown kneeling on an altar- 
tomb; wearing scarf, hood and skull-cap ; doublet. 
1 619. Henry Mason, M.A., Camb. Eyke, Suffolk. 

1627. Thomas Stones, Acle, Norfolk, (half-eff.). Doublet; 

1627. William Procter, Rector, Upper Boddington, 

Northants. Doublet ; skull-cap. 
1632. Edward Naylor, (and family) Bigby, Lines., "a 

faithfuU and painefuU Minister of Gods word." 
1 648. Rice Jemlae, Husband's Bosworth, Leics. ; cassock, 

gown with false sleeves, and skull-cap. 

^At Hackney, Middlesex, is another example. The half-effigy of 
Hugh Johnson, 1618, wearing the false-sleeved gown. 


THOMAS HYLLE, S.T.P., 1468, 
New College, Oxford. 



The subject of mediaeval academical costume, as shown 
on brasses, presents many difficulties, owing, in some 
measure, to the absence of colour and to the inability of 
the brass engraver to depict the quality of the silk or fur 
linings indicated. Professor E. C. Clark, in his learned 
essay contributed to the Archteologkal Journal for 1893 
(Vol. L.) has examined the available evidence.^ The use 
of the same term to indicate different articles of costume 
is, in itself, productive of much confusion ; but, in con- 
nection with monumental brasses, we can but classify 
similar examples together, deducing therefrom the dress 
appropriate to different degrees, holding that, in all likeli- 
hood, the deceased, when represented in academicals, is 
shown in the most dignified costume agreeable to his 

? The following, also, throw light on the subject : — 

The same author's " College Caps and Doctors' Hats," Archceological 
Jout-nal, Vol. LXL, 1904, p. 33. 

The University of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to the Royal Injunc- 
tions of 1535, hy James Bass Mullinger, M.A., St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Cambridge, at the University Press, 1873 : and the same 
author's The University of Cambridge from the Royal Injunctions 0/" 1 5 3 5 to 
the Accession of Charles the First. 1 884. The Universities of Europe in the 
Middle Ages, by the Rev. Hastings Rashdall, M.A., Oxford, at the 
Clarendon Press, 1895. Vol. II., Part II., pp. 636-644. 

"The Ecclesiastical Habit in England," by the Rev. T. A. Lacey, M.A., 
p. 126, Vol. IV., Transactions of the St. PauFs Ecclesiological Society, 1900, 
in which volume (p. 313) may be found :— "The Hood as an Ornament 
of the Minister at the Time of His Ministrations in Quire and elsewhere," 
by E. G. Cuthbert F. Atchley, and (p. 181) "The Black Chimere of 
Anglican Prelates : A Plea for its Retention and Proper Use," by the 
Rev. N. F. Robinson. " The Pileus Quadratus : An enquiry into the 
Relation of the Priest's Square Cap to the Common Academical Catercap 
and to the Judicial Corner-Cap," by the same author, p. i. Vol. V 
Transactions the same Society, Part I., 1 90 1 . The " Habitus Academic! 
singulis gradibus proprii" of the Seventeenth Century were engraved by 
David Loggan in his Oxonia illustrata, 1675, Plate X., and in Cantabrigia 
tllustrata, 1688, Plate VII. 


degree. That this costume, as indeed universities gener- 
ally, must be of ecclesiastical origin, there can be but 
little doubt.' Moreover, the conferring of insignia proper, 
as distinguished from costume, on the Doctor (the chair, 
the hat, the book, ring and kiss of peace) would indicate 
a religious significance. Some alteration of dress was, in 
all probability, made to distinguish the Regent or teaching 
Master or Doctor from the Non-Regent ; but it is uncertain 
whether brasses throw light on the point. The terms 
Professor, Doctor, and Master, seem to have been used, 
interchangeably, of the highest degree; but the term 
Professor, confined to the higher faculties, seems to imply 
teaching ; Doctor and Master to have been applicable to 
Regent and Non-Regent, the latter term becoming specially 
connected with the Faculty of Arts. The differences in 
costume are as much a matter of quality of material as of 
varying shape ; the Bachelor being unable to use fur of so 
costly a kind as that worn by his academical superiors, and 
the dress appearing of a more or less sober and dignified 
style as the degree, which it represented, was of a more or 
less ecclesiastical nature. The gown {toga or roba talaris^ 
possibly in accordance with the lesser or greater degree) 
was in use in the fourteenth century. Our examples are 
mainly of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The 
frequent representation of ecclesiastics of the higher 
degrees in the ordinary processional vestments, almuce 
and cope, leave us, comparatively speaking, but few 
examples in academicals proper, and these, as is natural, 
are to be found mostly at Oxford and Cambridge. 

Broadly speaking, the articles of dress may be classed 
as follows, in the order in which they were assumed : — 

I. The Under or Body Garment, appearing at the 
wrists, worn beneath the cassock. 

* Anthony Wood considers it to be derived from the tunica talaris and 
cucullus of the Benedictine habit. 


2. The Cassock, probably fur-lined, and usually with fur 


3. The Gown, which is represented by at least four 

distinct varieties : — 

a. A loose, full, sleeveless garment reaching to the 

feet, which must have been passed over the 
head, with one slit in front varying in size, 
through which both arms pass. Haines tenta- 
tively calls this a rochet. Professor Clark con- 
siders it to be the cappa clausa, or closed cope 
(prescribed by Stephen Langton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in 1222 as a decent garb for arch- 
deacons, deans and prebendaries),' under which 
name we shall refer to it. 

b. A gown differing from the last in having two slits, 

usually showing a fur lining, through which the 
arms pass, but closed in front. This is Haines' 
" rochet with two slits." ^ Professor Clark con- 
siders it to be the sleeveless tabard. Its length 
may identify it with the taberdum talare, a view 
taken by the Rev. N. F. Robinson.^ 

^Council of Oxford, 1222, XXVIII. "De vita ethonestate clericorum. 
" Ut clericalis ordinis honor debitus observetur, concilii prssentis auctori- 
"tate decrevimus, ut tarn archidiaconi quam decani, et omnes alii in 
" personatibus et dignitatibus constituti, item omnes decani rurales, et 
" presbyteri decenter incedant in habitu clericali, et cappis clausis utantur." 
Wilkins' Concilia, Vol. I., 1737, p. 589. 

* The Rev. T. A. Lacey calls it an alternative form of the cappa clausa 
and identifies it with the chimere {Transactions of St. Paul's Ecclesiological 
Society, Vol. IV., 1900, p. 128). 

3 Transactions of St. PauPs Ecclesiological Society, Vol, IV., 1900, p. 211. 
An example of this gown {taberdum talare), worked in gold thread (as is 
the cassock), and showing a blue lining, with which are worn a tippet of 
the same material edged with white, a red hood and a red pileus (no 
point visible), is afforded by the figure of a Doctor on the orphrey of a 
cope of the fifteenth century, belonging to the Pro-Cathedral of the 
Apostles Clifton. This was shown at the Exhibition of English 
Embroidery Executed Prior to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century, 
held by the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1905. 



c. A shorter gown than the cassock, not reaching to 

the ground, and, as Haines describes it, " with 
loose sleeves, lined with fur, reaching to the 
wrists and falling to a point behind." Follow- 
ing Professor Clark we shall call it the sleeved 

d. Haines' " shorter gown sleeveless with slits at the 

sides edged with fur, for the passage of the 
arms,"'' considered by him, though by no means 
conclusively proved, to represent M.A. costume 
in the latter half ot the fifteenth century. Prob- 
ably a form of sleeveless tabard. The Rev. 
N. F. Robinson considers it the taherdum longum 
or ad medias tibias^ as worn by the Warden in a 
drawing in the Chandler MS. at New College, 
representing that society, c. 1464. 

4. The Tippet,'* a cape made of fur or of cloth edged or 

lined with fur, in accordance with degree, derived 
probably from the almuce, as being a dress of dignity 
and not worn inside the plain cappa or gown as the 
almuce was worn with the ecclesiastical cope, but 
outside ; one reason for this being that it would be 
completely concealed if worn beneath such a garment 
as the cappa clausa. 

5. The Hood {caputium), originally worn by all members, 

graduate and undergraduate ; but after it had ceased 
to be worn by the latter, it became an indication 

^ The Rev. N, F. Robinson calls it *capa manicaia* i.e. sleeved cope, 
ibid. The Rev. H. W. Macklin considers it a surplice. See p. 44, 
Monumental Brasses, by the Rev. Herbert W. Macklin, London, 1898. 

2 A similar gown of red worn over a black cassock, and under a white 
fur tippet is seen in the figure of an ecclesiastic, 1 595, Plate 100, Vol. III. 
Hefner-Alteneck's Trachten des chrisdichen mittelalters. 

3 Transactions of St. PauPs EcclesiologicalSociety,Yo\.lV., 1900, pp. 210-1. 

4 The Tippet and Hood, doubtless, originally formed one garment. 
See account of Chaperon in Faurteenth Century Civilian Costume, Chapter 


of degree. The undergraduate's hood was probably 
of cloth unlined, whereas the graduate's was penulatum 
(furred) or otherwise lined; the Bachelor being 
confined to the use of less costly fur. The hood 
was early supplanted by a cap as a head-covering ; but 
the peak, or tip of the hood, fell down behind, and 
became more or less exaggerated. This liripipium 
was worn longer by undergraduates, probably for the 
sake of distinction. The position in profile of the 
effigies of Dr. Billingford, 1442, St. Benet's, Cam- 
bridge, and of William Blakwey, 1521, Little 
Wilbraham, Cambs., well shows the manner of wear- 
ing and the shape of the hood ; as a rule only the part 
worn round the neck appears. Li some cases in 
which the cappa clausa figures, but no hood, the 
latter possibly may be worn beneath the tippet, and 
so hidden. 

6. PiLEus,' Of this, broadly speaking, we find two kinds, 
though it must be remembered that there is a con- 
siderable diversity of shape shown in brasses. 

a. A plain skull-cap without any point, as, apparently, 
worn by Dr. Billingford and Dr. Hautryve. 

h. A round, brimless cap, with a point in the centre, 
called by Prof. Clark '-'-pointed pileuSj' which 
appears to have been a prerogative of the 
Doctorate, judging from its representation on 

^ See The Rev. N. F. Robinson's Pikus Quadratus for an account of 
the development of this cap. The Laudian Oxford Statutes, 1636, 
ordained : i , The common pileus quadratus or catercap for graduates, 
foundation scholars and choristers : 2, the pileus rotundus for commoners 
and those not on the foundation : 3, the pileus quadratus for Doctors in 
Theology : and 4, the pileus rotundus, probably the "John Knox laical 
cap" for Doctors of Civil Law^, Medicine, Music, etc., instead of the 
quadratus (p. 14). See also "College Caps and Doctors' Hats," by Pro- 
fessor E. C. Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., Archaolo^cal Journal, Vol. LXI., 
P- 33, 1904- 


brasses." Sometimes we find it worn as an 
indication of degree with the costume of a church 
dignitary, as at St. Cross, Richard Hayward, 
1493, Decretorum Doctor, who wears the pro- 
cessional vestments without the cope; or at 
Hereford, Dean Frowsetoure, S.T.P. 1529, who 
wears a splendid cope ; ^ but it is not shown on 
the brass of Henry Sever, S.T.P. 1471, Warden, 
Merton College, Oxford. 

In giving examples we follow Professor Clark's arrange- 
ment in accordance with an ordinance of Archbishop 
Chichele, 141 7, thinking it necessary merely to mention 

^ An incised slab was found at St. Mary's Abbey, York, representing 
William Seford or Sever (Abbot, 1485, Bishop of Durham, 1502, 1505) 
clad in pontificals, with mitre, and holding crosier in right hand, and 
book in left ; a round doctor's cap being incised on each side of the 
head (see Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 2nd Series, Vol. XIX., 
p. 264 (March 26th, 1903). Wood describes the brass, now lost, at New 
College of Thomas Gascoigne, 1457, as depicting a doctor's cap held over 
the head of the effigy by two hands issuing from clouds. See "A Cata- 
logue of the Brasses in New College, both Past and Present," by H. C. 
Dobr6e, Journal of OXJ.B.R.S., Vol. I., No. 2, June, 1897. 

2 The Rev. N. F. Robinson calls Dean Frowsetoure's cap, the Canon's 
Pileus Rotundus. That Canons wore a Pileus may be proved by some 
Continental Brasses, figured by Creeny : e.g., 1464 Glorius Count of 
Lewenstein, at Bamberg; 1505, John de Heringen, canon, "in decretis 
licenciatus," at Erfurt ; 1 505, Eberard de Rabenstain, canon, at Bamberg ; 
1560, Eobanus Zeigeler, canon, at Erfurt; but he was Doctor Juris. 
Deans seem to have worn a more elaborate variety; e.g., 1460, Eghardus 
de Hanensee at Hildesheim ; or among the weepers on the brass of 
Bishop Peter, 1456, at Breslau. A Manuscript in the Cotton Library 
(British Museum) may possibly afford an early instance of an ecclesiastic 
wearing a pointed pileus. See illustrations on pages 132 and 134, of an 
article on "Pictures of English Dress in the Thirteenth Century," in The 
Ancestor, No. V., April, 1903 — but its significance at so early a period is 
doubtful. In the Bodleian Library is an illuminated parchment roll 
(Ashmole Rolls, No. 45) showing the procession of Abbots, Bishops and 
Temporal Peers to the Parliament of February 4th, 3 Henry VIII., from 
which are reproduced the Abbots of Reading, St. Mary of York, Ramsey, 
and Peterborough, at p. 66 of Reading Abbey, by Jamieson B. Hurry, 
M.A., M.D. London: Elliot Stock, MCMI. Each abbot wears a 
tippet and hood and pointed pileus. 

King's College, Cambridge. 

King's College, Cambridge. 



that as at Paris the order of precedence of the Faculties 
was : Theology, Canon and Civil Law, Medicine and 
Arts, and that the Licentiati were those Bachelors, who 
held the Chancellor's licence, but had not yet completed 
the formalities necessary for the full degree.^ 

Sacr^ Theologi^ Professor (Doctor Sacra Theologia ; 
Magister in Theologid)^ usually clad in girded cassock, be- 
neath which is an under garment, cappa clausa^ fur tippet, 
and pointed pileus.^ If worn, the hood does not appear. 
Where not otherwise mentioned, the following six examples 
conform to this style : — 

1442, Richard Billingford, D.D., Master of Corpus. 

St. Benet's Church, Cambridge : a kneeling 

^ In the lists following will be found included some examples, in other 
than academical costume, but of which the degrees are known. 

- At Greatham Hospital Chapel, Durham, is an inscription on a mar- 
ginal fillet, in Lombardic characters, to Magister William de Middiltoun, 
"sacre Pagine Doctor," Warden of the Hospital, c. 1 3 50. The inscription 
to William Hawkesworth, 1349, Provost of Oriel, in St. Mary's, Oxford, 
describes him as "sacre pagine quondB. ffessor." That to Geraldus Borell,' 
Archdeacon of Chichester, 1508, at Cuckfield, Sussex, as ''sacre Theologie 
P'fessor" The fine Lombardic uncial inscription on the margin of Prior 
Borard's slab, 1398, at Christchurch, Hants., reads "Tumba Johannis 
Borard Maestri Theolo^e Prioris Decimi Noni Huius Ecclesie." The 
matrix of the demi-effigy does not show the indent of a pileus. 

3 A possible example of this costume is to be seen in a French Fifteenth 
Century Boccaccio in the British Museum (Rothschild MS , XII ) A 
red cassock with black girdle is surmounted by a blue cappa clause,' ox tt 
which a white fur tippet is worn, turned up over the shoulders so as to 
show the blue cloth lining, with a white hood. A high grey cap is on 
the head.— The illustration here referred to, has been reproduced in the 
M^^^z^^^^^ VII., No. 27, June, 1905 : "The Rothschild 
MS. in the British Museum of Les Cas des Maltheureux Nobles hommes 
et femmes, by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. A similar manner 
of wearing the tippet (but without hood), is shown on a brass (formerly in 
the possession of Mr. Wilson, Tuxford Hall, Notts., sold at Newark 
1904), representing an ecclesiastic clad in fur-lined cassock, fur tippet 
and possibly a pileus. Two appendages, which resemble short fur-edged 
liripipes belonging to the tippet, rather than pockets, are engraved on 
the cassock below the forearms. 5 vcu un 



figure, differing from the above description by 
having a fur-lined hood, but no tippet, and 
on the head a round skull-cap with no point. 
1468. Thomas Hylle, P.S.T., New College, Oxford: 
holding a Tau cross on which the five wounds 
are represented. 

c, 1480. A Doctor, St. Mary the Less, Cambridge: not 
showing garment under cassock, nor a point 
to the cap. The buckled belt of the cassock 
is well shown. 
1496. William Towne, Doctor in Theologia, King's 
College, Cambridge. 

c. 1500. A Doctor, Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 
London : attributed to John Brieux, Rector of 
St. Martin Outwich, 1459, though probably 
of later date. 

1507. John Argentein, D.D. (1504), King's College, 
Cambridge : Physician to Arthur, Prince of 
Wales ; shows strap-girdle of cassock. 

Besides the above, the following Doctors of Divinity 
should be noticed : — 

1 36 1. John Hotham, Provost of Queen's College, 
Oxford, Rector, Chinnor, Oxon., Magister in 
Theologia (half effigy) : apparently wearing a 
cassock, the gown with two slits (probably 
taherdum talare\ tippet, and pointed pileus. 

1405. Magister John Strete, Upper Hardres, Kent: 
wearing undergarment buttoned over the 
hands, cassock, tippet, hood, and pointed pileus. 
It is just possible that the latter indicates a 
Doctor's degree, but it may have been an 
insigne of prebendarial rank in this case. 

1 47 1. Henry Sever, S.T.P., Warden, Merton College, 
Oxford : in processional vestments ; no cap. 

1489. Thomas Barker, S.T.P., Vice-Provost, Eton Col- 
lege Chapel : in processional vestments without 
cope ; a round cap. 

Decretorum Doctor, 1441, 
New College, Oxford. 




1 50 1. William Heyward, S.T.D., Vicar, St. Helens, 
Abingdon, Berks, (now on the wall) : in 
Haines' M.A. I. costume (see below), cassock, 
sleeved tabard, tippet and hood, with the 
addition of a pileus. 

1529. Edmund Frowsetoure, S.T.P., Dean, Hereford 
Cathedral : in processional vestments (the cope 
embroidered throughout), and pointed pileus. 

1558. Robert Brassie, S.T.P., Provost, King's College, 
Cambridge : in processional vestments without 
cope, with pointed pileus. 

The brass of John Yslyngtone, S.T.P., Cley-next-the- 
Sea, Norfolk, c. 1520 : is dealt with on p. 106. 

The brass at Christ's College, Cambridge, c. 1 540, attri- 
buted to Edward Hawford, D.D., shows cassock, sleeved 
tabard, tippet and hood ; no pileus. 

Haines, p. cxxxii., gives an illustration of a brass 
formerly at Hitchin, Herts., to John Sperehawke, D.D., 
1474, wearing a cassock, a very loose chasuble-like 
garment without ornament,' a tippet and pointed pileus. 
In Creeny's Continental Brasses is an illustration of the 
brass of Magister Jacobus Schelewaerts, " parisiensis sacre 
theologie doctoris," 1483, in Bruges Cathedral. He was 
Professor in Theology at the University of Louvain, 
1472-76, and is shown seated, giving a lecture to a class 
of seven sitting at desks before him. He appears to be 
wearing a cap, with his hood drawn over his head, a 
cassock with fur cuffs, and a loose gown with two slits 
{taberdum talare) through which his arms pass. 

Decretorum or Juris Canonici Doctor. A similar 
costume to that given for S.T.P. — perhaps the tippet is 

^ Possibly this curious vestment was an instance of the chasuble-shaped 
surplice. For a description of the latter, see "On Two Unusual Forms 
o Vestments," by J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A. Transactions oj 

bt. Paul s Eccksiological Society, Vol. IV., 1900, p. 141. 



not always fur throughout, but of cloth, with a border of 
fur — is worn by : — 

1 44 1 . William Hautry ve, Decretor' doctor, New College, 
Oxford : undergarment, cassock, cappa clausa^ 
fur tippet, pileus without point.' The tippet 
is turned up slightly over the shoulders, show- 
ing the cloth lining. [See footnote above, 
p. 127.) 

1476. Richard Rudhale, Decretor' doctor, Archdeacon 
of Hereford, Hereford Cathedral: in pro- 
cessional vestments (the cope embroidered 
throughout), and a round pileus with point. 

1493. Richard Hayward, Decretorum doctor, Master of 
the Hospital, St. Cross, Winchester : wearing 
a pointed pileus with processional vestments 
minus the cope. 

15 1 7. Walter Hewke, D.Can.L., Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge : wearing a fine cope with " sainted " 
orphreys, with a curious, flat, round cap ; 
restored in 1895 from a similar brass at 
Tattershall, Lincolnshire, representing a Pro- 
vost of Tattershall College, c. 15 10. 

1 52 1. Dr. Christopher Urswick, Rector, Hackney, 
Middlesex : in processional vestments, with 
pointed pileus.^ 

1545. Thomas Capp, Juris ecc. doctor, St. Stephen's, 
Norwich : wearing processional vestments, but 
no pileus ; no tonsure. 

^ The engraving in Waller gives the pointed pileus ; the reproduction in 
the Journal of Oxford University Brass Rubbing Society, Vol. I. No. 2, June, 
1897, shows no point. 

2 See " The Monumental Brasses of Hackney, Middlesex," by the Rev. 
J. F. Williams, M.A,, Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. V., 
pp. 62-4. 


Juris Civilis Professor, 1427, 
New College, Oxford. 



Legum, or Juris Civilis Doctor. 

14 1 2. Eudo de la Zouch, St. John's College, Cambridge : ^ 
with the exception of the pointed pileus, this 
effigy shows the costume, cassock, sleeved 
tabard, tippet and hood, to be associated below 
with the degree of M.A. 

1427. John Sowthe, Juris Civilis Professor, New Col- 
lege, Oxford : wearing undergarment, cassock, 
the gown with two slits {taherdum talare)^ a 
tippet with fur edge, a hood and pointed 
pileus, and a very curious development con- 
sisting of two pendants or liripipes, whether 
attached to the tippet or to the gown (more 
probably the latter) it would be difficult to 

1 5 1 7. William Lichefeld, LL.D., Willesden, Middlesex, 
Canon of St. Paul's : in processional vest- 
ments, with cap similar to that worn by Dr. 

1529. Bryan Roos, Childrey, Berks, "doctor of Lawe 
sumtime p'son of this church": wearing 
cassock, with wide sleeves (Haines' "ordinary 
civilian's gown," p. Ixxxii.), tippet, hood, and 
pileus with small point. 

1589. Edward Leeds, Legum doctor, Master of Clare 
Hall, Cambridge ; Croxton, Cambs. : wearing 
a long gown open in front, where it appears to 
be edged with fur, with false sleeves, of the 
type met with in civilian costume, beneath 

slab^ltiS "HT^ '^''1^' ^^Pl^^-d brass in its 

slab which should be properly protected from the weather At present 



which the sleeves of the doublet are shown. 
There is no cap.^ 
1 60 1. Hugh Lloyd, Juris Civilis Doctor, Canon of St. 

Paul's, New College, Oxford : shown kneel- 
ing in a long open gown with false sleeves. 

A similar costume to that of John Sowthe, though 
without cap, and with differently shaped liripipes, may be 
seen on the brass of William Goche, rector, 1499, Barn- 
ingham, Suffolk, and on a brass, c. 1530, at Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, the liripipes worn with a taherdum ad medias 
tihias. It is uncertain what degree it indicates ; possibly 
that of B.D., as there is no doctor's cap. The half effigy 
of John Whelpdall, "legum doctor," 1526, Greystoke, 
Cumberland, shows him in almuce, and without a pileus, 
as does that of Robert Honywode, LL.D., kneeling, 
Archdeacon of Taunton and Canon of Windsor, in St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor. 

Utriusque Juris Doctor. 

c. 1 5 10. Edward Sheffeld, Luton, Beds., Canon of 
Lichfield : wearing processional vestments, 
without the cope, but with pointed pileus. 
1 51 5 (died 1524). Robert Langton, Queen's College, 
Oxford : in processional vestments, with 
pointed pileus. 

At Linwood, Lines., beneath the effigies of John 
Lyndewode and Alice his wife, 1419, are the effigies of 
four sons and three daughters. The figure in the centre 
(fourth son) appears to be wearing a cassock and the gown 
with two slits {taherdum talari)^ and possibly tippet and 
hood. The state of the brass makes it impossible to state 
positively what kind of head-dress, if any, is worn. This 

I The sculptured effigy of David Lewis, D.C.L., Judge of the High 
Court of Admiralty, d. 1584, in Abergavenny Church, shows false- 
sleeved gown and round cap. See the photograph in Some Account of the 
Ancient Monuments in the Priory Church, Abergavenny, by Octavius Morgan, 
Newport, 1872. 



probably represents William Lindewode, Utriusque Juris 
Doctor^ author of the " Provinciale," who became Bishop of 
St. David's in 1442, and died in 1446. The brass at OfFord 
Darcy, Hunts., of William Taylard, c. 1530, who appears 
to have held this degree, shows him, kneeling, in a wide- 
sleeved gown (possibly a cassock), tippet, hood, and 

Medicine Doctor. 

1503. Master John Martok, Banwell, Somerset, a very 
doubtful example : wearing full processional 
vestments, but no pileus. 

1507. John Argentein, King's College, Cambridge, 
Physician to Arthur, Prince of Wales : wear- 
ing the D.D. costume, already mentioned, 
see p. 128. 

To these may be added the following Post-Reformation 
Doctors of Medicine, each wearing the false-sleeved 
gown : — 

1592. Walter Bailey, M.A. 1556, B.Med. 1551, Pre- 
bendary of Wells 1 56 1, Professor of Physic 
in the University, and Physician to Queen 
Elizabeth, New College, Oxford.' 

1599. Richard RadclifF, « in medicina doctor," St. Peter- 
in-the-East, Oxford. 

1613. Duncan Liddel, "Doctor medicus," Old or West 
Church, Aberdeen : half effigy seated at table 
and wearing a cap. 

1 619. Anthony Aylworth, "Medicinae Doctor et Pro- 
fessor Regius sub Elizab. Reg," New College, 
Oxford : a hood and cap. 

' M ^ Catalogue of the Brasses in New College, both past and 

Pf^'^"!' 'fif^e Oxford Unwenitf 

Brass Rubbing Society, Vol. I., No. 2, June, 1 897. 


LiCENTiATi. The two following, "in decretis Licen- 
tiati," at Girton, Cambs., are shown in processional vest- 
ments : — 

1492. Magister William Malster, rector, Canon of York. 

1497. Magister William Stevyn, rector, Canon of Lin- 


At Great Ringstead, Norfolk, is the brass of Richard 
Kegell, "arciu et decretor' inceptor," rector, 1482: in 
mass vestments, without stole or maniple. 

Sacr^ Theologi^ Baccalaureus. The costume 
proper to this degree seems to have been the undergar- 
ment, cassock, sleeveless gown with two slits {taherdum 
talare), tippet edged with fur, and hood, but no pileus. 
Of this we have three examples : — 

1 3 ^7- John Bloxham, Merton College, Oxford (prob- 
ably engraved 1420). 

c. 1450. John Darley, Herne, Kent. The feet rest on a 
lion ; an unusual feature. 

c. 1535. Unknown; Queens' College, Cambridge ; much 

In other costume there are several brasses of Bachelors 
of Divinity ; such as the following : — 

1420. William Fryth, S.T.B., New College, Oxford, 
whose effigy is concealed by the stalls. 

1456. William Moor, " Sacre Scripture bacularius arte 
pbatus," Tattershall, Lines., 2nd Provost of 
Tattershall College, Canon of York : in mass 
vestments, head bare. 

1480. William Tibarde,.? S.T.B., First President, Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, in processional vest- 
ments. Haines assigns this brass to a later 
date and person, c. 1530. 

1498. Jacob Hert, "in Theologia Baccalaureus" (in- 

scription lost), Hitchin, Herts., in proces- 
sional vestments. 


c. 1420, 
Merton College, Oxfokd. 




1505. Thomas Tyard, S.T.B., Vicar, Bawburgh, Nor- 
folk : in shroud. 

15 17. John Spence, B.D., Ewelme, Oxon. : in cassock, 
sleeved tabard, tippet and hood. 

1 519. Thomas Swayn, S.T.B., Wooburn, Bucks.: in 
processional vestments. 

1 52 1. John Rede, S.T.B., Warden, New College, Ox- 
ford : in processional vestments. 

1524. WilHam Porter, S.T.B., formerly Warden of New 
College, Canon, Hereford Cathedral : in mass 
vestments, holding chalice with wafer stamped 
with a cross-crosslet. 

1530. Hugo Humfray, " magistri arcum nec non in 
sacra sea theologie bachelerii," Barcheston, 
Warwickshire : apparently in cassock, sleeve- 
less tabard/ tippet and hood. 

1558. Arthur Cole, S.T.B., President, Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford : wearing the processional vest- 
ments, with the Mantle of the Garter instead 
of a cope. 

Artium Magister. — Much doubt exists as to the right 
costume for this degree. Haines cites an engraving in 
Montfaucon, Vol. III., plate xvii., p. 68, which represents 
"Jean Perdrier Pr^te, maitre es Arts", 1376, wearing a 
cassock, over which is a long gown with sleeves, and 
hood lined with fur ; the sleeves falling to a point behind. 
Haines considers that the M.A. and B.A. dresses were 
worn interchangeably; that in the fifteenth century 
Bachelors of Arts and Scholars of Divinity wore a cassock, 
over which was a shorter gown, with loose sleeves lined 
with fur, reaching to the wrists, and falling to a point 
behind {sleeved tabard)^ a cape or tippet edged witih fur 
and a hood ; but that after the middle of the fifteenth 
century Masters of Arts wore a cassock, a shorter gown, 

I If intended for the taberdum ad medias tibias, it is wrongly engraved ; 
as its skirt covers the cassock, being "talare." 


sleeveless, with slits at the sides edged with fur for the 
passage of the arms (sleeveless taherdum ad medias tibias)^ 
a tippet and hood. A good number of examples of the 
former costume exists, but it is difficult to tell in every 
case to which degree it belongs. The following list will, 
we hope, be found trustworthy.' 

ttt.f'^-' '445- John Kyllyngworth, « Magist' in Artibus," half 
tabard, effigy, Merton College, Oxford. 

c. 1450. A Priest, Thaxted, Essex. 
145 1. Magist' William Snell, Boxley, Kent. 
145 1. Magister Richard Folcard, half effigy. Pake- 
field, Suffolk. 

1460. Magister John Alnwyk, Surlingham, Norfolk. 
H75- Thomas Mareys, rector, Stourmouth, Kent. 
c. 1480. Half effigy (John Goolde, M.A. .?) Magdalen 

College, Oxford. 
c. 1490. John Westlake, Welford, Berks. 
c. 1500. George Jassy, half effigy, Magdalen College, 

1507. Diis Arthur Vernon, " in Artibus magri univ'si- 
tatis Cantibrigie," Tong, Salop. This ex- 
ample differs from the rest in the cassock 
only appearing at the wrists ; the tabard reach- 
ing to the feet."" 

^515- John Trembras, parson, " maist of arte," St. 
Michael Penkivel, Cornwall. 

^ In order to save space we shall refer to the costume showing the 
former gown as Haines, M.A., I., to that showing the latter, which is 
comparatively rare, as Haines, M.A., II. — At Harpswell, Lines., is a 
sculptured effigy showing H aines, M.A., I. costume, and in addition a 
pileus, see The Antiquary, A Fortnightly Medium, etc. Vol. III., January to 
June, 1873, p. 247. (Illus.) 

^A similar example is at Barking, Essex, c. 1480 (?Robert Waleis, 
died before i486), holding chalice without wafer. This costume is seen 
in two miniatures of the fifteenth century Pontifical of Bishop Richard 
Clifford (died 1421) (MS. 79 Corpus Christi College, Cambridge) repro- 
duced in the Alcuin Club Collections, IV., " Pontifical Services, Illustrated 
from Miniatures of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, with Descriptive 



1518. Thomas Coly, Bredgar, Kent, holding chalice 

with wafer. 

1519. John Bowke, M.A., Merton College, Oxford, 

half effigy, holding chalice with wafer.' 

The effigy of William Taberam, c. 14.21, at Royston, 
Herts., is in this costume. The inscription, now lost, 
described him as " Legista pbatus." Another example is 
at Broxbourne, Herts., c. 1510. 

^. 1480. Unknown. Magdalen College, Oxford. Haines' m.a., 

1501. Thomas Mason, M.A., fellow, Magdalen Col- LV.lTiT 

lege, Oxford. '"^^'"^ 
1 52 1. William Blakwey, M.A., Little Wilbraham, 

Cambs. : shown kneeling. 
1523. Nicholas Goldwell, M.A., fellow, Magdalen 

College, Oxford : no tonsure. 

At Chartham, Kent, is the brass of Robert ShefFelde, 
"artium magist'," 1508, in processional vestments 
without the cope. Examples of M.A.'s in mass 
vestments may be seen at Fladbury, Worcs., Wm. 
Plewme, 1504; at Whitnash, Warwickshire, Richard 
Bennett, 1531, with chalice and wafer; and elsewhere. 

Notes and a Liturgical Introduction," by the Rev. W. H. Frere, 1901. 
Fig. 10, Presentation of the Bishop-Elect, two tonsured figures in red and 
ermine and blue and ermine respectively (? Proctors), and Fig. 13, the 
Installation of an Abbot, who wears a cope over amice and alb ; a ton- 
sured figure in red and ermine ('Archdeacon or Bishop's Commissary). 

^ The brasses of Thomas Coly and John Bowke, together with that 
mentioned above, of John Spence, B.D., 1 5 1 7, Ewelme, Oxon., and the 
brass of Walter Charyls, M, A., 1502 (| efF.) Magdalen College, Oxford, 
show on the tabard in addition to the sleeves two slits which may possibly 
be liripipia, but which it is not unreasonable to suppose may be intended 
for pockets. Haines (p. Ixxxv.), considers that they "present apparently 
a combination of the dresses of the Bachelor of Arts, and Master of Arts." 
These lappets (or pockets ?) are shown on the brass of Walter Smith, M.A., 
Fellow, 1525, Eton College, whose dress consists of a fur-lined cassock, 
the shorter gown with full sleeves, tippet and hood. In the same chapel 
the brass of Thomas Edgcomb, Vice-Provost, 1545, shows cassock, wide- 
sleeved gown and large hood. 


Haines* M.A., 
I. sleeved 

Thomas Wilkynson, 151 1, « Arcium magistri," Orping- 
ton, Kent, wears full processional vestments. Ralph 
Vawdrey, M.A., 1478, Magdalen College, Oxford, wears 
cassock, tippet, and hood (half effigy), as does Philip 
Warthim, M.A. (1488), Blockley, Worcs. 

Sacr^ Theologi^ Scholaris. Probably those of 
this degree were already Masters of Arts. 

1447. Geoffi-ey Hargreve, S.T.S., fellow. New College, 

145 1. Walter Wake, S.T.S., fellow. New College, 
Oxford, half effigy. 

1478- Thomas Sondes, S.T.S., Magdalen College, Ox- 

Haines' M.A. 
II. sleeveless 
taberdum ad 
medias tibias. 

1508. John London, M.A., S.T.S., New College, 
Oxford, scribe of the university. 

1494. Walter Hyll, M.A., S.T.S., Warden, New Col- 
lege, wears processional vestments, with his 
initials on the orphreys of the cope. 

1507. John Frye, S.T.S., fellow. New College, half 
effigy, wears mass vestments, holding chalice 
with wafer. 

Juris Canonici or In Decretis Baccalaureus. 

146 1. Magister Philip Polton, " Baccallri Canon," 
Archdeacon of Gloucester, All Souls' College, 
Oxford, kneeling (head gone), showing pro- 
file : undergarment, cassock, surplice, and 
^. almuce ; over all a plain cope with academi- 
cal hood. 

^ Two fragments, forming the reverses of two palimpsest shields at 
Tolleshunt Darcy, Essex, show a similar costume to that of Hargreve, with 
the exception that the mitten sleeves of the undergarment appear, c. 1420. 
Illustrated in Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society, Vol. IV., p. 112. 

New College, Oxford. 


141 9. John Desford, " Juris Canonici Bacallari," Canon 

of Hereford, New College, Oxford : in pro- 
cessional vestments. 
1 42 1. William Dermot, Kinnersley, Herefordshire, 
half effigy : in mass vestments. 

c. 1456. Roger Gery, "in decretis bacularius," Rector, 
Whitchurch, Oxon. : in mass vestments, 
holding chalice with wafer. 
1458. John Huntington, " Baccalaureus in decretis," 
Manchester Cathedral : in processional vest- 
ments, without the cope. 

c, 1500. Stephen Hellard, " in decretis Bacallarius," died 
1506, Canon of St. Asaph, Rector, Stevenage, 
Herts. : in processional vestments. 

151 8. John Aberfeld, "in decretis bacc," Great Cress- 

ingham, Norfolk : in processional vestments 
without the cope. 

1519. John Wryght, " clicus in decretis bacalarius," 

formerly Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
Rector, Clothall, Herts. : in mass vestments, 
holding chalice with wafer. 
1535. Warin Penhallinyk, Wendron, Cornwall, "in 

decretis baccallareus" : in cope (head lost). 
At Duxford, Cambs., is an inscription to Thomas 
Wyntworth, vicar, 1489, " Baccalari injure Canonico." 

Juris Civilis or Legum Baccalaureus. The three 
following wear the sleeved tabard. (Haines' M.A., I. 

1420. John Mottesfont, LL.B., Lydd, Kent. 

1478. Richard Wyard, " [Baccajlarii Juris," fellow, 
New College, Oxford, holding a Tau cross. 

1 5 10. David Lloyde, LL.B., All Souls' College, Ox- 
ford, half effigy. 

1482. Nicholas Wotton, "baccalarii legis," Great St. 

Helen's, Bishopsgate, London, removed from 



St. Martin, Outwich), wears cassock, tippet 
with fur edge, and hood. Similar to which is 
1490. Richard Spekynton, LL.B., fellow, " commissary 
and official of Buckyngham," All Souls' 
College, Oxford. 

To these may be added the following, not in academi- 
cals : — 

1448. William Skelton, LL.B., "prepositus" of Wells, 
Ashbury, Berks. : in processional vestments. 

1458. Thomas Mordon, LL.B., Fladbury, Worcs., 
half effigy : in processional vestments. 

1472. Thomas Flemyng, LL.B., fellow, New College, 
Oxford, an emaciated effigy in shroud. 
c. 1490. Thomas Tylson, B.C.L., vicar, Aylsham, Nor- 
folk : in processional vestments, without cope. 

1501. Thomas Worsley, LL.B., Wimpole, Cambs. : in 
processional vestments. 

1 54 1. Master Thomas Dalyson, "bachelor of lawe 
and sumtyme parson of this church," Clothall, 
Herts: in processional vestments, without 

1 63 1. Jerome Keyt, "Legum baccalaureus," Wood- 
stock, Oxon., kneeling : wearing over doublet 
gown with false sleeves and hood. 

Utriusque Juris Baccalaureus. 

1456. Richard Drax, priest, " in utroq' jure Baculari," 
half effigy, Brancepeth, Durham : wearing the 
sleeved tabard (Haines' M.A., L)." 
c. 1500. William Jombharte^), kneeling: in mass vest- 
ments, Blockley, Worcs. 

Physics Baccalaureus. 
c. 1480. John Perch, M.A., " Bacallarius Physice," 

^ An inscription is at Walthamstow, Essex, commemorating Henry 
Crane, vicar "quonda Bacallari' utriusque Juris." 1436. 




Chaplain to the Bishop of Winchester, for- 
merly at Magdalen College, Oxford : in pro- 
cessional vestments. 

Artium Baccalaureus. 

1479. John Palmer, B.A., fellow. New College, Ox- 
ford : in sleeved tabard (Haines' M.A., I.). 

1 524. John Barratte, B.A., fellow, Winchester College : 
in sleeveless tabard (Haines' M.A., II.). 

1 5 15. William Goberd, B.A., Archdeacon of Salop, 
Magdalen College, Oxford : in processional 
vestments, without cope. 

1 613. Nicholas Roope, B.A., of Broadgates Hall, St. 

Aldate's, Oxford : wearing over doublet a long 
gown with false sleeves, and a hood. 

Student of Civil Law. 

1 5 10. Thomas Baker, All Souls' College, Oxford, half 
effigy, wearing a belted tunic, a fur-sleeved 
gown with a mantle fastened on the left 
shoulder, with the front part thrown over the 
right arm, and a hood. 

The brass of an undergraduate may be seen in St. 
Mary the Virgin, Oxford, representing Edward Chernock, 
of Brazenose College, 1 581, in his sixteenth year, wearing 
the false-sleeved gown, and kneeling in a panelled room. 

Schoolboys.' The following instances of schoolboys 
may be noted : — 

1430- John Kent, scholar of Winchester, Headbourne 

In TheJnttquary, Vol. I., January to June, 1880, p. 277, is given a 
school-boys bill, A.D. 1547 (in Navy Accounts, Exch. Q.R., Bundle 
616 E.) showing that Raphe Lyons' equipment consisted of: coat two 
shirts, two pair of hose, doublet, two dozen points, girdle, cap, purse and 
pair of knives. o ' r 



Worthy, near Winchester: wearing gown with 
full sleeves, close at the wrists. 

1 5 12. John Stonor, scholar of Eton, Wyrardisbury, 
Bucks., wearing a long gown fastened on the 
right side, with tight sleeves, girded, and 
faced with fur, and a peculiar cap, with flaps 
covering the ears. 

1 5 12. Thomas Heron, Little Ilford, Essex, aged four- 
teen, wearing a cassock-like tunic or gown, 
with a waistbelt from which hang his penner 
and inkhorn. 

Note. — Doctor of Music. A brass to Robert Fairfax, 
Doctor of Music (Cambridge, 1504; Oxford, 151 1), died 
1 52 1, organist of St. Albans, formerly existed in St. 
Albans Abbey. See " The Brasses and Indents in St. 
Albans Abbey," by William Page, F.S.A., The Home 
Counties Magazine^ Vol. I., 1899, page 160. 


Trumtington, Cambs. 




In the following account of arms and armour we do not 
propose to trace their origin and development prior to the 
time when they appear on brasses. These may be studied 
in the great works on Costume, which are mentioned in 
the list of books appended to this volume, especially in 
Meyrick's Critical Inquiry. The development of defensive 
armour is, naturally, found to correspond with that of the 
weapons opposed to it ; and the ultimate superiority of 
the latter, due to the introduction of fire-arms, led, as 
naturally, to the abandonment of the former. We are for- 
tunate in the survival of a very fine series of brasses from 
the reign of Edward I. to the final disuse of armour in 
the seventeenth century, which illustrate the different 
changes which necessity or fashion introduced. 

The earliest brasses in England representing armour 
consist of four full-length and two half-ef!igies. These, 
with the exception of the Croft brass, belong to the reign 
of Edward L, and from a prominent characteristic, have 
been classed as the Surcoat Period. They are : — 

1277. Sir John D'Aubernoun, Stoke d'Abernon, 

1289. Sir Roger de Trumpington, Trumpington, 

1302. Sir Robert de Bures, Acton, Suffolk. 
c. 1306. Sir Robert de Setvans, Chartham, Kent.' 
c. 1290. Sir Richard de Boselyngthorpe, Buslingthorpe, 
Lines, (half efHgy). 

1310. A half effigy. Croft, Lincolnshire. 

^ A palimsest fragment, c. 1300, on reverse of the half-effigy of a lady 
^. 1360, at Clifton Campville, Staffs, shows a portion of a knight, some- 
what similar to the Setvans brass. 


Chain mail is the chief defence of all these. They are 
usually described as belonging to the Complete Mail 
Period, although we find genouiilieres or poleyns, possibly of 
plate, covering the knees. The mail (Fr. mai/le) is repre- 
sented in two ways, either interlaced, as at Stoke d'Abernon, 
Acton, Chartham, and Buslingthorpe ; or banded, that is, 
apparently sewn to a foundation in parallel rows or bands, 
as at Croft and Trumpington ; though in the latter the 
lines separating the rows of links are not engraved. 

Of chain mail were worn : — 

Hawberk' on the body and arms ; the gloves, not divided 
into fingers, being of one piece with the sleeves, and 
fastened by a leather strap round the wrists. 

Coif de Mailles, or hood, covering the neck and drawn 
over the head, thereby encircling the face and covering 
the chin ; kept in place by an interlaced strap across 
the forehead. Under it a scull-cap or cerveliere was 

Chausses, or stockings, covering the feet and legs ; over 
which were worn : — 

1. Genouillieres or Poleyns, protections for the 

knees {knee-cops\ often much ornamented, 
made either of a prepared leather, called cuir- 
bouilliy or of steel-plate. 

2. Spurs, consisting of single points, goads, or 

« pricks;' fastened by a strap across the instep 
and under the foot. 
Beneath the hawberk was worn the Hauketon or gam- 
beson, a quilted leathern garment, usually stitched in 
parallel vertical lines and stuffed with cotton, to prevent 

"The hawberk, covering body"^ arms, and reaching to the knees 
with hood and gloves all of one pece .s well shown m ^ MS °f the 
Apocalypse in the British Museum (Royal MS., 19. B. xv. ^^^^ 
"The loosing of the Four Angels which are bound in the Great River 
Euphrates;- illustrating "English Costume of the Early Fourteenth 
Century."— Ancestor, No. VIL, October, 1903. 


the mail hawberk, which in the case of Sir Robert de 
Setvans appears to be unhned, from chafing the skin. It 
may be seen both beneath the skirt of the hawberk and 
on the wrists of the Setvans effigy. 

Over all was worn the Surcoat or hliaus^ probably to 
screen the mail of the knight from the sun's heat and from 
the rain, and also, when embroidered with his arms, as on the 
Setvans brass, to distinguish him, as did the shield. This 
was made of linen or silk, with a fringed border, and hung 
loosely to below the knees, being slit up before and behind 
for convenience in riding. In our examples it is without 
sleeves, being laced up either at the side or back, and con- 
fined at the waist by a narrow cord. 

On the shoulders were strapped Ailettes ; rectangular 
pieces of leather covered with silk and fringed; often 
bearing the arms of the wearer. 

The Shield, which was either /^^-^/^r-shaped as on the 
D'Aubernoun brass, or concave to the body, as at 
Trumpington, Acton, and Chartham, bore the arms of the 
wearer, and was worn on the left shoulder, being fastened 
by ^guige, often much ornamented,^ passing over the right 
shoulder, either above the coifde mailles as on the D'Auber- 
noun brass, or beneath it as on that of Sir Robert de 

The large Sword, with cross-piece {quillons) and orna- 
mented pommel, was worn in front, inclining to the left, 
and fastened to a broad belt buckled over the hips. The 
scabbard was often finely worked, as at Trumpington, with 
the wearer's arms, or at Chartham. 

^ Vol. VI. of F 'Justa Monumenta illustrates and describes a fragment of 
the surcoat of William de Fortibus, 3rd Earl of Albemarle U. 1260), 
whose wife was Isabel, sister and heir of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of 
Devon. "It consists of a coarse lining, on which fine linen has been 
^ laid; and on this are worked, with coloured linens sewed on, and em- 
broidery, coats of arms ; in the centre is a shield displaying, or, a lion 
rampant azure, Rivers ; on each side a cross patonce vaire, Albemarle." 
^ With roses and fylfot crosses on the D'Aubernoun brass. 


Besides the above, the following points should be 
noted : — 

1277. Sir John U Aubernoun is not cross-legged, and has 
no ailettes. His is the only instance of the 
principal effigy on a brass bearing the lance^ 
which rests on the right shoulder, bearing 
beneath its head a pennon or gonfanon charged 
with his arms. The lion at his feet grasps 
the staff of the lance in its mouth. The 
shield bears : — Azure, a chevron or ; the blue 
enamel of which still survives {see p. 8). 
The Lombardic inscription on the edge 
of the slab, has lost its brass lettering, but 
reads : — 


: ICY : DEV : DE : SA : alme : eyt : mercy. 

1289. Sir Roger de Trumpingtons head rests on his tilting 
helm (a feature not shared by the other effigies). 
This is large and conical,' and is made fast by 
a chain to the girdle of the surcoat. At the 
apex is a staple, to which the cointisse — a silk 
scarf, originally worn over the armour, as a 
lady's favour, was attached. The shield and 
scabbard bear: — Azure, crusily and two 
trumps in pale or ; which coat, with the addi- 
tion of a label of five points, is seen on the 
ailettes. A dog, on which the feet rest, holds 
the houterolle or chape of the scabbard in its 
mouth. The inscription, which no longer 
exists, was on a fillet of brass, on the edge of 
the altar tomb, which is surmounted by a 

1302. Sir Robert de Bures has no ailettes. The shield 

I The aventaille, or piece to protect the face, in which slits were made 
to admit the air and light {pcularia), is hidden. These slits, in the 
sugar-loaf helm, were usually cruciform. 


bears : — Ermine on a chief indented sable, two 
lioncels or. Below the hawberk are seen, 
covering the legs above the knees, costly 
chau9ons or breeches {cuisseaux gamhoish) 
ornamented with fleurs-de-lis^ etc., in what 
was called ouvrage de pourpointerie. The 
fringed ends of these breeches appear below 
the genouillieres. The feet rest on a lion 
couchant. The Lombardic inscription is 
given by Waller as follows : — 
4- SIRE : robe[rt : de : bvres] : gist : ici : 
DEV : DE : SA : alme : eyt : mercy : kike : 
PUR : LALME : p[rier]a : qvara[v]nte : iours : 
DE : pa[r]dvn : avera. 
1306. Sir Robert de Setvans dijffers from the foregoing in 
having his head bare, exposing his flowing 
curled hair, and showing the coif de mailles 
falling loose about his neck. The hands, too, 
are bare, the gloves hanging from the wrists,^ 
which show a buttoned garment, probably 
the sleeves of the hauketon, which appears 
beneath the mail hawberk. The surcoat and 
ailettes are charged with winnowing fans,^ 
which also appear on the shield bearing : — 
Azure three winnowing fans or ; the guige of 
which passes over the left shoulder instead of 
the right. The feet rest on a lion couchant, 
much mutilated. 

Each of these knights appears to be clean-shaven, and 
has the hands clasped in prayer. All but the first are 
cross-legged : but as to any crusading significance in this 
attitude, Sir Roger de Trumpington affords the only 

^ A later example of this is illustrated in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations, 
Vol. I., 1843. "Effigy of Charles, Comte d'Etampes, in the Royal 
Catacombs at St. Denis, d. 1336." 

2 The motto of this family was " Dissipabo inimicos Regis mei ut 


Of the two half-efEgies : — 

c. 1290. Sir Richard de Boselyngthorpe vitdss plain ailettes, 
and on his hands, which clasp a small heart, 
gloves formed of fish-scale-like overlapping 
plates,'^ attached to leather. The strap fasten- 
ing the coif is well shown. There is no shield. 
The head rests on two cushions. The Lom- 
bardic inscription runs : — 


: JOHN : DE : boselyngthorpe : del : alme : 
DE : KY : DEVS : eyt : mercy. 

c. 13 10. The Croft effigy ends below the elbows, and has 
neither shield nor ailettes. The most notice- 
able point is the banded mail. The Lom- 
bardic inscription reads : — 



Matrices of brasses of the Surcoat Period may be seen 
at: — 

Emneth, Norfolk ; Sir Adam de Hakebech, c. 1 290-1 300. 
Norton Disney, Lines.; Sir William d'Iseni, c. 1300 (the 
matrix appears to show rowell spurs). 

Linwood, Lines.; Sir Henry on bracket, c. 1300. 

Hawton, Notts.; Sir Robert de Cumpton, 1308. 
Aston Rowant, Oxon. ; Sir Hugh le Blount, 13 14. 
Stoke-by-Neyland, Suffolk; Sir John de Peytone, .?i3i8. 

Two brasses of cross-legged knights, of the reign of 
Edward IL, may be said to mark a transitional period. 
They have both lost pedimental canopies, shields, and in- 
scriptions : — 

I Compare the vambraces of Sir John de Northwode, 1330* at 
Minster, Kent, and the sollerets of Sir Adam de Clifton, 1367, Meth- 
wold, Norfolk, and of William Cheyne, Esq., 1375, Drayton Beauchamp, 


c 1320. Sir Fitz Ralph, Pebmarsh, Essex/ 

c. 1320. Sir de Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk; lacking 

legs below the knees. 
These conform to the costume above-mentioned, but 
wear plate armour in addition, viz. : — 
Demi-plates, fastened by arming-points for the protection 

of the arms {brassarts), and consisting of Rerebraces 

{arriere bras) on the upper arms, and Vambraces 

{avant-hras) on the fore-arms. 
CouTES or CouDiERES at the elbows (also called cuhitiere, 


Roundels, circular plates with spikes or knobs, at the 

shoulders and in front of the elbows. 
Jambs or Jambarts, plates protecting the shins (sometimes 

called bainbergs). 
SoLLERETS, Overlapping oblong plates, or lames^ riveted 

together, worn on the upper part of the foot, and 

fastened by straps over the mail. 

The Pebmarsh knight wears interlaced mail, embroi- 
dered chau^ons above the knees, and a curved shield, 
much mutilated, which bore : — Or three chevrons gules, 
each charged with as many fleurs de lis argent. The sur- 
coat is fringed, but otherwise plain. The feet rest on a 
dog. There are no ailettes. 

The Gorleston effigy shows banded mail, ailettes,^ placed 
lozenge-wise, and charged with a cross, and a heater-shaped 

shield, bearing : — a bend lozengy on a chief two 

mullets pierced.^ 

^ Three fragments exist of the Lombardic uncial inscription on mar- 
ginal fillet. See T^he Essex Review, Vol. X., 1 901, p. 87. ^ee also " Notes 
on the Brass of Sir William Fitz Ralph in Pebmarsh Church, Essex," by 
John Piggot, F.S.A., The Reliquary, Vol. IX., 1868-9, P- ^93- 

* Ailettes may be seen on sculptured effigies at Clehongre, Hereford- 
shire ; Great Tew, Oxon. ; Ash, Kent, and St. Nicholas, Newcastle-on- 

3 The arms of Bacon, of Redgrave, Suffolk, are : — Gules, on a chief 
argent two mullets pierced sable. 


The Mixed Mail and Plate Period is well illustrated 
on three brasses, which show the cyclas taking the place of 
the surcoat, and are, therefore, said to belong to the Cyclas 
Period/ These are : — 

1325. Sir John de Creke (with lady), Westley Water- 
less, Cambs. 

1327. Sir John D'Aubernoun II., Stoke D'Abernon, 
Surrey (son and heir of the knight above- 

c. 1330. Sir John de Northwode (with lady), Minster, 

The Cyclas was an outer garment, closer-fitting than 
the surcoat, and much shorter in front than behind, where 
it reached to the knees. This curtailment was due, pro- 
bably, to the greater convenience in riding thereby ob- 
tained. It was laced up at the sides, and the slits were at 
the sides, instead of in front and behind as on the surcoat. 
In the mail, which is banded, we note the following differ- 
ences. The hawberk is shaped to a point in front, and 
the sleeves end just below the elbows. The coif de mailles 
is superseded by the camail^ fastened to a pointed bascinet 
by means of a lace passing through staples called vervelles. 

Steel vambraces are seen at the wrists, passing beneath 
the sleeve of the hawberk, and encircling the fore-arm. 

Sir John de Creke wears rowell spurs, roundels at elbow 
and shoulder, representing lions' heads,^ and plain coutes. 

' Good examples of the Cyclas period in sculptured effigies are 
afforded by the following monuments : A knight of the Pembridge 
family, Clehongre, Hereford ; Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 
Hereford Cathedral, 1321 ; John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, 1334, 
in St. Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey ; Sir John de Ifield, Ifield, 
Sussex, d. 13 17 (probably engraved later); Sir Oliver de Cervington, 
Whatley, Somerset, c. 1348. The sinister half of a brass shield, which 
may have belonged to the monument of John of Eltham, was presented 
by Sir Alexander Campbell, Bart., to the Museum of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland. See their Proceedings, Vol. VI., 1868, p. 204. 

2 Leopard-faced mammelieres are seen on a stone effigy of a knight at 
St. Peter's, Sandwich, Kent. 


His cyclas is confined by a narrow girdle at the waist. 
His heater-shaped shield, held in place by a guige passing 
over the right shoulder beneath the camail, bears : — Or on a 
fess gules three lozenges vair. The curtailment of his 
cyclas in front makes visible the hauketon and hawberk. 
Immediately above the latter a rich dress appears embroi- 
dered with rosettes, and with escalloped and fringed 
border, called tht pourpoint.^ Waller gives the inscription, 
now lost, which was engraved on a brass fillet : — 
4- ici : GIST : LE : corps : sire : iohan : de : crek : et : 



Sir John D'Aubernoun wears prick spurs and plain 
roundels. The guige of his shield is not visible ; nor is 
there a waist-belt over the cyclas. The arms on the heater- 
shaped shield are those of his father, whose brass is 
described above. The inscription was in Lombardic 

The effigy of Sir John de Northwode differs much in 
style from the other two, showing pecularities which have 
caused it to be attributed to French workmanship (see 
p. 56). The part below the genouillieres is a late and 
incorrect restoration. The border of the camail is en- 
grailed. The bascinet is of a more swelling form than 
the fluted head-pieces of Creke and D'Aubernoun, There 
are no rerebraces, and the vambraces are of scale-work. 
On the left breast is a mammeliere^ (a steel plate fastened 
beneath the cyclas to the hawberk or to th.Q plastron de fer, 
an early form of breastplate), to which is attached a chain 
passing over the left shoulder, and probably sustaining 

^ On the Creke brass some consider this pourpoint to be in reality two 
garments, owing to the presence of both fringe and escalloped border, 

2 The use of mammeli^res is well shown on the brass of Willem 
Wenemaer, 1325, at Ghent (illustrated in ArchceologLcal Journal, Vol, 
VII., 1850, and in Greeny), where the mall hawberk to which they are 
attached, is seen through slits in the surcoat. They secure by chains the 
sword and dagger, ^ee also stone effigy of a member of the Salaman 
family, c. 1320, Horley, Surrey, 


the tilting helm. The large shield rounded to the body 
hangs on the hips from a long guige passing under the 
camail on the right shoulder, and bears : — Ermine a cross 
engrailed gules/ 

A short period of transition is represented by the 
following : — 

1347. Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsing, Norfolk. (Flemish, 
see p. 43). 

1347. Sir John de Wantyng or Wanton (with lady), 

Wimbish, Essex. 

1348. Sir John Giffard, Bowers Gifford, Essex. 

These wear close-fitting juponSy which, however, still 
retain the loose skirt of the cyclas, but of equal length 
before and behind. 

The brass of Sir Hugh Hastings is the most important 
of the three ; for, in addition to the central figure, the 
sides of the canopy contained eight historic personages 
(of which two are lost), all wearing this early kind of 
jupon. Sir Hugh Hastings wears a rounded bascinet 
with a moveable vizor, a steel collar or gorget over the 
camail, genouillieres with spikes, and rowell spurs. The 
cuffs of the hawberk hang down, showing the hauketon 
below. Above the knees appear pourpointed cuisseaux. 
The hands are bare. There are no jambs. The heater- 
shaped shield and the jupon each bear the Hastings arms : — 
Or, a maunche gules, with a label of three points azure. 
The maunche is richly embroidered. 

The figures in the side shafts are in mixed mail and 
plate armour, varying somewhat in detail ; some having 
more, some less plate defences. Epaulieres or shoulder- 
plates appear ; the spurs are of the prick kind, and the 
coutes and genouillieres have spikes. 

^ Possibly this should be blazoned : A cross engrailed between twelve 
chestnut leaves ; for Northwood Chataigniers. 


Elsing, Norfolk. 



From the Hastings Brass, 
Elsinc, Norfolk. 





On the dexter side : — 

1. Edward III., wearing a crown, but no shield. His 
jupon bears : — France and England quarterly, i and 4, az. 
sem6e of fleurs de lis or ; 2 and 3, gules three lions pas- 
sant gardant in pale, or; which coat he assumed in 


2. Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, wearing a 
pointed bascinet with vizor up, and holding a lance with 
pennon in the right hand, but without shield. His jupon 
bears : — Gules a fess between six crosses-crosslet or. 

3. Lost. A member of the Despencer family. 

4. Roger Grey, Lord Grey de Ruthin. The arms 
crossed, the head bare; the shield hanging at the hip 
bears : — Barry of six arg. and az., in chief three torteaux. 
In 1905 this figure was restored to Elsing by the 
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 

On the sinister side : — 

1. Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, holding in 
the right hand his tilting helm, on which is a lion for crest, 
and in the left a short lance with pennon. His jupon 
bears : — Gules three lions passant gardant or, a label of 
three points az., each charged with as many fleurs de lis or. 

2. Lost. LawrenceHastings, Earl of Pembroke, whose 
shield, bearing : — Hastings quartering Valence, Barry of 
ten, argent and azure, an orle of martlets gules, is quoted 
as one of the earhest examples of a subject quartering 

^ 3. Ralph, Lord Stafford, holding in the left hand a lance 
with pennon ; the shield, hanging on the left hip, and the 
jupon bear : — Or a chevron gules. 

4. Almeric Lord St. Amand, wearing the chap elk de fer^ 
or kettle hat, over his bascinet (an unique occurrence on 
a brass) and a gorget of plate. His shield and jupon bear:— 
Or frette sable, on a chief of the second three bezants. 

In the pediment of the canopy is St. George on horse- 


back, spearing the dragon, his shield and the horse-trapper 
bearing a cross/ 

The effigy at Wimbish is placed in a much-mutilated, 
floriated cross, of which scarce more than the matrix 
remains. Epaulieres appear, overlapping plates, here three 
in number, protecting the shoulders. The feet are lost ; 
but there are jambs over the mail chausses. There is no 

The effigy of Sir John GifFard lacks the head. The 
cuisseaux end in points below the genouillieres. The 
straight edge of the jupon has an ornamented border. 
There are no plate defences over the banded mail below 
the knees, nor are there brassarts. The heater-shaped 
shield borne over the left arm, with the guige passing 
over the right shoulder, bears : — Sable, six fleurs de lis, 3, 
2, and I or. The field is finely diapered. On the hands 
are gauntlets with small plates of steel, protecting the 
fingers, sewn on a leather foundation. 

Hitherto we have dealt with styles of armour, each 
represented by but two or three examples in brasses, but 
we now come to a period, extending over the second half 
of the fourteenth, and the first years of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, during the reigns of Edward III., Richard II., and 
Henry IV., in which the armour, much less variable in 
style, is represented by a fine series of brasses. These, 

^ Effigies on horseback in the pediments of their canopies may be seen 
in Westminster Abbey on the tombs of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of 
Lancaster, 1296, and Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 1324. 
Armour for horses is described as follows by Mr. R. C. Clephan in his 
Defensive Armour, etc., p. 54 : "Bards comprised the chamfron or chanfrien 
" for the face, worn sometimes with a crest ; picidre, breast ; flanchiere, 
" flanks ; croupiere, hinder parts ; estivals, legs. The crinet, neck, 
" appears first in England on the seal of Henry V. The horses were 
" gaily caparisoned. The emblazoned housings were often made of 
" costly material, such as satin embroidered with gold or silver." The 
trapper of the horse corresponded to the surcoat of the knight, ^ee 
" Horse Armour," by Viscount Dillon, P.S.A., Jrchceological Journal, 
Vol. LIX., 1902, pp. 67-92. 



Elsing, Norfolk. 


from one of the chief characteristics, are said to belong to 
the Camail Period.' 

Mail armour worn : — 
Hawberk, sometimes called the habergeon^ shorter than 
hitherto, with a straight-edged skirt, showing beneath 
thtjupon ; the sleeves gradually disappeared, gussets 
of mail at the arm-pits and inside the elbows taking 
their place. The hauketon was still worn beneath the 
hawberk, though it seldom appears ; but may be seen 
at the wrists of Ralph de Knevynton, 1370, at 
Aveley, Essex, and beneath the skirt of the hawberk 
of Sir John de St. Quintin, 1397, Brandsburton, 

Chausses, which gradually disappear, are worn by William 
de Aldeburgh, c. 1360, at Aldborough, Yorkshire. 
A gusset of mail protecting the instep is usually seen. 
Another sometimes appears at the knee, e.g.^ Sir 
Morys Russel, 1401, Dyrham, Gloucestershire. 

Camail, already noticed, at first is seen passed under the 
jupon, but is usually found overlapping it. It is 
secured to the bascinet by a cord passing through 
vervelles^ the earlier instances of which are carried up 
on either side of the face and end in tassels ; but 
later examples encircle the forehead, the cord running 
in a groove for greater safety. 

The mail is usually either banded or made of rings set 
on their edges ; but that of William de Aldeburgh is of 
the interlaced kind, which we find on some of the later 
examples, e.g.^ the Knight at Laughton, Lines., c. 1400. 

Of plate defences we find : — 
Bascinet, which, but for the groove for the cord of the 
camail, is usually plain, and is acutely pointed. 

^ The bronze effigy of Edward the Black Prince (died 1376) in 
Canterbury Cathedral shows this style of armour. It is interesting, also, 
to note that a stone effigy of Henry IV. is to be seen on Battlefield 
Church, Shrewsbury, built about 1408, wearing a jupon. 


Rerebraces and Vambraces, consisting of two plates en- 
circling the arms ; roundels sometimes in front of the 
shoulders to protect the arm-pits {yif de Vharnois or 
defaut de la cuirasse). 

Coutes at the elbows, with circular or heart-shaped hinges. 

Epaulieres, of three or more overlapping plates on the 

Cuisses on the thighs, in earlier examples often covered 
with studded work' or pourpointerie. 

Genouillieres, usually small and plain; but in some 
early instances {e.g.. Sir John de Cobham, 1354, Sir 
Thomas de Cobham, 1367, Cobham, Kent, and 
Thomas Cheyne, Esq., 1368, Drayton Beauchamp, 
Bucks) resembling pot-lids. In some cases plates 
appear above and below the knees. 

Jambs — as already described. 

Pointed Sollerets, jointed, enclosing the feet {a la pou- 

Rowell Spurs. 

Gauntlets of leather or steel, on the fingers of which are 
often found small knobs or spikes of steel called 
gadlings. The wrist part frequently is jointed. Sir 
John de St. Quintin, 1397, Brandsburton, Yorkshire, 
wears a kind of steel over-cuff, richly engraved, a 
form of the shell-backed gauntlet. 

Over the body-armour is worn the Jupon, laced up at 
the side, as seen on some sculptured effigies,^ tight-fitting, 
and made of leather or of some stout material covered with 

^ An example worn over mail chausses in relief on a marble tombstone 
of the fourteenth century at the Certosa, Florence, is given in Ancient 
Sepulchral Monuments, by Brindley and Weatherley, Plate 126. 1887. 
The jupon of the knight has a dagged border in the shape of leaves. 

2 As, for example, that of Sir John Leverick, Ash-next-Sandwich, 
Kent, or a Knight, St. Peter's, Sandwich. 


silk or velvet, usually plain, but sometimes, as at Aid- 
borough, c. 1360, and Southacre, 1384, etc., embroidered 
with the arms of the wearer. The lower edge, beneath 
which the skirt of the hawberk appears, is usually escal- 
loped, or otherwise decorated. In some cases it is cut 
into the form of leaves, as at Laughton, Lines., c. 1400, 
or Blickling, Norfolk, Sir Nicholas Dagworth, 1401. 
This form of ornamentation was called " dagging " {barbes 

The Bawdric or knightly belt, worn horizontally on the 
hips, over the jupon, is usually finely ornamented, and 
probably was enriched with metal work. Sometimes 
it takes the form of a buckled belt, the end falling 
down in front, e.g.^ Sir John D'Argenteine, 1382, 
Horseheath, Cambs. At others it is fastened by a 
large clasp in front. 

To the bawdric on the left side is attached the Sword, 
which usually hangs straight at the side ; but in some 
cases passes behind the left leg (i?.^., 1382, Sir Nicholas 
Burnell, Acton Burnell, Salop). The scabbard is usually 
plain except at the top. The hilt is often corded, and has 
straight crossguard and round, octagonal, or pear-shaped 

The Basilard or Misericorde, a short dagger, not 
always represented, hangs in its case on the right, attached 
to the bawdric. It has no guard. 

The Tilting Helm, surmounted by a crest, and with 
lambrequins hanging behind, sometimes appears, used as a 
pillow beneath the knight's head. 

William de Aldeburgh, c. 1360, is the last instance on 
a brass of a knight wearing a shield. The feet of the 
knight usually rest upon a lion, but in some cases (e.g.^ 
Ralph de Knevynton, 1370, Aveley, Essex) on a dog. 

It seems to have been the fashion to wear a beard and 
moustache, but the former is hidden by the camail. It 
appears, however, on the brass of Sir William Tendring, 


1408, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, who I's shown bare- 

It seems probable that in the latter part of this period 
the hawberk gave place to hrmst and hack-plates and taces 
(described below), and that a skirt of mail was fastened 
either to the breast-plate or the lowermost tace. The 
shape of the figure, over which the jupon fits tightly, is 
an argument in favour of this view. 

In some of the later examples the jupon has escalloped 
or fringed arm-holes, the plate-armour has invecked edges, 
and the camail and skirt of the hawberk show an orna- 
mental fringe of mail, probably composed of brass rings. 
In one or two instances {e.g.^ c. 1400, Robert Albyn, 
Hemel Hempstead, Herts), as well as the horizontal 
bawdric, a diagonal belt is worn supporting the sword, as 
in the Complete Plate Period. 

The following are some of the brasses of this period : — 

1354. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kent; studded 
cuisses, no misericorde. 
c. 1360. John PBodiham, Esq., Bodiam, Sussex; arms 
on jupon. 

c. 1360. William de Aldeburgh, Aldborough, near 
Boroughbridge, Yorkshire ; on a small 
bracket. The pourpoint appears between 
the jupon and the hawberk ; cuisses covered 
with pourpointerie. The misericorde appears 
for the first time ; the jupon and semi- 
cylindrical shield, worn on left arm, bear : — 
(Az.) a fess per fess indented... and..., be- 
tween three crosses botony (or), the dexter 
cross charged with an annulet... for difference. 
1 36 1. Sir Philip Peletoot, Watton, Herts; restored. 

c. 1367. Sir John de Cobham (d. 1407), Cobham, Kent; 

as founder holds church ; studded cuisses, no 

1367. Sir Thomas de Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 


1368. Thomas Cheyne, Esq., Drayton Beauchamp, 
Bucks ^; shield-bearer to Edward III. 

1370. Ralph de Knevynton, Aveley, Essex. Flemish. 

Hawberk-skirt pointed ; both jupon and 
cuisses are pourpointed. From the former 
hang two chains to secure the sword and 

1375. William Cheyne, Esq., Drayton Beauchamp, 
Bucks ; studded cuisses, sollerets of fish-scale 
pattern,^ no misericorde. 

1382. Sir Nicholas Burnell, Acton Burnell, Salop. 

The sword passes behind the left, the miseri- 
corde to the front of the right leg. 

1382. Sir lohn D'Argenteine, Horseheath, Cambs. ; 
studded cuisses, no misericorde. 

1384. Sir John Harsick (with lady), Southacre, Nor- 
folk ; holds sword with left hand, and with 
right hand clasps that of his lady. Arms on 
jupon : — Or, a chief indented sable. 

1388. Sir WilHam de Echingham, Etchingham, Sussex; 

no misericorde. 
1390- Sir Andrew Luttrell, Irnham, Lines. 

1 39 1. Sir William de Kerdeston, Reepham, Norfolk 

(lower part mutilated). 

1392. Thomas, Lord Berkeley {d. 1417) with lady {d. 

1392), Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucs. ; on 

^ The jambs on this brass are noteworthy, consisting, apparently, of 
narrow_ vertical bands, the alternate ones studded. It is difficult to 
determine the materials of which these were composed. Haines (Intro- 

"ofr^il^' "'^^^ • • • ^re either strips 

^^ot steel, sewed on cloth, or some similar material, or perhaps are of 
pourpoint fluted by strips of steel inlaid with the studs arranged in 

f iX 0 form r""r''K ^K}""'' '"^^y Mi^- Stapleton 

Ju^Za y, jambs and 

studded cuisses and jupon. A vandyked fringe appears below Thomas 
Cheyne s genouillieres, which probably is connected with the cuisTes 
See also the effigy of Sir John Giffard mentioned above, p. 156. 

J Similar sollerets appear on the mutilated brass of Sir Adam de 
Clifton, 1367, at Methwold, Norfolk. 




altar tomb. Over the camail a collar of 
mermaids, a badge of this family. 

1400. Sir John Mauleverere (with lady), Allerton 

Mauleverer, Yorkshire. Early example of 
a rectangular plate. The bascinet has a vizor 
shaped like a bird's beak. The jupon bears : — 
(Gu.) three levriers or greyhounds, courant in 
pale (arg.), collared and belled (or). His feet 
rest on a greyhound. 
c. 1400. A Knight, Laugh ton, Lines. ; edges of plate 
armour invecked ; the camail-cord surrounds 
the forehead ; both diagonal and horizontal 

1 40 1. Sir Nicholas Dagworth, Blickling, Norfolk; 

head rests on tilting helm. 

1406. Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick (with 

countess), St. Mary's, Warwick; jupon bears 
the Beauchamp arms, the charges finely 
diapered. The staff-ragul6 appears on the rim 
of the bascinet, on roundels at elbows, and on 
sword-scabbard. The feet rest on a bear. 

1407. Sir William Bagot (with lady), Baginton, War- 

wickshire ; jupon bears arms. Collar of SS. 
c. 14 10. Sir Thomas Burton {d. 1382) (with lady). Little 
Casterton, Rutland. Collar of SS. 

A transitional period, overlapping the later instances 
quoted, is found in the early part of the fifteenth century, 
in which the mail defences gradually give way to plate 
armour, but the camail is still retained, though sometimes 
worn below a steel Gorget or Standard of plate. The 
most noticeable change is the absence of the jupon, which 
enables to appear 

1. The Breastplate or Cuirass; 

2. The skirt of Taces, overlapping plates, shaped to the 

figure, varying in number, and fastened to the breast 
and back plates, from which they extend to the 




ggiuwrttnirtawgcm^iiua i'giui] onrt comc'ttimiioiiM mn rap nort ^ ' 

Etchingham, Sussex. 



middle of the thighs.' To the lowermost tace a 
fringe of mail is attached, taking the place of the 
skirt of the hawberk, now probably abandoned. 
When the jupon is retained, the lines of the taces 
appear on it. 

Examples : — 

1 40 1. Sir Thomas de Braunstone, Wisbeach, Cambs. ; 
- horizontal bawdric. 

1403. Sir Reginald de Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey; 

orle or wreath round the bascinet ; horizontal 
bawdric ; head rests on tilting helm, feet on 

c. 1405. Robert de Freville, Esq., Little Shelford, Cambs. ; 
feet on greyhound ; horizontal bawdric. 

1405. Thomas de Freville, Esq., Little Shelford, 
Cambs. ; similar to the last. 

1408. Thomas Seintlegier, Esq., Otterden, Kent (dis- 
covered September 7th, 1894); horizontal 
bawdric ; feet on greyhound. 

1408. John Hauley, Esq. (with two wives), Dart- 
mouth, Devon ; horizontal bawdric. 

141 o. Sir John Wylcotes (with lady). Great Tew, 
Oxon.^ ; wearing a livery collar } of SS. 
c. 1 4 1 o. William Loveney, Esq., Wendens Ambo, Essex ; 

diagonal sword-belt ; feet on lion. 
^. 1410. A Knight (with lady) of D'Eresby family, 
probably William, 4th Baron Willoughby 
D'Eresby, Spilsby, Lines. ; orle round bas- 
cinet, gorget over camail ; both diagonal and 
horizontal belts. 

' V^The manner of fastening the taces at the sides does not appear on 
brasses, but may be observed on sculptured effigies, as, for instance, on 
the alabaster effigy, c. 1450, at Christchurch, Hampshire, supposed to 
represent Sir John Chidiock, whose taces are hinged on the left and 
buckled on the right side. 

2 An account of this family may be found in the Berks Bucks and Oxon 
Archaological Journal, Vol. III., No. 4, January, i8g8, p. 07, "The 
W.lcotes Family," by F. N. Macnamarl ^' ^ ' F V/' ^ e 



141 2. Sir Thomas Swynborne,' Little Horkesley, 
Essex; wearing gorget, under which the 
camail or a fringe of mail attached to the 
gorget appears; collar of SS. ; roundels at 
shoulders ; diagonal sword-belt. 

The Complete Plate period, beginning under Henry 
IV., lasted during the reign of Henry V. and the first 
part of that of Henry VI., or in other words, during the 
ascendancy of the Lancastrians. The characteristic of this 
period, as its name denotes, is the absence of mail defences, 
except for a short fringe attached to the lowermost tace in 
some of the earlier examples.^ 

The plate armour worn consisted of the following 
pieces : — 

Bascinet more rounded in shape than formerly ; usually 
resting on the tilting helm. 

Gorget or Standard of plate, superseding the camail. 

Breastplate (with corresponding back-plate) as in the 
transitional period. 

Skirt of Taces, varying in the number, which increases. 
To the centre of the lowermost tace is sometimes 
attached a baguette^ consisting of one or more small 

Epaulieres, more of which appear than formerly, owing 
to the different shape of the gorget from that of the 

Brassarts (rerebraces and vambraces). 

CouTES, either with roundels {e.g.^ Sir John Lowe, 1426, 

^ Represented with his father, Sir Robert Swynborne, 1391, beneath a 
double canopy. Sir Robert wears the armour of the camail period. The 
initials R.S. occur on his horizontal bawdric. 

2 Exceptions to this rule may be cited, in the brass of Robert Hayton, 
Esq., 1424, Theddlethorp, Lines., who wears the camail instead of a 
gorget, and In the rare appearance of a fringe of mail below the gorget 
{e.g., Thomas Walysch, Esq., c. 1420, Whitchurch, Oxon.), 

Cheddar, Somerset. 


Battle, Sussex) ; fan-shaped {e.g.^ Sir Arnald Savage, 
1420, Bobbing, Kent) ; or buckle-shaped (^.^., 
Thomas Chaucer, Esq., 1434, Ewelme, Oxon.). 

Roundels in front of the arm-pits, instead of which, in 
later examples, we find 

Palettes, oblong plates, sometimes charged with a cross 
(e.g., Sir Simon Felbrigge, 141 6, Felbrigg, Norfolk). 
In a few cases these palettes appear to have the upper 
and lower edges curved outwards {e.g., Thomas Salle, 
Esq., 1422, Stevington, Beds; Nicholas Manston, 
Esq., 1444, St. Laurence, Thanet) ; and in some a 
palette of this kind is worn on the left side, and a 
roundel on the right {e.g.., Sir Thomas de St. Quintin, 
141 8, Harpham, Yorkshire). 

Gauntlets, sometimes not divided into fingers, but jointed 
(^.^., John Launceleyn, Esq., 1435, Cople, Beds). In 
later examples the cuffs are often pointed {e.g., Sir 
Thomas Cheddar, 1442, Cheddar, Somerset). 

CuissEs and Jambs, plain. 

Genouillieres, often with plates above and below, some- 
times pointed, for additional protection. 
Sollerets, as before. 

Rowell Spurs, either open {e.g., Valentyne Baret, Esq., 
1440, Preston near Faversham, Kent), or guarded 
{e.g.. Sir Thomas Brounflet, 1430, Wymington, 

The Sword hangs on the left side by a belt crossing the 
taces diagonally, and often ornamented with quatre- 
fojls, etc. On the brass of Sir John Phelip, 1415, 
Kidderminster, the belt has a fringe and bears the 
initials LP. 

The MisERicoRDE is attached to the taces on the right 
side. The strap fastening it may be seen at Routh, 
E. Yorks. (Sir John Routh, c. 1410) and Brabourne, 
Kent (William Scot, Esq., 1433). 


TuiLLEs, two tile-like plates fastened to the lowermost 
tace, and hanging over the thighs, begin to appear. 
Some instances are cited below. 

Heraldic Tabards occur in one or two instances, though 
it is long before they become general on brasses. 
An early form may be that on the brass of John 
Wantele, 1424, Amberley, Sussex, which shows a 
kind of loose vest embroidered with the wearer's 
arms,^ and with tight, short sleeves. But on the 
brass of William Fynderne, Esq., 1444/ Childrey, 
Berks., the tabard is of the form found later, and 
familiar as that worn by Heralds.^ On the two 

^ Vert three lions' faces argent langued gules. An effigy with similarly- 
shaped tabard charged with three crescents is engraved in Millin de 
Grandmaison's Jntiquites Rationales, Vol. III., 1791, No. 32, Plate 3, 
p. 19 (Pierre Des Essarts, 141 3, Eglise des Mathurins, Paris). 

2 The style of this effigy accords more with that of the succeeding 
period. It is not improbable that it was engraved some twenty years 
later, on the death of the wife. 

3 No brasses of Heralds survive. A rubbing is in existence of the 
brass of Thomas Benolte, or Benold, Clarencieux King of Arms (to whom 
the earliest known commission for a Visitation was given in 1528-9), 
with his two wives, 1534, lost from St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, London, 
showing him in his tabard. In The History and Survey of London, etc., 
by William Maitland, Vol. II., 1756, p. 1158, occurs the following 
(cited by Haines, p. cxxviii.) : " In the middle Isle of^ St. Olave's, Hart- 
" street, upon a flat Stone, inlaid with Brass, the Figure of a King of 
"Arms in his Coat and Crown, and underneath was formerly this 
« Inscription, of which the Date of the Year was lately remaining in the 
"old black Letter: Orate pro anima Johannis Clarenseux Regis Armorim, 
" qui obiit die Mensis Februarii An. Dom. MCCCCXXFII. It is not 
"mentioned by Stow what was the Sirname of this Clarenceux ; but it 
" is supposed to have been Arundell ; for there is this Entry in the 
"Office of the Chamberlain of London, 16 Henry VI. viz. Rlchardus 
" Arundell, filius Johannis Clarenseux Regis Armorum, venit hie coram 
" Camerario, et cognovit se esse Apprenticium Robert Asheley, Civis & 
" Aurifabri, &c." At Broughton Gifford, Wilts, is a brass to Robert, 
second son of Henry Longe, Esq., 1620, showing an altar tomb with 
a Herald in tabard, and Death standing behind it. At Middle Claydon, 
Bucks, the inscription of Roger Gyflard, Esq., 1542, and wife, when 
reversed revealed an inscription for Walter Belhngham, "Alias dicti 
Walteri Irelonde Regis Armor' in Hybernia," and wife Elizabeth, 1487. 


Stoke Poges, Bucks. 



short sleeves and on the breast the arms are seen, in 
this case : — Argent a chevron between three crosses 
patte fitche sable, an annulet for difference. The 
effigy of Sir Ralph Shelton, 1424, Great Snoring, 
Norfolk, is cited by Haines, as wearing a tabard {^See 
Cotman, Vol. I., PL xix., ed. 1839), but only the head 
has survived. 

In a few cases the head is bare (e.g.^ 1424, John Wantele, 
Amberley, Sussex; 1441, Sir Hugh Halsham, West 
Grinstead, Sussex; 1444, William Fynderne, Esq., 
Childrey, Berks.). The fashion seems to have been for 
the face to be cleanshaven.^ The feet usually rest on a 
lion, but sometimes on a dog {e.g.., Peter Halle, Esq., 
c. 1420, Herne, Kent), and in one or two instances on a 
representation of the ground sown with flowers (e.g.^ 
John Peryent, Esq., junior, 1442, Digswell, Herts). 

Examples : — 

141 1. Thomas de Cruwe, Esq., Wixford, Warwick- 

shire ; oval palettes charged with cross ; no 

141 2. Robert, Lord Ferrers, Merevale, Warwickshire ; 

mail fringe below taces. 

1 4 14. Geoffrey Fransham, Esq., Great Fransham, 


141 5. John Peryent, Esq., Digswell, Herts.; feet on 


c. 1415. Walter Rolond, Esq., Cople, Beds.; no animal 
beneath feet. 

c. 141 5. Sir Robert Suckling, Barsham, Suffolk ; Collar of 
SS. ; initials R. S. on scabbard. 

c. 141 5, eng. Sir John de Erpingham, Erpingham, Nor- 
folk; d. 1370, mail fringe, feet on lion. 

141 6. Sir Simon Felbrigge, K.G., Felbrigg, Norfolk; 

mail fringe below taces, palettes charged with 

|John(?) Knyvet, Esq., U^iy, Mendlesham, Suffolk, wears a large 
forked beard hanging over the gorget (illustrated in the Rev. Edmund 
Farrer s Ltst of Su folk Brasses, 1903, p. 43). 



a cross. On left arm rests a staff to which a 
banner is attached, bearing the arms of 
Richard II., to whom he was standard-bearer.' 
141 8. Sir Thomas de St. Quintin, Harpham, Yorks. ; 

orle round bascinet ; waved edge to mail-skirt 
below taces ; horizontal bawdric.^ 
1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Nor- 
folk ; feet on two dogs ; collar of SS. 

c. 1420. Sir John Lysle, Thruxton, Hants {d. 1407). 

c. 1420. Peter Halle, Esq., Heme, Kent; feet on dog; 

no misericorde nor gauntlets ; left hand on 
breast, right holding his wife's right hand. 

c. 1420. Thomas Walysch, Esq., Whitchurch, Oxon. ; 
fringe of mail below gorget. 
1422. Thomas Salle, Esq., Stevington, Beds.; the 
tilting helm surmounted by a panache of nine 

1422. Thomas de Coggeshall, Esq., Springfield, Essex ; 

feet on ground. 
1424. Thomas, Lord Camoys, K.G., Trotton, Sussex 

{d. 1419). 

1424. John Poyle, Esq., Hampton Poyle, Oxon.; 


1425. Sir William Molyns, Stoke Poges, Bucks. 

1426. Sir John de Brewys, Wiston, Sussex ; no miseri- 

corde ; slab powdered with scrolls. 
1426. John Cosyngton, Esq., Aylesford, Kent; skirt 
of nine taces. 

1430. Sir Thomas Brounflet, Wymington, Beds. ; no 
misericorde ; palettes. 

1 The arms attributed to Edward the Confessor (Azure a cross flory 
within an orle of martlets or) impaling France and England, quarterly. 

2 Sir Thomas' gorget runs up into a peak or ridge on either side of the 
face. A similar peculiarity is seen on the brass of a knight (? of Hansard 
family), c. 141 o, at South Kelsey, Lines. Compare also the stone effigy 
of Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, 141 5, at Wingfield, Suffolk, who 
wears a jupon. See " Some Peculiarities and Omissions in Brasses," by 
Viscount Dillon, in No. I of the J ouiiial of the Oxford University Brass- 
Rubbing Society, February, 1897. 







Westminster Abbey. 



1433. Sir John Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. ; 

tuilles ; feet rest on dog ; round the neck a 
livery collar. 

1434. Thomas Chaucer, Esq., Ewelme, Oxon.; palettes ; 

skirt of ten taces ; feet on unicorn. 

1435. John Launceleyn, Esq., Cople, Beds.; tuilles; 

no misericorde. 
1437. Thomas Brokill, Esq., Saltwood, Kent. 
1437. Roger Elmebrygge, Esq., Beddington, Surrey; 

tuilles ; feet on dog. 
1440. Richard Malmaines, Esq., Pluckley, Kent. 
1442. Sir Thomas Cheddar, Cheddar, Somerset; 


1444. Sir William Echyngham, Etchingham, Sussex. 

1445. Sir Giles Daubeney, South Petherton, Somerset ; 

palettes ; feet on dog.^ 
1457. Sir John Harpedon, Westminster Abbey. 

A good example of the Complete Plate Period was the 
brass of Sir Brian de Stapilton, 1438, formerly at Ingham, 
Norfolk. Under his right foot was a lion, beneath his 
left a dog with label " Jakke." 

The Yorkist Period of armour covers the latter part 
of the reign of Henry VI., and the reigns of Edward IV. 
and Richard III. It is distinguished from the previous 
period, which, of course, it overlaps, by various additional 
plate defences, made necessary or fashionable by the 
Wars of the Roses. But, however splendid or useful 
these pieces of plate may have been, the general effect 
of the armed knight is less pleasing than in the Lan- 
castrian period, when the armour, simple and dignified, 
adhered more closely to the lines of the figure. This 
unwieldly appearance increases as the years advance; 

I The diagonal swordbelt is ornamented with small cinquefoils 

possibly in allusion to his arms: Azure three cinquefoils between six 
crosses crosslet argent.— Illustrated in Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries 
Vol. I., 1890, p. 241. » > 



there is less uniformity than we have hitherto encountered, 
and the armour is often worked into ribs and curves, 
much elaborating the design. 

The armour for the breast is formed of two or more 
pieces, overlapping for flexibility's sake, and known as 
placcates or placcards, or demi-placcates or demi-placcards. 
Various re-inforcing plates were added for tournaments, 
which do not occur on brasses. The place of the roundels 
or pallets of a former date is either supplied by the 
pauldrons^ or by separate plates, fastened witih spring-pins 
fitting into staples {e.g. 1445, Sir John Throckmorton, 
Fladbury, Worcs.). These plates were of different shape, 
that over the left or bridle arm being larger than that 
over the sword arm, which was called a moton, and was 
curved so as not to incommode the wearer when using a 
lance {e.g.^ 1440, a Knight, Addington, Kent). The 
principal additional defences, therefore, were : — 

D emi-Placcates or Demi-Placcards, curved plates, some- 
times of two or more pieces, covering the lower part 
of the breast and backplates proper and narrowing 
as they near the gorget. Fastened to the cuirass by 
a buckle and strap, hidden, owing to the attitude of 
the hands clasped in prayer.^ 

Pauldrons, shoulder-plates with ridges, worn over or in 
lieu of the epaulieres^ and serving a similar purpose. 
Frequently that worn on the left arm is further pro- 
tected by a larger ridge than that on the right. In 
some cases a pauldron is seen only on the left arm 
(e.g.^ 1470, Robert Watton, Esq., Addington, Kent). 

Gardes de Bras, additional plates attached to the coutes, 
varying in shape in accordance with their position on 
the right or left arm.^ The coutes or coudieres them- 
selves become much larger. 

^ An instance, showing the buckle, is to be found, a few years beyond 
the period, at West Harling, Norfollc (William Berdewell, Esq., f. 1490). 

^ Possibly the up-turned edge of the vambrace may sometimes be mis- 
taken for a garde de bras. See Blanche's comment on Fairholt, sub mm. 


Instead of a gorget, a hausse-col, standard^ or collar of 
mail, sometimes vaiidyked {e.g.^ I454» William 
Ludsthorp, Esq., Warkworth, Northants; 1478, 
Richard Quartremayns, Esq., Thame, Oxon.) is 
found in many cases. 
The tuilles have their lower ends pointed as a rule, and 
as they increase in size the taces decrease in number. 
The latter are frequently curved or escalloped, and some- 
times, as at Isleworth, Middlesex, c. 1450, are composed 
of many small plates. In some of the later examples 
smaller tuilles (or tuillettes) are seen at the sides, and a 
small skirt of mail appears between them, to develop 
under Henry VII. into the conspicuous mail skirt. A 
baguette^ or brayette (cod-piece), consisting of a lappet of 
mail, supersedes that composed of steel plates. 

The epaulieres often take a splint-XxVo. form, as worn by 
the Knight, c. 1450, Isleworth, Middlesex. The cuirass in 
some late examples has a perpendicular ridge down the 
centre, called a tapul {e.g.^ I479j Thomas Playters, Esq., 
Sotterley, Suffolk). 

In a few brasses the lance-rest appears screwed into the 
cuirass on the right side, e.g.^ 

1462. Sir Thomas Grene, Green's Norton, Northants. ; 
feet on dog. 

1466 Henry Parice, Esq., Hildersham, Cambs. ; feet on 
lion ; no gauntlets nor misericorde ; wears 
what is probably the hauketon ; tuilles have 
but one buckle each, attaching them to the 
third tace. 

1467. John Bovile, Esq., Stokerston, Leicestershire. 

The genouillieres become larger, and have plates behind 
them protecting the back of the knees {e.g.^ 14-^1, Sir 
William Vernon, Tong, Salop). One or more plates, 
those below pointed, occur above and below them. 

Gussets of mail sometimes appear protecting the right 
armpit, where a moton is not worn, and more rarely at the 
knees {e.g., 1483, Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, Little. 


Easton, Essex), and at the insteps (e.g., 1458, Thomas 
bhernborne, Esq., Shernbourne, Norfolk). 

The gauntlets often have a plate, of the shape of a 
tortoise-shell, on the back of the hands, hence called 
shell-backed., and the fingers protected by little over- 
lapping plates [e.g., 1467, Sir William Vernon, Tong, 

The globular bascinet seen in early examples gradually 
goes out of use, many effigies having bare heads resting 
on tilting-helms, with elaborate crests and lambrequins, 
and showing the buckle which fastened down the rim in 
front, when worn. The hair is represented as cut short, in 
a roll-like conventional manner ; later it becomes long and 
flowing. When head-pieces are worn they are of the 
form known as the Salade, with a piece protecting the 
back of the neck, and with vizors which, when lowered, 
met a plate covering the chin {mentoniere). Three brasses 
of the Yorkshire School well illustrate this, viz. : — 

1459. Sir John Langton, St. Peter, Leeds; feet on 

1466. Richard Ask, Esq., Aughton, East Yorks. ; feet 
on dog. 

1474. William Fitzwilliam, Esq., Sprotborough, Yorks. ; 
feet on lion. 

Heraldic tabards are rarely found, and appear closer- 
fitting than later, e.g. — 

1458. William Stapleton, Esq., Edenhall, Cumberland ; 

wearing salade ; arms on tabard : — Argent three 
swords conjoined at the pommel gules Staple- 
ton impaling Or six annulets 3, 2, i, gules 
for Veteripont or Vipont. 

1473. Sir John Say, Broxbourne, Herts.; bearing: — 
Party per pale azure and gules, three chev- 
ronels or, each charged with another humett^, 
counterchanged of the field. 

1477. John Feld, Esq., Standon, Herts. ; Gules a fess or 


between three eagles displayed argent gutt6 
de sang. 

The Yorkist Collar of Suns and Roses is sometimes 
found, see p. 191. 

The lion under the feet gradually becomes less common, 
the dog being more frequent than hitherto ; but a repre- 
sentation of the ground, heraldically termed a mounts is 
more usual. The sword, which is large, often with 
fretted handle, the quillons usually curving towards the 
blade, at first hangs as before, but later it is suspended by 
a belt diagonally in front of the body. The misericorde 
hangs on the right side. Sir Thomas Grene, 1462, 
Green's Norton, Northants, has a large anelace hanging in 
front perpendicularly, the sword being at the left side. 

Examples : — 

1435. Richard Delamere, Esq., Hereford Cathedral. 
1438. Richard Dixton, Esq., Cirencester, Gloucs. ; feet 
on dog.^ 

c. 1440. Sir William Wadham, Ilminster, Somerset; feet 
on lion. 

c. 1440. Thomas de Mohun, Esq., Lanteglos-juxta- 
Fowey, Cornwall ; feet on lion ; no miseri- 

1 44 1. Reginald Barantyn, Esq., Chalgrove, Oxon. ; 

feet on greyhound. 
1445- John Throckmorton, Esq., Fladbury, Worcs. ; 

feet on lion. 

1 445- John Daundelyon, " Gentilman," MargateyKent ; 

feet on mount. 
1 445- Thomas de St. Quintin, Esq., Harpham, Yorks. ; 

feet on mount ; livery collar. 

The above, except for the additional defences, much 
resemble in style the brasses of the Lancastrian period. 

' The pommel of the sword has a shield bearing :— Or, a pile azure, over 
all a chevron gules. 


The sword hangs straight on the left side. Gorget and 
bascinet are retained. 

The London school of engravers furnishes some ex- 
amples that are peculiar, the taces being composed of 
several small pieces. No tuilles ; the head bare ; e.g.^ 

c. 1442. Thomas Torrell, Esq., Willingale Doe, Essex; 
feet on dog. 

1447. John Maltoun, Esq., Little Waltham, Essex. 
c. 1450. A Knight, Isleworth, Middlesex ; feet on dog. 
145 1. Thomas Reynes, Esq., Marston Morteyne, 

Beds. ; feet on collared greyhound. 
1454. Thomas Stathum, Esq., Morley, Derbyshire; 
kneeling on helm. 
c. 1456. Walter Grene, Esq., Hayes, Middlesex ; feet on 

Examples showing more marked characteristics of the 
period, such as the sword in front, the head bare, with 
the hair cut close, are as follows : — 

1455/6. Ralph, Lord Cromwell, K.G., Tattershall, 
Lines, (head and left shoulder gone) ; mantle ; 
feet on two wodehouses. 

1458. Thomas Shernborne, Esq., Shernbourne, Nor- 
folk ; head on helm ; feet on lion ; one buckle 
each for the tuilles. 

1458. Sir Robert Staunton, Castle Donnington, Leics. ; 

salade ; sword hanging straight on left side ; 
feet on collared greyhound. 

1459. William Mareys, Esq., Preston, near Faver- 

sham, Kent. (The ground beneath the feet 

curiously worked.) 
c. 1460. Sir Robert del Bothe, Wilmslow, Cheshire ; feet 

on dog ; gussets at right armpit and insteps ; 

neither misericorde nor gauntlets. Lady on 

dexter side ; her right hand held in his, his 

left hand on his breast. 
c. 1460. A Knight, Adderbury, Oxon. ; head on helm ; 

feet on dog ; collar of — (J). 




1 46 1. William Brome, Esq., Holton, Oxon. ; (now 

mural) ; salade ; feet on mount. 

1462. William Prelatte, Esq., Cirencester, Gloucs. ; 

salade ; feet on mount. 
c. 1465. John Anstey, Esq., Quy, Cambs. ; feet on 
mount ; sons kneeling in heraldic tabards. 
1470. Henry Unton, Esq., Sculthorpe, Norfolk; 

kneeling ; no gauntlets ; skirt of hauketon(.?) 

c. 1475. ^ Knight (of the Lacon family.?), Harley, 
Shropshire ; head on helm turned with vizor 
outwards, and showing both buckles which 
fastened it when worn ; sword hangs straight 
on left side ; feet on greyhound. 

1478. Richard Quartremayns. Esq., and .f" Richard 

Fowler, Esq., Thame, Oxon. ; feet on mount. 
1484. Thomas Peyton, Esq., Isleham, Cambs.; feet 
on mount. 

The following show some signs of transition to the 
next period. Where not stated, the hair is long, the feet 
rest on the ground, and a very short skirt of mail is seen. 

1467. Sir William Vernon,"^ Tong, Shropshire; head 

on helm ; hair short. 
c, 1470. — Aubrey, Esq., Clehongre, Herefordshire ; 

head on helm ; feet on lion. 
1472. Robert Ingylton, Esq., Thornton, Bucks. ; hair 


1479. Thomas Playters, Esq., Sotterley, Suffolk. 

1480. Sir Anthony Grey, St. Alban's Abbey, Herts. ; 

Collar of suns and roses ; head on helm. 
c. 1480. A Knight, Howden, Yorkshire ; hair short. 
c. 1480. A Knight of the Northwode family, Milton-next- 

Sittingbourne, Kent ; feet on greyhound. 

^In Millin de Grandmaison's Antiquites Nationales, Vol. III., 1791 
(No. 26, PI. 4, p. 18) IS an engraving of a similar brass commemorating 
this knight and his lady, formerly at Vernon, in Normandy. 



1482. Thomas Wayte, Esq., Stoke Charity, Hants.; 

the sollerets in this and the next instance 
have a curiously transitional appearance. 

1483. Thomas Hampton, Esq., Stoke Charity, Hants. ; 

feet on collared greyhound. 

1483. Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, K.G., Little 

Easton, Essex ; Collar of suns and roses ; 
mantle of Garter, feet on eagle. 
1485. John Seyntmaur, Esq., Beckington, Somerset ; 
feet on greyhound. 

Some military brasses existing in Norfolk and Suffolk 
belong in date to this and the succeeding period, but show 
the peculiarities of treatment of a local school of engravers, 
which, in all probability, had its headquarters in Norwich. 
With divergence in detail, much similarity of style is to 
be observed in the following examples ; among the more 
striking characteristics being the chevron-like lines or 
ridges engraved on the jambs, etc., the peculiar treatment 
of pauldrons, coutes and tuilles, and the position of the 
sword, hanging perpendicularly in front of the body. 

c. 1470. Peter Rede, Esq., St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich ; 

died 1568 ; wears salade ; the pointed sollerets 
are long and narrow. 
147 1. Sir John Cursun, Belaugh, Norfolk; feet on 

1475. Ralph Blen'haysett, Esq., Frenze, Norfolk. 
c. 1480. Christopher Playters, Esq., Sotterley, Suffolk; 
feet on dog ; sword hangs on left side. 

1484. Thomas Gybon, Gent., Whissonsett, Norfolk; 


1488. Edmund Clere, Esq., Stokesby, Norfolk ; feet 
on dog ; large salade ; the plates on the feet 
show mail beneath. He wears a kind of collar 
of roses. 

c. 1 500. A Knight, Assington, Suffolk ; wears sabbatons. 
1 5 10. John Blen'hayset, Esq., Frenze, Norfolk. 

ftir {m iiilj Uinir lip to otms'amaBliitis Oat 'Mws amlinis bmUt 
nnteliDuamlnlmimBOlmrjis lujnjugliamniiis amiPaasjiBBf (t'jmi 


c. 1476, 

Stoke Poges, Bucks. With Tilting Shields. 



The Early Tudor Period of armour, sometimes 
called from its chief characteristic the Mail Skirt 
Period, may be said to have lasted from the accession of 
Henry VII., in 1485, to that of Elizabeth in 1558. Of 
this style many examples remain ; but unfortunately the 
quality of the engraving shows a rapid deterioration. The 
armour differs from that lately described in the following 

There is not the exaggerated appearance of the Yorkist 
period. The coutes are of moderate size, and are not 
encumbered by gardes de bras. The demi-placcates, where 
found, are simple in form. The pauldrons have the per- 
pendicularly-projecting plates, pike-guards J usually called 
pass-guards^^ attached to them to ward off blows ; that on 
the left shoulder being, as a rule, larger than that on the 
sword arm. The cuirass, to which a lance-rest^ is some- 
times attached on the right side (e.g., I500j John Tame, 
Esq., Fairford, Gloucs.), usually has the tapul or ridge 
dowii the centre, and becomes more globular in shape. 
The neck is protected either by a steel gorget, or more 
frequently by the standard of mail. The skirt of taces 
varies much in shape and composition. In a few cases it 
is made of many small plates, possibly intended for the 
skirt of lamboys, or bases, consisting of laminated hoops, 
fastened together by " almayne," or sliding rivets, as worn 
in the sixteenth century {e.g.^ James Peckham, Esq., 
c. 1530, Wrotham, Kent, and Sir William Scot, 1527, 
Brabourne, Kent, the latter having curious defences at the 
elbows, resembling roundels). In some late examples 
{^•S-> i559j John Dauntesay, Esq., West Lavington, 
Wilts.) the taces have an arched opening in the centre, a 

^ The term passguard is probably misapplied to the upright shoulder 
pieces. See Lord Dillon's paper, "The Passguard, Garde de Cou, 
Brech-Rand, Stoss-Kragen or Randt, and the Volant Piece," pp. 129 and 
433, Archceological Journal, Vol. XLVI., 1889. 

2 The tilting-shield, rare on brasses, had a cavity, {a bouche) cut in the 
dexter chief corner, acting as a lance-rest. Two shields of this shape 
may be seen at Rainham, Essex, c. 1475. 



mark of transition to the Tasset period. The tuilles vary 
much in number, size, and shape. Two large ones are 
worn by Sir Humphrey Stanley, 1505, Westminster 
Abbey. Three (one in the centre) are seen at Nether 
Heyford, Northants. (Sir Walter Mauntell, 1487), and in 
the British Museum (" A man in armour," c. 1 5 10). Four 
appear on some examples, two being worn at the sides 
{e.g., 1488, Henry Covert, Esq., North Mimms., Herts.). 
Those worn at the back, called culettes, do not often 
appear {e.g., 1505, Morys Denys, Esq., Olveston, Gloucs., 
in tabard, kneeling). 

The Skirt or Petticoat of Mail is worn beneath the 
tuilles,' and usually exceeds them in length, though some- 
times the reverse is the case {e.g., 1529, Sir Robert Clere, 
Great Ormesby, Norfolk). Its lower edge is found 
straight {e.g., 15 10, John Leenthorp, Esq., Great St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate, London), or vandyked {e.g., 1559, 
John Dauntesay, Esq., West Lavington, Wilts.), and it 
is often slit up the centre {e.g., 15 13, John Toke, Esq., 
Great Chart, Kent). The armour for the legs (cuisses, 
genouillieres (sometimes ornamented with rosettes) and 
jambs) presents but little change. Gussets of mail appear 
at the right armpit and at the insteps Pointed sollerets 
are replaced by broad-toed Sabbatons of inelegant shape,^ 
and frequently of clumsy proportions, to which the spurs 
were often screwed {e.g., 1500, John Tame, Esq., Fairford, 
Gloucs,). The sword and misericorde, each usually of 
large size, hang straight at the sides, or pass diagonally 
behind the body. The belt for the former is often 
omitted {e.g.^ 152.8, Henry Stanley, Esq., Hillingdon, 
Middlesex). The scabbard, worn in front, by Sir William 

^ The representation of the tuilles worn beneath the mailskirt, as, 
c. 1500, a Knight, Chedzoy, Somerset; c. 1500, a Knight of the 
Compton(?) family, kneeling, in the possession of the Surrey Archaeo- 
logical Society ; or, 1 5 1 7, Anthony Hansart, Esq., March, Cambs., 
kneeling, may be due to the engraver's error. 

- Called " bear-paw," or " cow-mouth," " bee de cane." 

THOMAS GOLDE, Esq., 1525, 
Crewkerne, Somerset. 




Peeche, 1487, Lullingstone, Kent, is handsomely decorated. 
The hair is worn long, and the face is clean-shaven, except 
in a few cases, where beard and moustache are worn {e.g., 
1545, Sir Robert Demoke, Scrivelsby, Lines.). The 
head and hands are usually bare; but a small helmet 
appears, worn at Swallowfield, Berks., 1554, Christopher 
Lyttcot, Esq., and at Broxbourne, Herts., 1531, John 
Borrell (Sergeant-at-Arms, with mace). This helmet was 
sometimes provided with flaps to defend the ears, called 
oreillettes. An example occurs on the brass of Philip 
Mede, Esq., c. 1475, St. Mary RedclifF, Bristol. 
Gauntlets are well shown at Hunstanton, Norfolk, 1506, 
(Sir Roger I'Estrange), whose hands are uplifted so as to 
show the palms. The head rests in many cases on the 
tilting helm, surmounted by crest and mantling. On two 
Bedfordshire brasses (1527, William Cokyn, Esq., 
Hatley Cockayne, and 1528, John Fysher, Esq., Clifton) 
the helm bears a triple plume. The feet, as a rule, rest 
on a mount, but lions and dogs are also found. Many 
effigies, especially those in tabards, are represented kneel- 
ing on cushions at prayer desks. Chains, usually sup- 
porting a Tau cross, are worn by some figures round the 
neck (^.^., 1508, John Mohun, Esq., Lanteglos-j uxta- 
Fowey, Cornwall ; 1528, Henry Stanley, Esq., Hillingdon, 
Middlesex). Ruff's and frills appear in some late examples 
at the neck and wrists {e.g.^ i559j Sir Edward Greville, 
Weston-upon-Avon, Gloucs., in tabard). The space 
between the legs of the effigy is often not cut away {e.g.^ 
1500, Richard Conquest, Esq., Houghton Conquest, 
Beds.), A large proportion of the knights and esquires 
represented during this period held office in the Royal 
Household. Examples : — 

1485. Thomas Halle, Esq., Thannington, Kent; feet 
on dog. 

1496. John Hampden, Esq., Great Hampden, Bucks. 
1496. John Payn, Esq., Hutton, Somerset; feet on 



1497. John Trenowyth, Esq., St. Michael Penkivel, 

Cornwall ; feet on greyhound ; head on helm. 
c. 1500. Sir Hugh Johnys, Swansea, Glamorganshire. 
1503. Robert Borrow, Esq., Stanford Rivers, Essex. 
1 507 . William, Vi&count Beaumont, Wivenhoe, Essex ; 

head on helm ; feet on elephant. 
1509. John le Strange, Lord Strange of Knokyn, 

d. 1477, Hillingdon, Middlesex. 
151 1, Richard Gyll, Esq., Shottesbrooke, Berks. 
1 52 1. Richard, Lord Grey de Wilton, Eton College 

Chapel, Bucks. ; Page of Honour to Henry 


1523. Thomas Boynton, Esq., Roxby Chapel, York- 

1527. Sir Peter Legh, Winwick, Lanes.; wearing 

chasuble over his armour.^ 
1529. Sir Thomas Brooke, Cobham, Kent; cross 

hanging by chain round neck. 
c. 1530. Henry Bures, Esq., Acton, Suffolk; head on 

helm ; wearing gauntlets, and tuilles (two in 

number) at the sides of the thighs. 
1 53 1. John Horsey, Esq., Yetminster, Dorset ; cuirass 

decorated with scroll work. 
1538. Sir Thomas Bullen, K.G., Earl of Wiltshire, 

Hever, Kent ; head on helm ; feet on 


1546. William Thinne, Esq., All Hallows' Barking, 
London ; Master of the Household to Henry 
VIII., editor of Chaucer in 1532. 

155 1. Peter Coryton, Esq., St. MelHon, Cornwall; 
head on helm. 

1553. Nicholas Saunder, Esq., Charlwood, Surrey; 

' At Merton, Norfolk, there is a shield with inscription to Thomas de 
Grey, Esq., 1556, and his wife, Elizabeth, died c. 15 14, daughter of Sir 
Richard Fitzlewes, " who, after her decease made himself preast, and 
so lyved xli yeres." 

CoBHAM, Kent. 



1553. Sir John Hampden, Great Hampden, Bucks.; 

ruff; chain round neck. 
1558. Thomas Harlaky nden, Esq. , Woodchurch, Kent ; 

kneeling. o i • 1 

1567. (eng. c. 1520) John White, Esq., Southwick, 


1577. Hugh Starky, Esq., Over, Cheshire; head on 
helm ; in armour of this period. 

The Tabard of Arms frequently occurs in the first half 
of the sixteenth century. When represented on the same 
monument as her husband, the wife usually wears an 
heraldic mantle. Examples : — 
1485. Piers Gerard, Esq., Winwick, Lanes.; feet on 
lion. The mail-skirt and tuilles are hidden. 
1499. Thomas Heveningham, Esq., Ketteringham, 
Norfolk; kneeling; coloured. 
c. 1500. A Knight of the Scarisbrick family, Ormskirk, 
Lanes. ; head on cushion ; feet on lion ; chains 
round the neck. The tabard shows the taces 
at the side. 

1501. Robert Baynard, Esq., Lacock, Wilts. 

1506. Sir Roger le Strange, Hunstanton, Norfolk; 

head on cushion, above which is a helm with 
huge mantling ; the coutes and genouillieres 
have curious knobs ; the hands are upheld, 
showing the inner side of the gauntlets ; the 
whole rests on a low bracket enclosed within 
a fine triple canopy, the side shafts of which 
contain eight ancestors in tabards. 

1 51 6. Thomas Knyghtley, Esq,, Fawsley, Northants ; 
head on helm. 

1526. John Shelley, Esq., Clapham, Sussex. 

1534. Sir Edmond Tame, Fairford, Gloucs. ; head on 
helm ; wearing chain with Tau cross. 

1539. Sir John Clerk, Kt., Thame, Oxon. ; kneeling 
on cushion. 

c. 1 540. Sir William Gascoigne, Cardington, Beds. ; head 


on helm ; feet on greyhound. Comptroller 

of the household to Cardinal Wolsey. 
1546/7. Sir Ralph Verney, Aldbury, Herts. ; head on 

helm ; ruffs at wrists. 
1 546. Sir John Greville, Weston-upon-Avon, Gloucs. ; 

head on helm ; frill at neck ; bearded ; arched 

opening in front of the taces. 
1548. Sir Humphrey Style, Beckenham, Kent; kneel- 
. ing. 

1556. Sir John Russell, Strensham, Worcs. ; kneeling ; 
wearing chain and mail skirt vandyked. 

1559. Sir Edward Greville, Weston-upon-Avon, 
Gloucs. ; vandyked mail skirt ; bearing much 
resemblance to the effigy of his father, 1546. 

Several brasses exist showing a transitional stage, in the 
retention of the mail skirt, often vandyked, worn beneath 
tassels; the rest of the armour corresponding to that 
described in th^ next period. Examples : — 

1545. Sir John Arundell, Kt., St. Columb Major, Corn- 
wall ; head on helm. 

1548. Sir William Molyneux, Sefton, Lanes.; wearing 
an antiquated coif de mailles (see p. 146), over 
which is a livery collar. The cuirass is en- 
graved with a cross moline. 

1552. Robert Cheyne, Esq., Chesham Bois, Bucks.; 
wearing helmet.^ 

^559- John, Lord Williams, Thame, Oxon. ; head on 
helm ; feet on collared greyhound ; long 
mantle, fur lined, fastened on left shoulder. 

1 56 1. Sir John Arundell of Trerice, Kt., Stratton, Corn- 
wall ; wearing helmet and plate gorget. 

1565. John Toke, Esq., Great Chart, Kent. 

1565. Sir Edward Warner, Little Plumstead, Norfolk; 

head on helm ; feet on collared greyhound. 

' Another instance of the helmet worn is at Burgh Wallis, Yorkshire, 
I554(?), Thomas Gascoigne, Esq. 


1568. Sir Richard Molyneux, Sefton, Lanes. 

1 57 1 . Richard, Ralph and Edward Blondevile, Esquires, 

Newton Flotman, Norfolk ; kneeling. 

1572. Ralph Jenyns, Esq., Churchill, Somerset. 

1 572. Anthony Daston, Esq., Broadway, Worcs. 

1 573. Sir William Harper, St. Paul's, Bedford ; head on 

helm ; wearing civic mantle. 
1576. Richard Tomynw, Esq., Boxley, Kent; head on 

The Tasset Period of armour is the latest, including 
the reign of Elizabeth and those of the Stuarts, ^ till 
armour fell into disuse. Its characteristic is the substitu- 
tion of tassets for the skirt of taces and tuilles, the mail 
skirt disappearing except in some transitional instances 
just mentioned. The tassets, overlapping plates, taking 
the place of the taces, were fastened to the lower edge of 
the breast-plate, which became long-waisted and protuber- 
ant in the lower part {peascod). The tasset-ends were 
either rounded, obtusely pointed, or rectangular ; but 
sometimes, usually in later examples (e.g., 1590, Thomas 
Nevynson, Esq., Eastry, Kent), joined to the genouillieres 
[tassets a I'ecrevisse), which are frequently engraved with 
rosettes {e.g., 1583, Hercules Raynsford, Esq., Clifford 
Chambers, Gloucs.). The pauldrons, often scroll-shaped, 
sometimes nearly meet in front, and frequently have 
escalloped edges, as have the tassets, caused by their lining. 
The latter are worn above trunk hose, puffed and often 
slashed, over which they are bound by straps. The 
sabbatons are smaller, the toes being rounded. Ruffs and 
frills are worn at neck and wrists. The sword assumes 
the modern guard, and sometimes has a tassel ; the 
dagger is suspended by a small sash. The hair is cut 
short; but moustache and beard are worn. The head 
sometimes still rests on the helm (e.g., 1575, John Coso- 
warthe, Colan, Cornwall; 1584, John "Wingfield, Esq., 
Easton, Suffolk). Headpieces are seldom worn. A 


plumed instance occurs at Cardington, Beds. (Sir Jarrate 
Harvye, 1638).^ Tabards are seldom found, e.g. : — 

1 5 6 1 . Henry Hobart, Esq., Loddon, Norfolk ; in splint- 

like armour, and wearing gauntlets. 

1562. Sir John Russell, Strensham, Worcs. 

1562. Sir Gyles Strangwayes, Melbury Sampford, 

Dorset ; head on helm. 
1565. Sir John Tregonwell, D.C.L., Milton Abbas, 


The feet are usually on a chequered pavement or 
rounded pedestal. The brass is often not cut away 
between the legs and sword. 

The following are some examples : — 

1 55 1. Edward Leventhorp, Esq., Sawbridgeworth, 

1567. John Killigrew, Esq., Budock, Cornwall. 

1576. Thomas Higate, Esq., Hayes, Middlesex. 

1577. Francis Clopton, Esq., Long Melford, Suffolk; 

head on helm. 

1578. Sir Edward Baynton, Kt., Bromham, Wilts.; 

kneeling ; his helmet, with vizor up, lying 
beside him. 

1587. Thomas Hawkins, Esq., Boughton-under-Blean, 
Kent ; tassets joined to genouillieres. 

1 59 1. Thomas Stoughton, Gent., St. Martin's, Canter- 

1 593. Humphrey Brewster, Esq., Wrentham, Suffolk. 
1 594- John Clippesby, Esq., Clippesby, Norfolk. 
1597.'' John Browne, Gent, St. John de Sepulchre, 

1602. Christopher Septvans, a/ias Harflete, Esq., Ash- 
next-Sandwich, Kent. 
c. 1608. Thomas Windham, Esq. (^/. 1599), Felbrigg, 

^ An earlier example is at Norton Disney, Lines., William Disney, 
Esq., c. 1 556. 

alias HARFLETE, ESQ., 1602, 
Ash-nkxt-Sandwich, Kent. 


1 61 8. Nicholas Wadham, Esq. {d. 1609), Ilminster, 
Somerset. Founder of Wadham College, 

c. 1620. Nicholas Poulett, Esq., Minety, Wilts. ; kneeling 

on cushion ; rectangular plate. 
c. 1 620. John Mallevorer, Esq., Laughton en le Morthen, 

West Yorks. 

1625. Sir Arthur Gorges, Kt., St. Luke's, Chelsea; 

kneeling; his eldest son similar; on a rect- 
angular plate. 

1638. William Cleaybroke, Esq., Margate, Kent. 

1680. Nicholas Toke, Esq., Great Chart, Kent ; kneel- 
ing ; has long hair. 

Under the Stuarts large jack-boots with spurs and spur- 
leathers take the place of jambs and genouillieres ; the 
hair, is worn long, and collars and cuffs supersede ruffs 
and frills. A minimum of armour may be seen worn by 
George Hodges, c. 1630, Wedmore, Somerset (engraved 
in Haines, p. ccxxxviii.). A buff coat with sash has 
taken the place of the body armour, a small steel gorget 
alone surviving ; breeches and jack boots complete his 
suit. A sword hangs by a belt passing over the right 
shoulder ; a small pike is held in the right hand. 

Examples : — 

1^33- John Arundell, Esq., St. Columb Major, Corn- 

c. 1634. John Boscawen, Esq. {d. 1564), St. Michael 
Penkevil, Cornwall ; kneeling on cushion ; the 
tassets do not reach to the knees. 
1638. Sir Edward Filmer, Kt. {d. 1629), East Sutton, 
Kent ; in finely engraved armour.' His eldest 

I This brass is the work of Ed. Marshall {^see above, Introduction, 
p._ 14). In The History and Antiquities of Tottenham High Cms, by- 
Richard Randall Dyson, London, 1792, pp. 43-44, is a description of a 
marble monument in that church to Mary, wife of Sir Robert Barkham, 
1 644, signed " Ed. Marfhall. Sculptor^ This fact will be found men- 
tioned in The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Tottenham, by William 



son, Sir Robert Filmer, stands below in 
similar armour, but wears in addition a short 
cloak with the arms hanging loose. He 
wears a collar, while Sir Edward has a fine 

1650. Ralph Assheton, Esq., Middleton, Lanes.; 

locally engraved. 
1655. Adam Beaumont, Esq., Kirkheaton, West 

Yorks. ; wearing sword on the right side. 

Knights of the Garter. 

Brasses of Knights of the Most Noble Order of the 
Garter,' founded by Edward III., 1349, are rare. The 
following occur. The Garter is worn just below the 
knee on the left leg. 

1409. Sir Peter Courtenay, Exeter Cathedral ; in armour 
of the Camail period. 

141 6. Sir Simon Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk; in com- 
plete plate armour. 

1424. Thomas, Lord Camoys, Trotton, Sussex; in plate 
armour, wearing collar of SS. {d. 14 19). 
Ralph, Baron Cromwell, Tattershall, Lines.; 
Lord High Treasurer of England to Henry 
VI. ; much injured ; wearing the Mantle. 
The badge is not visible owing to the loss of 
the shoulder. 

1483. Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, Little Easton, 
Essex ; in armour, with Collar of suns and 
roses ; wearing the Mantle, with badge on the 
left shoulder. 

Robinson, LL.D., F.S.A., 181 8, p. 86 (2nd ed., 1840, Vol. II., p. 41)' 
much of which work seems to have been derived from that of Dyson* 
though we fail to find any mention of the latter's name. 

' A good article on this subject is " Garter Brasses," by John Alt 
Porter (in T/ie Jntiquary, Vol. XIV., November, 1886, p. 197), who 
writes in WalforcTs Jntiquary, Vol. X., July to December, 1886, 
pp. 167; 253, on "Garter Knights Degraded." 


1538. Sir Thomas Bullen, "Erie of Wilschcr and erle 
of Ormunde," Hever, Kent; wearing a 
jewelled coronet or cap, and over his armour 
the full insignia : Surcoat, Mantle with badge 
on left shoulder, the Humerale, or Hood over 
the right shoulder. Collar of Garters, each 
enclosing a rose, and the Garter. 

At Holy Trinity Church, Chester, is an inscription to 
Henry Gee, died 1545, which is palimpsest, the reverse 
showing part of a brass of a Knight of the Garter, c. 1520, 
from which it is evident that the knight wore over his 
armour the Mantle of the Order, and the Garter on his 
left leg. 

A fine matrix remains at Pleshey, Essex, 1480, showing 
the outlines of the brass of Humfrey Stafford, ist Duke 
of Buckingham, K.G., with Anne his wife, beneath a fine 
canopy. His head rests on his helm, and he wears the 
Mantle of the Garter, similarly to Henry Bourchier, 
Earl of Essex, 1483, at Little Easton, in the same county. 

The lost brasses of Thomas, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, 
K.G., 1524, and Agnes his wife, are illustrated in Norfolk 
Archeology, Vol. VIII. (1879). The Duke wears the 
Mantle of the Order; the Duchess an heraldic mantle. 
Originally at Thetford Priory, Norfolk, these brasses 
were removed at the dissolution to St. Mary's Church, 
Lambeth. At Painswick, Gloucs., is the matrix of Sir 
WiUiam Kyngston, K.G., and Lady, 1540. He was 
depicted kneeling, in the Mantle of the Garter. His coat 
of arms was given enclosed in a Garter.' 

^ See pp. 2 1 6-2 1 7 The Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire, by Cecil T. 
Davis; London, 1899. A few instances occurring on brasses of the 
coat-of-arms surrounded by the Garter, are as follows : — 

141 6 On the brass of Robert Hallum, Bishop of Salisbury, in Con- 
stance Cathedral ; France and England quarterly. 

1424 On the Camoys brass, at Trotton, Sussex, two shields bearing : 

Argent on a chief gules three plates (Camoys). 
c 1535 Lady Katherine Howard, d. 1452, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk 
(illustrated by Cotman) ; the Howard arms within a Garter, 
the motto being in Roman capitals (lost). 


The late Duke of Devonshire in 1867 laid down brasses 
in Skipton in Craven Church, Yorkshire, to replace those 
stolen in the seventeenth century, representing Henry 
Clifford, 1st Earl of Cumberland, K.G., and Margaret, 
daughter of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, his 
Countess, 1542. The Earl is shown in armour of the 
mail-skirt period, and wearing the Garter ; the Countess 
in a pedimental headdress surmounted by a coronet, and 
wearing an heraldic mantle. Four shields are each sur- 
rounded by the Garter. 

Livery Collars on Military Brasses. 

Of the much-disputed meaning of the letters SS. worn 
collar-wise, we do not propose to treat.^ That the collar 
of SS. was as much an insigne of the House of Lancaster, 
as that of suns and white roses was of the House of 
York, there seems no doubt. Of their use the late 

1555 Lady Jane Guildford, Duchess of Northumberland, sole heiress 
to Sir Edward Guyldeford, K.G., St. Luke's, Chelsea ; kneeling 
in heraldic mantle. Her arms enclosed in a Garter above. 
1557 Mural; above sculptured effigies of Sir John Gage, K.G., 
" preclari ordinis Garterii," Constable of the Tower of 
London, and wife Phillipa, West Firle, Sussex. 
c 1580-82 On brass to two sons of Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, in 
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin. They died at the Castle. 
At Woodrising, Norfolk, is an achievement for Sir Francis Crane, 
Chancellor of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, 1636; below the 
shield is a badge, consisting of a rose, encircled by the Garter motto. See 
illustration, p. 325, Vol. L, Farrer's Church Heraldry of 'Norfolk, 1885. 
In this connection we may mention the Stall Plates of the Knights of 
the Garter in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, of which over five hundred 
survive, made of copper, many of them finely enamelled and gilt, and a 
few palimpsest. See the illustrations of fifteenth century plates in The 
Stall Plates of the Knights of the Order of the Garter, 1348-1485,- A Series 
of 'Ninety Full-sized Coloured Facsimiles, with descriptive Notes and Historical 
Introductions, by W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. Westminster : Constable, 

^ See " On Collars of the Royal Livery," by J. G. Nichols, Gentleman's 
Magazine, New Series, Vol. XVIL, January to June, 1842, pp. 157, 250, 
378, 477; Vol. XVIIL, July to December, 1842, pp. 353, 595 ; Vol. 
XIX., January to June, 1843, p. 258. And the same author's "Notes 


Mr. John H. Mayo wrote as follows' : — " Of the various 
" collars which were in use in this country prior to the 
" institution of the Collar of the Order of the Garter by 
" Henry VII., the best-known is the Collar of SS., repre- 
" sentations of which are seen in many monumental 
" effigies and brasses, usually those of knights. It is also 
" met with on effigies of ladies, and in such cases the 
" lady is nearly always beside her husband. In its earlier 
" form it consisted of a band or strip of leather or other 
"material to which the SS. were affixed; at a later time 
" the SS. were linked together, and the band disappeared. 
" This collar was the livery of the Lancastrian kings. It 
" seems to have first made its appearance in this country 
in the latter half of the fourteenth century. With the 

in Illustration of the Wills of Joan, Lady Cobham, and Eleanor, Lady 
Arundell, Surrey Archceolo^cal Collections, Vol. IIL, 1865, p. 354.. 

" Hackington, or St. Stephen's, Canterbury, Collar of SS.," by Edward 
Foss, F.S.A., Arch<£ologia Cantiana, Vol. L, 1858, pp. 73-93. 

" Notes on Collars of SS.," by Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., Archceolo^cal 
Journal, 1882, Vol. XXXIX., p. 376. 

" On the SS. Collar, and others," by H. K. St.-J. Sanderson, M.A., 
Transactions of the Cambridge University Association of Brass Collectors, 
Vol. I., No. vii., February, 1890, p. 6. 

" Seneschallus " seems the most probable meaning. Other interpreta- 
tions are " Souverayne," " Sanctus," " Souvenez," " Societas," " Silentium," 
" Signum," " Soissons " (Martyrs of : St. Crespin and St. Crespinian), 
" St. Simpliciui," " Countess of Salisbury," etc. Whatever its origin its 
decorative effect may have had something to do with the retention of 
this collar. 

If the explanation that the letter stands for " Souverayne," Henry IV.'s 
motto, be correct, it is of interest to note that the word " Souverayne " 
is^ repeated on the wooden canopy above the effigies of Henry IV. and 
his Queen, Joan of Navarre, in Canterbury Cathedral, on which canopy 
may be seen a device attributed to the Queen, and supposed by Gough 
to represent a sable, by Sandford an ermine, collared, under a crown {see 
Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, Vol. II., Part ii., p. 32). Haines mentions 
a brass of "a Man in armour, c. 1390," formerly at Mildenhall, Suffolk, 
and engraved by Hollis (Part 3, No. 8, December ist, 1840), whose 
livery collar had as pendant a similar badge, supposed by Haines to be a 
lion or a dog. See Planche, sub Collar. 

I Medals and Decorations of the British Army and Navy, by John H 
Mayo. London: Constable; 1897. Vol. I., pp. xliv. to lii. 


"accession of the Yorkists to power in 1461, their Collar 
" of Suns and Roses came into use ; but on the accession 
"of Henry Vll. in 1485, the Collar of SS. was revived. 
" In the time of the Tudors their badge of the portcullis, 
" a former badge of the Beauforts, was used in conjunc- 

" tion with the letter S., as was likewise the Union rose 

" the collars thus combining the Lancastrian, the Yorkist, 
" and the Tudor devices. In the reign of Henry VIIL 
"the collar appears to have become, to some extent, a 
" badge of civil office, and to have ceased to bear any 
" political significance. At any rate, it is not met with on 
" effigies of knights in armour in that period, and it may 
" therefore be inferred that it had gone out of fashion as 
"a military badge."' 

The following brasses show the SS. collar (where the 
lady is mentioned she also wears it) : — 

1405. Sir Thomas Massyngberde and Lady, Gunby, 

1407. Sir William Bagot and Lady, Baginton, War- 

1 410. Sir John Routh and Lady, Routh, Yorks. 

c. 14 10. Sir Thomas Burton {d. 1382), Little Casterton, 

141 1. Sir John Drayton, Dorchester, Oxon. 

141 2. Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex. 
141 5. Sir Robert Suckling, Barsham, Suffolk. 

141 5. Sir Thomas Peryent and Lady, Digswell, Herts. 

14 1 5. Sir John Phelip, Walter Cookesey, Esq., and 

Lady, Kidderminster, Worcs. 

141 6. Matthew Swetenham,Esq.,Blakesley,Northants. 
1420. Sir Arnold Savage, Bobbing, Kent. 

1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, 

1424. Thomas, Lord Camoys, and Lady, Trotton, 

^ Vol. I., p, xlviii., with illustration of Camoys brass, Trotton, Sussex. 

Dorchester, Oxon. 



1426. Sir Thomas le Straunge, Wellesbourne, War- 

1 43 1. Edward de la Hale, Esq., Oakwood, Surrey. 
1435. Thomas Wideville, Esq., Bromham, Beds. 
1444. John Frogenhall, Esq., Teynham, Kent. 

1444. " Nicholas Manston, Esq., St. Lawrence, Thanet, 


c. 1450. A man in armour, South Kensington Museum, 

145 1. Sir John Bernard, Isleham, Cambs. 
c. 1475. Nicholas Kniveton, Esq., Mugginton, Derby. 
c. 1490. — Guise, Esq., Aspley Guise, Beds. 
c. 1490. Sir William Pyrton, Little Bentley, Essex. 

Collars of Suns and Roses. 

1465. John Theel, Esq., Arundel, Sussex. 

1470. Sir William Yelverton, Rougham, Norfolk. 

1 47 1. Thomas Colte, Esq., and wife, Roydon, Essex. 
1 47 1 . Thomas Clarell, Esq., Lillingstone Lovell, Oxon. 
1473. Sir John Say, Broxbourne, Herts. 

1478. Robert Bothe, Esq., Sawley, Derbyshire. 
1480. Sir Anthony Grey, St. Alban's Abbey, Herts. 
1483. Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, and Countess, 
Little Easton, Essex. 
c. 1490. Nicholas Gaynesford, Esq., Carshalton, Surrey. 

Some effigies have collars, the nature of which it is 
impossible to determine, such are : — 

1410. Sir John Wylcotes {d. Great Tew, Oxon. 

1445. Sir Thomas de St. Quintin, Harpham, Yorks. 
c. 1460. A man in armour, Adderbury, Oxon. 

1465. A man in armour. Manners.? Helmsley, 
Yorkshire (possibly collar of suns and roses). 

Thomas, Lord Berkeley, 1392, Wotton- under -Edge, 
Gloucs., wears a family collar of Mermaids.' A trefoil 

' A curious collar, that of park palings, with a hart lodged, occurs on 
the stone effigy of Sir Thomas Markenfield in Ripon Cathedral. 


toret or clasp is sometimes found on collars of SS. The 
Countess of Essex (1483) at Little Easton, wears as 
pendant the White Lion of March : which may be that 
worn by Jenkyn Smyth, Esq. {c. 1480) St. Mary, Bury 
St. Edmunds, Suffolk. 

Two brasses of Serjeants-at-arms (seruiens ad armd) 
exist, showing the mace indicative of their office.'' 

1420. Nicholas Wandsworth, Surrey. 

" Serviens Regis Henrici quinti ad arma." 
1 53 1. John Borrell, Sergeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII., 

Broxbourne, Herts. 

A third instance is at Shopland, Essex : — Thomas Stapel 
(1371-2) in armour of the Camail period but without a 
mace. " Jadis Seriant d'Armes nostre Seigneur le Roi " 
{see illustration, p. 218, Vol. V., 1896, Essex Renjiew). 
Thomas Broke, Esq., Serjeant-at-arms to Henry VIII, , at 
Ewelme, Oxon., 15 1 8, wears armour of the Mail-skirt 
period, with sword and misericorde. At Bray, Berks., is 
an inscription to William Smyth, Esq., Serjeant-at-arms to 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth, 1594. 

The brass of Bishop Robert Wyvill, 1375, in Salisbury 
Cathedral, affords an instance of the croc, baton^ Or 
martel-de-fer'' {Justis comutus) held by Richard Shawell, 
champion of the Bishop in his suit against William 
de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, for the recovery 
of Sherborne Castle, Dorset. The champion is repre- 
sented standing at the gate of the outer ward, in 

1 See Planche, sub Mace, who mentionsi French stone examples of the 
fifteenth century. These are engraved in Willemin's Monuments Fran^ais 
Incdits, 1839, and there dated 13 14. Pettier states that they were 
taken to St. Denis from the Musee des Monuments fran9ais, and that 
they were formerly at the Church of Sainte Catherine du Val des 
Ecoliers, Saint Antoine, Paris. See " On a brass in Wandsworth Church," 
by Mill Stephenson, B.A., F.S.A., Surrey Archceolo^cal Collections, Vol. X., 
1891, p. 293. 

2 An instance of this pickaxe-like weapon may be seen held by a 
sculptured effigy in Great Malvern Abbey, Worcs. 


front of the portcullis, wearing tight-fitting hose and 
leathern jack. Round his neck is suspended a shield, 
with a hole in the centre. The Bishop obtained posses- 
sion of the castle on payment of 2,500 marks. ^ (^See Kite's 
Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire^ 

Halberds are found held by the soldiers in representa- 
tions of the Resurrection, connected with tombs used as 
Easter Sepulchres, at Hedgerley, Bucks, c. 1500, on re- 
verse of palimpsest shield of brass of Margaret, wife of 
Edward Bulstrode, Esq., 1540; at Swansea, Glam., Sir 
Hugh Johnys and lady, c. 1500, on which also appear a 
spiked mace, or morning star (morgenstern)^ a holy-water 
sprinkler^ or military flail^ and a scimitar ; at Cranley, Surrey, 
1503, from the destroyed monument of Robert Hardyng 
and wife; and at Narburgh, Norfolk, 1545, Sir John 
Spelman and lady. Other examples are at Great Coates, 
Lines., 1503 ; All Hallows Barking, London, 1510 ; and 
Slaugham, Sussex, 1547.^ 

^'"^^ °^ ^^^'^^ successors held Sherborne un- 

" disturbed till the Reformation, when the castle was granted first to 
" the Paulets by Edward VI. and afterwards by Elizabeth to Sir Walter 
" eigh, who built the adjacent house, and probably fitted up the Castle 
"Itself for a residence m the meantime. The estate was wrenched by 
chicane by Janies I. from the son of Sir Walter, and finally it came to 
Digby, Earl of Bristol." " Sherborne Castle," by Mr. G. T Clark p 3 1 

Vol. XX., 1874, Proceedings of the Somersetshire Jrchceological and Natura) 
History Society. 

»S«" The Resurrection as represented in Monumental Brasses," by 






The costume of Civilians in the fourteenth century is 
illustrated, by a few, but important brasses, containing in 
their number four of the fine Flemish class, already men- 
tioned {see above, p. 43). Two of the earlier examples 
are placed in the heads of floriated crosses : — 

c. 1325. lohan de Bladigdone (with wife Maud), small 
half effigies. East Wickham, Kent, with in- 
scription in Lombardic lettering on stem of 
cross : — 


c. 1350. Nichole de Aumberdene, Taplow, Bucks. 

The large Flemish brasses at St. Margaret's, Lynn : — 

1349. Adam de Walsokne (with wife Margaret), 
1364. Robert Braunche (with wives Leticia and Mar- 

and at Newark, Notts, 1361, Alan Fleming, show the 
costume excellently. The most conspicuous feature is 
the CoTE-HARDiE, which term appears to have been given 
to garments of somewhat different shapes. On the three 
Flemish brasses and that at Taplow it fits the body 
somewhat loosely. Its skirt, prolonged nearly to the 
ankles, is slit up in front like a military surcoat, and at 
Newark and Taplow shows two pocket-holes in front. 
The sleeves terminate at the elbows, from which depend 
liripipia,' or lappets of varying length. On the fore-arms 

^ Mr. Mill Stephenson, in his description of the Hampsthwaite brass 
(in tYic rorkshire JrMogical Journal, Vol. XV., p. 21, 1898), considers 
these hripipes to belong to the tippet. But there seems to be reason 
for connecting them with the sleeves, since in examples of this class the 
chaperon would have but one liripipe formed by the tip of the hood • the 
fashion of wearing it turban-wise produced the two ends. The illumi- 
nations of contemporary MSS., such as the famous Luttrell Psalter 


appear the tight-fitting sleeves of an under-tunic or vest, 
each sleeve bearing on the underside a long row of 
buttons. Similar sleeves are found on the shorter form 
of the cote-hardie described below. Round the neck and 
over the shoulders is worn the Chaperon, consisting of 
tippet and hood in one piece. On the legs are tight hose, 
over which on the feet are worn pointed shoes, fastened 
by a strap across the instep at Newark, and by laces on 
the inside of the foot at Lynn. To wear the hair long 
and wavy seems to have been the fashion, and beards and 
moustaches, the former sometimes bifurcated, are usual. 
Adam de Walsokne, however, and Alan Fleming are 

The other form of cote-hardie^ with which we are con- 
cerned, was shorter, not reaching to the knees, fitted the 
body closely (Just au corps), and was, usually, buttoned 
down the front.' A good instance of this, with tight 
mitten sleeves without liripipes, is seen on the kneeling 
effigy of Robert de Paris, c. 1379, Hildersham, Cambs. 
He wears the mantle, described below, and a horizontal 
bawdric sustaining an anelace." Other instances are : — 

(reproduced in Vetusta Monumenta,No\. VI.), throw valuable light on the 
shape of the chaperon and on the different modes of wearing it. ^ec also 
Planche, Cyclopaedia of Costume, sub mm. Hood, 

1 The lost brass of Simon Walshe (with wife Joan), c. i 3 70, St. Alkmund, 
Shrewsbury, showed this costume with liripipes, as do tiles found at the 
Abbeys of Strata Florida and Strata Marcella. See illustration m The 
Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida, its History, and an account of the recent 
excavations made on its site, by Stephen W. Williams, F.R.I.B.A., London, 
1889. The same pattern is on tiles from Shrewsbury and Haughmond 
Abbeys. See "On Encaustic Tiles," by Llewellyn Jewitt, Journal oj 
British Archaolo^cal Association, Vol. II., 1847, p. 261. 

2 A very beautiful instance of an embroidered short cote-hardie with 
horizontal bawdric, worn with a mantle, fastened on the right shoulder, 
the edges dagged in the form of leaves, is to be seen at York Minster, on 
the sculptured effigy of the young prince, William of Hatfield second 
son of Edward III. Other examples of the costume are afforded by he 
sculptured effigy of William of Windsor, another young son of Edward 111., 
in St. Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, and by the figures of the 
children of Edward III. on his tomb, and of those of Elizabeth, Lady 
Montacute, at Christ Church, Oxford. 


c. 1325. lohan de Bladigdone, East Wickham, Kent, 
half effigy with liripipia. 

c. 1350. A Civilian, Hampsthwaite, W. Yorks, with 
liripipia. Attached to the left side of a 
buckled belt worn horizontally is a gypciere, 
or purse (from Fr. gibier), with an anelace 
secured by being passed through the lappets 
which fasten the gypciere to the girdle.' 

c. 1350. A Civilian on reverse of inscription to William 
Wolstonton, 1403, Great Bowden, Leicester- 
shire. Flemish ; same costume as last, but 
without gypciere or anelace.^ 

c. 1350. A CiviHan (with wife), Upchurch, Kent, half 
effigies, each wearing a cote-hardie with 
plain sleeves, reaching half-way between elbow 
and wrist ; buttons only on the sleeves of the 
undertunic which end at the wrists ; no liri- 

c. 1360. Raulin Brocas (with sister), Sherborne St. John, 
Hants, half effigy, a clean-shaven boy, wearing 
a cote-hardie like the last, except that it has 
buttons down the front. The buttoned 
sleeves of the undertunic end in mittens ; no 

c. 1360. The bust of a Civilian at Blickling, Norfolk, 
showing the chaperon, worn by a man with 
flowing hair and pointed beard. 

c. 1360. John de Walden, Ashbury, Berks, half effigy. 

f. 1360. Beneit Engliss', Nuffield, Oxon., half effigy; 

' A similar mode of wearing gypciere and anelace is illustrated by 
Waller from a Flemish brass, c. 1350, of a civilian in Bruges Cathedral. 

For some account of gycieres, see Journal of the British Archaological 
Association, Vol. XIV., 1858, p. 131, "History of Purses," by H. Syer 

2 Illustrated in Transactions of Monumental Brass Society, Vol. IV., p. 160, 
described p. 1 6 1 . The feet rest on a dog. The edge of the chaperon is 
"pmked." The beard is bifurcated. There is a fine diapered back- 



buttons under fore-arm of cote-hardie ; no 

c. 1370. John de Faversham ? (with mother), Graveney, 
Kent, half effigy similar to the last, but with 
buttons in front. 

c. 1370. A Civilian, Deddington, Oxon., half effigy. 

c„ 1370. A Civilian, Cheam, Surrey, mutilated; under- 
tunic has mitten sleeves with buttons ; no 
liripipes to the cote-hardie; small hood; forked 
beard ; hair cut close. 

c. 1370. A Civilian, Cheam, Surrey, half effigy; the 
cote-hardie had liripipes, but their length is 
not discernible owing to the half-effigy ; the 
undertunic sleeves have buttons ; there is 
a beard, but the hair is cut close. 

c. 1 370. John de Kyggesfolde (with wife, Agnes), Rusper, 
Sussex, half effigy ; short hair ; clean shaven. 

c. 1370. Richard de Heylesdone (with wife, Beatrice), 
Hellesdon, Norfolk, three-quarter effigy; 
wearing a looser garment than the foregoing, 
with no buttons. The mitten sleeves of the 
undertunic appear. 

Some brasses, belonging for the most part to the last 
quarter of the century, show a costume differing some- 
what from the foregoing. The tunic or cote is long and 
full, reaching below the knees, has tight sleeves, and is 
confined at the waist by a girdle from which, usually on 
the left side, hangs the anelace or basilard, a large couteau 
de chasse, in its sheath. The open character of the tunic 
is indicated by the appearance of buttons down the front 
(as at Shottesbrooke, Berks, c. 1370). Over this cote- 
hardie is worn a loose mantle, fastened by buttons, of 
which two or three are seen, on the right shoulder ; — 
a shape which we find associated, later on, with Judges 
and Civic Dignitaries. Worn round the neck, perhaps 
attached to the mantle, is a chaperon, sometimes showing 
buttons {e.g.. Kings Sombourne, Hants, c. 1380), the 






tippet part of which does not appear owing to the presence 
of the mantle. The mitten sleeves of the undertunic 
frequently appear. The hair, as a rule, is worn shorter 
than in the previous examples. The forked beard is re- 
tained. The feet rest on the ground. The following 
are noted by Haines : — 

c. 1370. A Frankelein (with Priest), Shottesbrooke, 

c. 1380. Two Civilians, Kings Sombourne, Hants; the 
one with beard, the other clean-shaven. 

1380. Simon de Felbrig, Felbrigg, Norfolk; long 
hair, anelace on right side. 

1 39 1. Thomas de TopclyfF (with wife), Topcliffe, 
Yorks. ; Flemish ; anelace on right side.' 

139 1. John Curteys (with widow), Wymington, Beds. ; 

Mayor of the Staple of Calais ; feet on dog. 

1398. Walter Pescod, Boston, Lines. The left side 
of his tunic semee of peascods : possibly a 
rare example on a brass of the fashionable 
parti-coloured garments of the period. No 
anelace is visible. 
c. 1400. A Wool Merchant (with wife), Northleach, 
Gloucs. The pendent end of the girdle has 
the letter T. ; feet on wool-pack. 

1 40 1. William Grevel (with wife), Chipping Campden, 
Gloucs. : " quondm' Ciuis London' & flos 
m'cator' lanar' tocius Anglie." 

A Frankelein, c. 1370, at Cheam, Surrey, has no mantle, 
which omission is shared by the following : — 

c. 1380. John Pecok (with wife), St. Michael's, St. 
Alban's, Herts. 
1 39 1. John Corp (with granddaughter on pedestal), 
Stoke Fleming , Devon ; wavy hair ; the cote 

^The lost brass of Robert Attelath, 1376, formerly at St. Margaret's 
Lynn was a fine example of this class. No anelace appeared. The feet 
rested on two lions addorsed. A Civilian (lost) c. 1400, St. Alkmund, 
bhrewsbury, was another mstance, showing mantle and anelace 



is fur-edged. The bawdric holding the anelace 
passes over the right shoulder. 
c. 1400. A Civilian, Ore, Sussex; similar to the last. 

A long, loose tunic, like a night-gown, with a hood, is 
worn by the following : — 

1356. Richard Torrington (with wife), Great Berk- 
hampstead, Herts. ; the sleeves turned back 
from the wrists. 
1380. A Civilian (.''Robert de Brentyngham), East 

Horsley, Surrey, half effigy. 
1396. A Civilian, Temple Church, Bristol, half effigy. 
c. 1400. William Overbury (with wife), Letchworth, 

Herts, half effigy. 
c. 1400. Thomas Somer (with wife), Ickleford, Herts, 
half effigy. 

c. 1400. John de Estbury (with wife), Lambourn, Berks, 
half effigy. 

c, 1400. John Covesgrave, Eaton Socon, Beds. 

The brass of a Civilian, c. 1390, once in the head of a 
floriated cross, cited by Haines, in Hereford Cathedral, 
shows a tunic sleeve indicating the transition to the bag- 
sleeve of the next period. The feet rest on a dog. 

The small figures on the Walsokne, Braunche, and 
Fleming brasses, above mentioned, give additional illustra- 
tion of the costume of the period. At Harrow, the reverse 
of the inscription commemorating Dorothy Frankishe, 1 5 74, 
shows the side shaft of a canopy of Flemish work, c. 1370, 
containing two figures in chaperons, the long Hripipe of 
that of the small person reading, in a sitting posture, being 
very distinct. 

In the reign of Henry IV. we find a change in the 
tunic. It is long and loose, with a buttoned collar, high 
in the neck, and the skirt partly slit up from the bottom. 
But the most distinct difference from the tunic, lately de- 
scribed, is in the sleeves. These become very full and 


bag-like in the arms,' but are tight at the wrists, which 
have an edging of fur, and in early examples {e.g., c. 1400, 
a Civilian, Tilbrook, Beds) have a single button beneath 
the wrist. From beneath these sleeves appear those of 
the under-tunic, sometimes prolonged into mittens. The 
tunic, confined at the waist by a girdle, is often lined and 
edged with fur. Over this is worn the hood, and, more 
rarely, the mantle and hood. The hair is usually treated, 
as already described, brushed back and kept short on the 
head. Moustache and small forked beard are worn. 
Pointed shoes are seen over the hose, or the hose appear 
alone, without shoes. Examples : — 

1400. John Mulsho, Esq., Newton-by-Geddington, 
Northants, kneeling at the base of a floriated 
cross, in the head of which stands St. Faith ; 
no girdle. 

c. 1400. A Civilian, Tilbrook, Beds. ; the hair wavy; a 
large anelace suspended in front ; feet on dog. 

c. 1400. A Civilian in head of octofoiled cross, St. 

Michael's, St. Alban's ; no hood ; anelace 
hanging from girdle on left side. 

c. 1400. A Wine Merchant, Cirencester, Gloucs. ; head 
lost; tunic reaching to the feet; letter T on 
end of girdle ; feet on wine-cask. 
1 402 . Richard Martyn, Dartford, Kent, wearing mantle; 
feet on ground ; girdle, if any, hidden. 

c. 1405. Herry Notingham, Holm-by-the-Sea, Nor- 
folk ; wearing anelace ; similar in style to the 
civilian at Tilbrook. 
1409. Robert de Haitfeld (d. 141 7) with wife, Owston, 

I "The anonymous writer of a life of Richard II. (a monk of Evesham) 
"speaks of gowns with deep wide sleeves, commonly called pokys, shaped 
"like a bagpipe: 'Maxime togatorum cum profundis et latis manicis 
" vocatis vulgariter pokys ad modum bagpipe formatus ; ' they are also, 
"he says,_rightly termed, 'devils' receptacles'— receptacula dsmoniorum 

"recte dici — for whatever could be stolen was put into them." 

Planche, Cyclopedia of Costume, 1876, Vol. I., "Dictionary," p. 466, 
sub Sleeve. 



Yorks ; wavy hair ; anelace hanging from girdle 
on left side. He holds the end of girdle in 
his left hand, and with his right the right 
hand of his wife, who occupies the dexter 
side. Each wears a collar, possibly of SS.' 

141 1. Hugo de Gondeby, Supervisor to Ralph, Lord 
Cromwell, Tattershall, Lines. ; anelace. 
c. 141 1. John Barstaple, Founder, Trinity Almshouses, 
Bristol ; anelace on left side. 

14 14. The seven small head-and-shoulders effigies of 
the brothers of Philippa Carreu, Beddington, 

141 6. Thomas Stokes, Esq., Ashby St. Legers, North- 
ants ; early instance of roll-shaped hair, worn 
with forked beard. 

T417. Geoffi-ey Barbur, half effigy, St. Helen's, Abing- 
don, Berks. 

1 4 1 8 . Thomas Polton, half effigy, Wanborough, Wilts. ; 


141 9. John Lyndewode, woolman, Linwood, Lines.; 

wearing mantle; girdle not visible; feet on 
wool-pack. His three sons below wear 
similar tunics, but no mantles. For the 
fourth son, see p. 132. 

1420. John Urban, Southfleet, Kent ; waved hair ; no 

beard ; without hood. 

' An instance of a brass of a civilian, wearing collar of SS., is afforded 
by that of Sir Thomas Brook (d. 141 9), Thorncombe, Devon (mentioned 
below p. 206). The sculptured effigy of John Gower, d. 1402, at St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, shows a collar of SS., with swan badge. At Ashby 
de la Zouch, Leics., is the alabaster effigy of Ralph Hastings, late fifteenth 
century, clad as a pilgrim and wearing a collar of SS. (see Archaological 
Journal, Vol. XXXVI., 1879, p. 102). The stone effigy of William 
Staunton (?) c. 1 500, at Elford, Staffs., is not in armour, but has collar 
of SS. (illustrated in The Monumental Effigies and Tombs in Elford Churchy 
Staffordshire, with a Memoir and Pedigree of the lords of Elford, by Edward 
Richardson, Sculptor, The Restorer and Illustrator of the Temple Church 
Effigies, etc. London : George Bell, 168 Fleet Street, and of the Author, 
Melbury Terrace, Harevvood Square. 1852. Folio). 


c. 1420 (Haines). A Civilian, Furneaux Pelham, Herts. ; 

anelace ; feet on dog (? John Barloe with wife 

1 42 1. John Lyndewode, woolman, Linwood, Lines. 

(son of above) ; anelace ; feet on v/ool-pack 

bearing a merchant's mark. 
1425. William Chichele, Higham Ferrers, Northants ; 

wearing mantle; no girdle ; feet on dog. Sheriff 

and Alderman of London. 
1425. Roger Sender, Erith, Kent; the tunic only 

reaching just below the knees. 
c. 1425. Hugo atte Spetyll, Luton, Beds. ; tight sleeves ; 

hood ; no girdle. (Wife lost ; son John in 

mass vestments.) 
1427. William Bayly, half effigy, Berwick Basset, 

Wilts. ; hood ; similar to Thomas Polton, 


1429. Roger Thornton, All Saints', Newcastle-on- 

Tyne ; Flemish ; hair wavy ; tunic reaching to 
feet ; very long anelace hanging from girdle 
on left side, with ornamented scabbard ; feet 
on dog gnawing a bone. The seven sons 
beneath have shorter tunics and no anelaces. 

1 430. William West, marbler, Sudborough, Northants ; 

small, standing next to John West, priest {see 
pp. 68, 71). 

143 1. Nicholas Canteys, Margate, Kent; long beard; 

anelace on left side ; boots embroidered with 
stars, and laced up on the inner side. 

At Baldock, Herts., is a Civilian, dated by Haines 
c. 1420, attired as a hunter, possibly William Vynter, 
141 6. ^ He wears a girded tunic, reaching to the knees, 
with tight sleeves, and a hood ; flowing hair and forked 
beard ; a horn hanging on his right side by a strap passino- 
over the left shoulder. On his left side an anelace, the 
scabbard of which sheathes two smaller knives (^has- 
tardeau "), hangs from the girdle, and a coil of rope, one 



end of which seems to have been fastened to a dog at the 
feet ; but the part below the knees of the effigy is lost. 

Towards the middle of the century some changes are 
observable. The hood goes out of use. The fur-lined 
tunic has a shorter skirt, and less " baggy " sleeves. The 
undergarment appears at the wrists, and sometimes at the 
neck. The hose often are seen on the feet without half- 
boots. The hair is cut close, assuming a roll-shaped 
form. The face is clean-shaven. The anelace is rarely 
worn. A fur-lined, girded tunic, with surplice-like hang- 
ing sleeves, probably the '■^ houppelande^'' is worn by Sir 
Thomas Brook, 1437 (d. 141 9V Thorncombe, Devon, 
whose feet rest on a hound. A similar tunic, but with 
broad, falling collar, showing the under-tunic at the neck, 
is seen at Trotton, Sussex, on the small figure of Sir 
Richard Camoys, standing beside his mother on the brass 
of Lord and Lady Camoys, 1424.^ 

A few of the numerous extant examples of the ordinary 
costume are as follows : — 

c. 1430. A Civilian (with priest and lady). Melton, 
Suffolk ; wearing a hood ; feet lost. 

^ He wears Collar of SS. 

2 Similar gowns are worn with turban-wise chaperons by small figures 
on the sides of the alabaster altar-tomb of Sir Thomxas Arderne, Kt. 
c. 1400, and Matilda, his lady, Elford, Staffs. Motiumcntal Effi^es 
and Tombs in Elford Church, Staffordshire, by Edward Richardson, cited 
above, p. 204 note. See also illustration in Planche from Royal MS. 1 5, E 6, 
in which John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, wearing a houppelande, pre- 
sents a book to Henry IV. and his Queen. See also "The Miniatures 
in Harleian MS. 1,319," reproduced in \.h.& Burlington Magazine, Maj 
and June, 1904, "A Contemporary Account of the Fall of Richard the 
Second," by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. An example of 
similar arrangement to that on the Camoys brass (son on mother's skirt) 
is afforded by an incised slab at Longforgan, Perthshire, c. 1420, Johanes 
de Galychtly and Mariota, his wife (the son, like the father, in armour). 
See " Notice of an Incised Sepulchral Slab found in the Church of Long- 
forgan, Perthshire," by A. H. Millar, F.S.A. Scot., Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol. XXXIV., 1900, p. 463 (illus. p. 464). 


c. 1430. John Todenham, St. John Maddermarket, 

1432. Nicholas CareWjBeddington, Surrey; feet on dog. 
1435. Joh'^ Ailmer, Erith, Kent; wearing half-boots. 
c. 1435.. Hugo Bostock, Wheathampstead, Herts. ; father 

of John de Whethamstede, Abbot of St. 


1437. Robert Skern, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey; 

girdle ornamented with rosettes hanging down 
on left side (no anelace, as supposed by 

1437. John Bacon, woolman. All Hallows' Barking, 

London ; feet on wool-pack ; boots laced up on 

the inner side. 
1439. Edmund Forde, Esq., Swainswick, Somerset; 

anelace hanging on left side. 
1440 (?) Robert Pagge, Cirencester, Gloucs. ; feet on 

wool-pack with merchant's mark ; boots laced 

up on inner side. 

144 1 . John Parker, Margate, Kent ; feet on dog ; boots 

like Pagge's. 

1442. Peter Stone, Margate, Kent ; similar to last, but 

wearing anelace on left side. 
1447. Thomas Fortey, woolman, and William Scors, 
tailor, Northleach, Gloucs. ; their boots 
fastened in front ; between Scors' feet a pair 
of shears. 

1449. John Quek (and son), Birchington, Kent ; wear- 

ing anelace on left side. Each wears boots like 

1450. William Welley, merchant. Chipping Campden, 


c. 1450. A Wool Merchant, Lechdale, Gloucs. ; feet on 

145 1. John Younge, woolman. Chipping Norton, 

Oxon. ; feet on two wool-packs. ' 
1454. Roger Felthorp, Blickling, Norfolk; his nine 
sons similarly clad. 



1455. Richard Manfeld (with brother and sister), 
TaploWj Bucks. 

1458. John Fortey, woolman, Northleach, Gloucs. ; 

right foot on sheep, left on wool-pack. 

1459. Richard Quek, Birchington, Kent. 

c. 1460. Sir Edward Courtenay, Christ Church, Oxford; 

feet on dog ; boots like Pagge's ; anelace 
hanging on left side, the scabbard containing 
two small knives (bastardeau). 
1467. John Lethenard, merchant, Chipping Campden, 
Gloucs. ; wearing boots. 

A period of transition may be remarked in some 
effigies, e.g. : — 

1470. John Wynter, St. Margaret's, Canterbury. 
c. 1470. A Civilian, with sons, Abingdon Pigotts, Cambs. 
c, 1480. Jenkyn Smith, St. Mary's, Bury St. Edmunds, 

The two former wear the fur-lined tunic, but with 
sleeves of equal breadth; the collar of the under-dress 
appearing at the neck. A trefoil is seen between the feet, 
which are shod in pointed boots. The third is kneeling, 
has no girdle to his tunic, which falls loosely round him, 
and wears a collar Yorkist) with a pendant (?the white 
lion of March). All three have the hair cut short, and 
roll-shaped. Similar to the last, but with a girdle and 
without a collar, is the kneeling effigy of a civilian, c. 1480, 
Chrishall, Essex. Roger Kyngdon, c. 147 1, Quethiock, 
Cornwall, wears the long civilian tunic, next described, 
with a rosary at his belt ; but his hair is in the roll form. 

In the last quarter of the century a distinct change is 
visible. The hair is worn long. The tunic or gown 
assumes a cassock-like appearance, and though open in 
front, does not, as a rule, appear so on brasses. The 
pointed shoes become modified, and are soon to be rounded 
or square-toed, like the change from sollerets to sabbatom. 


ELIZABETH, c. 1480, 
Childrey, Berks. 


noticed in our account of armour. The feet usually rest 
on the ground, on which is often a conventional plant or 
slipped trefoil. From the girdle hangs a gypciere, fre- 
quently with a rosary, usually of twelve beads. To this 
costume is sometimes added the hood, worn on the 
shoulder, as a rule the right one. This hood is the de- 
scendant of the chaperon^ which we have noticed in the 
attire of fourteenth-century civilians. But it has passed 
through a curious transition. It became the fashion in 
the latter part of the fourteenth century to wear it hori- 
zontally, that is, with the crown of the head inserted in 
the opening, which formerly enclosed the face. The ends 
were then tucked in turban-wise, and this coiffure was 
called a bourrelet. We now see it in the form of a cap 
with a long streamer or scarf, representing the liripipe of 
the hood, the tippet part hanging on the back^ : — a shape 
that was retained by the Knights of the Garter, as seen on 
the Bullen brass at Hever (1538). 

Examples are numerous.^ The following may easily be 
supplemented : — 

c. 1475. Notary, St. Mary Tower, Ipswich; hood on 
left shoulder ; penner (or pen-case) and ink- 
horn hanging to girdle on the right ; an in- 
scribed roll on his breast ; a skull and bones 
on the ground at the feet. 
1475. ^ Civilian, Littlebury, Essex; hood on right 
shoulder ; gypciere and rosary. 

<:. 1 47 5 . A Civilian, Hempstead, Essex ; similar to the last. 

1 %ee Planche, Cyclopaedia of Costume, sub mm. Hood, and the Rev. 
N. F. Robinson's "Pileus Quadratus, etc," Transactions of St. Paul's 
Ecclesiological Society, 1901, Vol. V., Part I. The bourrelet in many of its 
forms may be seen in the Hardwicke Hall Tapestries. See "The 
Fifteenth Century English Tapestries at Hardwicke Hall," by W. Harvey, 
The Connoisseur, Vol. III., p. 39, ' 

2 Children in this costume are frequently found on the brasses of their 
parents. Two Essex examples are: c. 1495, the four sons of Edward 
Sulyard, Esq., High Laver, and' 1 501, the five sons of Sir William Pyrton 
Little Bentley. ' ' 



1479. Thomas Selby, East Mailing, Kent. 
.1480. A Civilian, British Museum; hood on left 
shoulder ; gypciere and rosary. 

1483. Geoffrey Kidwelly, Esq., Little Wittenham, 

Berks ; hood on left shoulder ; gypciere and 

1484. William Gybbys, Chipping Campden, Gloucs. ; 

rosary on right. 

1485. William Goldwell, Great Chart, Kent. 
. 1485. Thomas Kyllygrewe, St. Gluvias, Cornwall; 

wearing hood on right shoulder, remarkable 
in that the cap assumes a hat-like appearance, 
and the scarf or liripipe seems to be attached 
to it by two bands. 
1488. William Mond and John Sayer, Newington, 
Kent ; the former wearing a cap on the right 
shoulder, and a gypciere ; round shoes. 
1488. John Hertcombe, kneeling, Kingston-upon- 
Thames, Surrey; head lost; gypciere and 
rosary on right ; round shoes. 
1493. John Ceysyll, Tormarton, Gloucs.; gypciere 
and rosary. 

1496. John Beriffe, Brightlingsea, Essex; gypciere 
and rosary. 

1497. John Camber, Sevenhampton, Gloucs.; hood 
on right shoulder ; gypciere and rosary. 

1497. William Maynwaryng, Ightfield, Salop; head 
gone; rosary, gypciere, and anelace with 

In the last decade of the fifteenth century the fur-lined 
robe resembles a dressing-gown in shape, turned back down 
the front to show the fur, and with broad fur collar and 
cuffs. This robe either hangs loose, or is confined by a 

X Another late instance of a knife worn by a civilian '^^ f^^^f^jj^l 
brass of Henry Jarmon, 1480, Geddington, Northants, who wears a 
small knife and rosary hanging from his girdle. 


Little Wittenham, Berks. 



girdle to which a gypci^re and rosary are found attached. 
In the former case, the gypci^re is sometimes seen fastened 
to the girdle of the under-tunic and worn beneath the 
outer gown. The shoes are broad-toed, and become 
clumsy and loose in appearance. This costume continued 
to the middle of the sixteenth century, becoming gradu- 
ally superseded by the gown with long, false sleeves about 
to be described, and was worn by young as well as old, 
frequently figuring on the effigies of boys on the brasses 
of their parents. Examples are common : — 

1498. John Rusche, All Hallows Barking, London. 
1498. John Stokys, Seend, Wilts. 
1500. John Sedley, Southfleet, Kent. 
. ^. 1500. Richard Wakeherst, Esq. (1457), Ardingley, 

1506. John Colman, Little Waldingfield, Suffolk. 
1506. Robert Wymbyll, Notary, St. Mary Tower, 

Ipswich ; pen-case and ink-bottle on the left. 
1 5 10. John, son of Sir John Seymour, Great Bedwyn 

Wilts. ^ ' 

1 5 1 o. Ralf Rowlat, Merchant of the Staple, St. Alban's, 

^.1510. A Notary, New College, Oxford ; pen- case and 
ink-bottle on right. 

1 5 1 7. Thomas Goddard, Ogbourne St. George, Wilts ; 
gypciere worn beneath gown. 
c. 1520. A Civilian, St. Breock, Cornwall. 

1526. William Freme, Berkeley, Gloucs. ; head lost 
His gown has a fur cape. He holds a heart 
inscribed " m'cy." 

1529. William Bloor, Gent., Rainham, Kent. The 
under-tunic is seen reaching to the knees with 
embroidery at the neck and edge of the skirt 
The gypciere is beneath the furred gown • the 
broad shoes are tied with bows. In the in- 
scription Henry VIII. is described as « Fidei 



iCTC. Andrew Evyngar, All Hallows, Barking, 
London; Flemish. The long under-tunic 
is well shown. 

1564. Pawle Yden, Gent., Penshurst, Kent. 

About the year 1 520 a change in the form of the gown 
is seen. It is without girdle, open down the front i he 
arms, instead of passing through the whole ength of the 
sleeves, are carried through openings below the shoulders, 
producing the effect of long, false sleeves, hangnig as 
pendants.^ This fashion is no novelty, but is not tound 
on brasses before this time. The lost effigy, however, of 
Christopher Elcok, draper, 1492, formerly at bt. Mary 
Magdalene's, Burgate, Canterbury, showed the arms pass- 
ing through short, false sleeves attached to the cassock- 
like tunic (described p. 208), to the girdle of which a 
rosary and gypcifere were fastened. Instances occur of the 
slit in the sleeve appearing, although the arm passes 
through the whole length of it {e.g., c 1520 a Civilian 
Brown Candover, Hants ; c. 1520, a Civihan (mutilated), 
Euston, Suffolk; 1 521, William Cheswryght, Fordham, 
cLbs • 1^24, John Terry, and 1525, John Marsham, 
St. John Maddermarket, Norwich). Beneath the gown 
are worn the square-skirted doublet, usually girded, the 
sleeves of which come through the openings in the gown- 
sleeves, and long hose. On the feet are low, broad shoes. 
The hair is worl long, but the face remains clean-shaven. 
The rosary disappears in the religious disturbances. 
The following are some examples :— 
ir2C. Thomas Pownder, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich, 

Suffolk; Flemish. 
I r . I . Thomas Potter, Westerham Kent. 
I C.2. Robert Goodwyn, Necton, Norfolk. 
I r^^. Henry Hatch, Faversham, Kent. 
1535. Richard Sawnders, Pottesgrove, Beds. 

-7^:^-^;;;^^ the clergy. Sec above, pp. 1 1 5" 




1542. Thomas Fromond, Esq., Cheam, Surrey; kneel- 

1542. Sir Thomas Nevell, Kt., Mereworth, Kent; a 
cross hanging by a long chain round the neck ; 

1546. Robert Barfott, Lambourne, Essex. 

^55^' John Selyard, Edenbridge, Kent ; small gypciere 
fastened to girdle of doublet. 

1558. Edward Crane, Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk. 

1 5 6 1 . Robert Swift, kneeling, Rotherham, Yorks. (rect- 
angular plate). 
c. 1565. A CiviHan, Southminster, Essex. 

In civil as in military costume the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth introduced some alterations. The hair was 
worn short, and moustaches and pointed beards became 
the fashion. The square-cut doublet became shorter, 
though longer in the waist, and was buttoned down the 
front, fitting the body tightly, and having a short, pointed 
skirt below a waistband or sash. Over the long hose 
were worn trunk hose, stuffed or " bombasted like beer- 
barrels," which in their turn gave way to stuffed breeches, 
the hose becoming two articles of dress : — the " upper 
stocks " or breeches, and the " nether stocks " (our stock- 
ings), the garters for which, usually tied in bows, are 
visible on some brasses. The long gown with false sleeves 
became modified in some particulars, the false sleeve be- 
coming a mere strip, often elaborately slashed or striped, 
hanging from behind the shoulder. This gown, fre- 
quently without fur-edging or lining, continued in use 
.during the seventeenth century, but seems to have been 
worn more by " reverend signors " than by their children ; 
the latter and the younger gallants generally seeming to 
have preferred a short, open cloak, often of rich materials, 
which we find worn towards the end of the sixteenth and 
throughout the seventeenth century. The shoes lost their 
clumsy appearance, and were small and round-toed, a 
feature noticed in the military brasses of the period. 


Ruffs and frills were worn at the neck and wrists. This 
costume, with but slight alteration, lasted to the end of 
James I.'s reign. The effigies are often represented 
standing on a chequered pavement. Examples are ex- 
ceedingly numerous. 

Examples in the long gown : — 
1567. Thomas Noke, Esq., Shottesbrooke, Berks.; 

crown-keeper's badge on the left shoulder.' 
1570. John Webbe, St. Thomas', Salisbury, Wilts. 
1 574. Richard Payton, Isleham, Cambs. 
I C76. Edward Bell, Writtle, Essex. 
1586. Edward Arundell, Mawgan in Pyder, Cornwall. 
I C87. Michael Fraunces, St. Martin's, Canterbury. 

1590. Laurence Hyde, Esq., Tisbury, Wilts.; rect- 

angular plate. , ^ „ n 

1 59 1. Robert Whalley, Gent., Queens College, Cam- 

bridge. ^ , 

1592. Roger James, All Hallows Barking, London. 
1600. Richard Thornhill, Bromley, Kent. 

1 607. Jacob Verzelini, Esq., Downe, Kent. 

1 6 1 c. James Hobart, Esq., Loddon, Norfolk. 

1 6 1 6. John Darley, Gent., Rawmarch, Yorks. ; kneehng. 

The short cloak, under which a rapier was frequently 
worn on the left side, obviously gives a better opportumty 
than the gown for seeing the doublet and breaches o 
trunk hose, often slashed or embroidered^ ^^I'^VtW 
are well depicted worn by sons on the brasses of their 
parents. Good examples, though they wear a kind ot 

Quethlock, Cornwall; a brass belonging ^%^^^\f°^2°,eV of brasses 
1480 ; and 1 5 19, J'^^^^s ^ornj, Skpton Budcs^^ Crown on their 
of Yeomen of the Guard, with the badge of ^he Ko^^ ana^ 
breasts are known,.,., Wimam ^^^f/o^^f^.t E^^^^ Kent, 
Rampston (with sword), l5»5.^ost trom f,. j g ving 

.S,.": Aston, Herts.; Thomas Mount,gue ho d.n|^^ ^J^^i 
bread to two poor men, 1630, Wmktield, cerKs. 

tion, p. cxxvu. 

Ermington, Devon. 




long open gown, are afforded by the two boys on the 
brass of Lady Norton, 1580, Newington, Kent; and 
without cloak or gown, by Henry Baynton, Esq., kneeling, 
on the brass of his father, Sir Edward Baynton, Kt., 1578, 
Bromham, Wilts. 

The following are some examples in short cloaks : — 

1582. Edward Bugge, Gent., Harlow, Essex. 

1584. Edward Wiot, Esq., Tillingham, Essex ; kneeling. 

1585/6. Humphrey and Humphrey Heies, West Thur- 

rock, Essex ; the son a good example. 
1587. George Clifton, Esq., Clifton, Notts. 
1592. John Lyon, Harrow, Middlesex, founder of the 


1594. George Duke, Gent., Honington, Suffolk. 

1606. Effigy in private possession, probably Arthur 

Crafford, Gent., from South Weald, Essex ; the 

cloak has an embroidered border. 

1609. Thomas Garland, Todwick, Yorks. ; kneeling. 

1 610. John Cremer, Snettesham, Norfolk, and sons. 
1 615. John Gladwin, Harlow, Essex. 

The mutilated effigy (lacking head and legs) of William 
Hyldesley, 1576, at Crowmarsh Giffard, Oxon., shows a 
short cloak with false sleeves, worn over a doublet, to the 
girdle of which hangs a large gypciere on the right side. 
Trunk hose were worn. 

The reign of Charles I. introduced collar and cuffs in 
preference to ruffs. The doublet sometimes ends below 
the waist in two peaks, not joining. The knee-breeches 
are rnuch reduced in size; the hair is worn long; the 
large jack-boot appears ; rapiers are worn below the short 

Examples in long gowns with false sleeves : — 
1624. Richard Gadburye, Eyworth, Beds.; wearing a 
broad-brimmed hat ; the gown curiously braided 
and with many loops and buttons. 



1626. John Gunter, Cirencester, Gloucs. 

1630. John Kent, Esq., St. John's, Devizes, Wilts. 

1 63 1. Robert Coulthirst, Kirkleatham, Yorks. ; book in 

right hand, stick in left. 
1636. Henry Gibbes, St. James', Bristol; kneeling. 

1638. William Jones, Gent., St. Mary's, Dover, Kent. 

1639. Thomas Covell, Esq., St. Mary's, Lancaster. 

1 647. John Morewood, Bradfield, W. Yorks. ; kneeling ; 
skull-cap ; rectangular plate. 

Examples in short cloaks : — 
c. 1630. A Civilian, Croydon, Surrey. 

1 63 1 . Richard Chiverton, Quethiock, Cornwall ; locally 


1632. William Gardiner, Daylesford, Worcs. ; right 

hand holding book ; jack-boots and spurs. 
1634. John King, Gent., Southminster, Essex. 
c. 1 635. The sons on the brass of Sir John Arundel, Knt., 
St. Columb Major, Cornwall; jack-boots. 
(The sons of John Arundel, Esq., 1633, at 
the same place, are similarly attired.) 

1638. The sons on the brass of Sir Edward Filmer, 

Kt., East Sutton, Kent, except the eldest. 
The short cloaks have sleeves, but the arms 
are not inserted in them ; all but the youngest 
wear jack-boots ; the latter has rosettes at his 

1 639. Robert Alfounder, East Bergholt, Suffolk ; jack- 

boots and spurs. The breeches terminate 
at the knees in nebule-shaped cannons. 

1 64 1. William Randolph, Biddenden, Kent. 

1642. William Septvans [alias Harflet), Esq., Ash- 

next-Sandwich, Kent ; the cloak longer than 

A curious local engraving at Heigham, Norfolk, repre- 
sents a cavalier, " Thomas Holl, second son of Thomas 
Holl, Esq.," 1630. His hair has a periwig-like appear- 
ance. His collar is trimmed with lace. The sword sash 





passes over the right shoulder, from which a scarf hangs. 
He wears jack-boots. 

Eighteenth-century civilian costume is represented on 
the brass of Benjamin Greenwood, 1773, St. Mary Cray, 
Kent, who wears a large coat, the cuffs of which are turned 
back, a long waistcoat, knee-breeches, stockings, shoes, 
and a wig. 

The graceful mantle (doubtless descended from the 
classical chlamys) fastened by buttons on the right shoulder, 
which we have remarked worn in the fourteenth century, 
continued in use, as an insigne of civic dignitaries, mayors, 
and aldermen, worn over the gown of the period, long 
after it had gone out of fashion. Such a qualification is, 
probably, the cause of its appearance on most of the 
following effigies. Haines remarks (pp. ccxl.-i.) that the 
dress of mayors and aldermen of the sixteenth century 
" consisted of a red gown, a black or brown mantle, and 
a short black scarf, which last appears in some instances 
"to have been worn by mayors only."^ Some examples, 
a large proportion of which are in Norwich, are as 
follows : — 

1432. Robert Baxter, St. Giles', Norwich. 

1433. Simon Seman, Barton-on-Humber, Lines. 
1436. Richard Purdaunce, St. Giles', Norwich. 
1436. John Asger, St. Laurence, Norwich. 

c. 1450. John Arderne, Esq., Leigh, Surrey. 
c. 1460. John Browne, All Saints', Stamford, Lines. 
c. 1460. William Browne {d. 1489), All Saints', Stamford, 

1472. William Norwiche, St. George Colegate, Nor- 

^ See footnote 2, p. 109. The brass of Edward Goodman, Burgesse and 
Mercer of Ruthin, 1560, Ruthin, Denbighshire, shows him wearing over 
a long doublet a fur-lined gown with false sleeves, a cap, and a short scarf. 
Reproduced in J Memoir of Galriel Goodman, D.D., Demi of Westminster, 
etc., by the Rev. Richard Newcome. Ruthin, 1825. 



c. 14.J2. Ralph Segrym (?), St. John Maddermarket, 

1474. John Feld, Standon, Herts. 

1475. John Brown, junr., All Sahits', Stamford, Lines. 

1477. John Croke, All Hallows Barking, London. 

1478. Thomas Rowley, St. John, Bristol. 
1487. John Lambarde, Hinxworth, Herts. 

1496. Henry Spelman, " Hospes " and Recorder of 
Norwich, Narburgh, Norfolk. 
c. 1 500. Robert Gardiner (?), St. Andrew, Norwich. 

1 5 13. Richard Brasyer and son, St. Stephen, Norwich. 
c. 1 5 13. Robert Brasyer, St. Stephen, Norwich. 

1524. John Terry, St. John Maddermarket, Norwich. 

1525. John Marsham, St. John Maddermarket, Nor- 


1529. John Cooke, St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester. 

1539. Nicholas Leveson, St. Andrew Undershaft, 


1540. John Semys, St. John Baptist, Gloucester. 
1558. Robert Rugge, St. John Maddermarket, Nor- 

1573. Sir William Harper, in armour, St. Paul's, 

1 5 74. Richard Atkinson, St. Peter-ih-the-East, Oxford. 

From this design was copied : — 
1826. William Fletcher, Yarnton, Oxon. (Mayor of 

Oxford, Antiquary). 


0f f e^al O^trgfum^ 



For centuries les gens de role have retained a costume 
appropriate to their respective functions. On the origin 
of this costume, as to whether or not it illustrates the 
quasi-sacerdotium'' of Judges and their ecclesiastical origin, 
we do not propose to enlarge. It is a subject involved 
in much uncertainty. That ecclesiastics often exercised 
judicial functions there can be no doubt ; but that they 
did so by virtue of their Orders is by no means proved. 
At any rate, by the time when we find the costume of a 
judge engraved on a brass, the law had renounced any 
allegiance which it may ever have owed to the Church. 
Largely from Mr. Serjeant PuUing's work, The Order of the 
Coif^ surveying the position of the Serjeants-at-law from 
early times to the present day, the following notes have 
been drawn, for the purpose of illustrating the costume 
which we find on brasses. 

It would appear that the following classes existed in the 
legal profession : — 

Attornati et apprenticii ad legem {apprentices de la ley), who 
" came to form two very distinct classes, the class of ap- 
" prenticii ad legem coming first, and gradually embracing 
not only the learners, but the learned, the sages gentz, 
"the counsellors, the apprenticii ad Barros^ who consti- 
"tuted with the older order of the Serjeants, the Bar, 
" whilst the Attornati came to occupy a prominent place 
" for many ages subordinate to the Bar and governed by 
" no system of regulation, except those which from time 

I The Order of the Coif, by AlexanderPulIing, Serjeant-at-law. London : 
William Clowes & Sons, Limited, 27 Fleet Street, 1897. A letter by 
George Bowyer on the history of the degree of Serjeant-at-law will be 
found in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, ist Series, Vol. I , p 178 
(February 25th, 1847). 



" to time special statutes, or the reguU generates of the 
"Judges, prescribed."^ 

From the ranks of the Apprenticii ad Barros (or Utter 
Barristers, corresponding to the modern Barrister) were 
chosen the Servientes ad legem^ or Serjeants-at-law ; and 
from the King's Serjeants (Servientes Regis ad legem) were 
chosen the Judges of the one bench and the other (King's 
Bench and Common Pleas), and the Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, who, with the Serjeants, constituted the Order 
of the Coif.^ 

The Serjeants-at-law (Serjeant Counters, Serjeants of 
the Coif) formed a far more exclusive and privileged class 
than the King's Counsel, who, in modern times, have to 
so large an extent usurped their position. Their per- 
manent rank placed them immediately after Knights 
Bachelor, and they may be compared in degree to the 
Doctors in the higher faculties. Under the old system 
"at Westminster Hall," writes Mr. Serjeant Pulling, 
" . . . the Serjeants-at-law not only had the precedence 
"and preaudience, but constituted the whole Common 
"Pleas Bar," 3 in which court they had the right of ex- 
clusive audience. 

The Coif'* {tena^^ hirettum alburn)^ which gave its name 
to the Order, being described by Fortescue as the " prin- 
" cipal and chief insignment of habit wherewith Serjeants- 
" at-law on their creation are decked," was a close-fitting 
kind of skull-cap, tied beneath the chin, made of white 

1 The Order of the Coif, p. 112. 

2 " Sir E Coke describes the ordinary gradation of members as first, 
<^Moomen or Students" [sometimes called Gentlemen under the Bar or 
"Inner Barristers, constituting legal undergraduates] ; "secondly, Utter 
" Barristers" [who had/^W the Bar or graduated] ; "thirdly, Ancients ; 
" fourthly, Readers and Double Readers ; and fifthly, Serjeants-at-law, 
<' the King's Serjeants and the Judges." — The same, p. 171. 

3 The same, p. 210. 

4 Called "houve" by Langeland, Vision of Piers Ploughman, c. 1 369. 

5 Doubtless so called from the strings, tena or infula, which tied it 
beneath the chin, the ends of which may be the origin of bands. 



lawn or silk, frequently with a band down the centre. 
The origin of this coiffure is lost in obscurity, such ex- 
planations as that it was worn to conceal the tonsure, or 
the latter's absence, whether right or wrong being incapable 
of proof. We must be content with an admission of 
ignorance as to its original significance, and with a state- 
ment that it constituted as much a part of the insignia of 
the Serjeant-at-law, as the pointed pileus formed a part 
of those of the Doctor in Theology {see p. 125). 

Over this coif the judges sometimes wore a skull-cap of 
black silk or velvet, the remains of which, as of the coif, 
were to be seen in the small circular white patch with 
black centre shown on the top of the Serjeant's long wig. 
This black skull-cap is quite distinct from the judge's black, 
square, or corner cap, known as the sentence cap, worn, 
according to Mr. Serjeant Pulling's supposition, to veil 
the coif, but, possibly, merely as a symbol of dignity and 
authority ; for it was ordered to be worn in church, when 
on circuit.^ 

Chief Justice Fortescue states^ that "a Serjeant-at-law 

^ See the " Solemn Decree and Rule made by all the Judges of the 
Courts at Westminster bearing date the fourth day of June, An. 1635," 
in Dugdale's Origines Jurtdlcales; also "English Academical Costume 
(Mediaeval)," by Professor E. C. Clark, LL.D., F.S.A., Archaological 
JournakVoX. L., 1893, pp. 142-3 ; and the "Pileus Quadratus, etc," by the 
Rev. N. F. Robinson, 5/. Paul's Ecclesiologkal Society's Transactions, Vol. V., 
Part I., 1 90 1. At Weekley, Northants, the monument of Sir Edward 
Montagu {d. 1556) shows him in judge's robes, and wearing over the 
coif a pileus quadratus ; engraved in Sepulchral Memorials, cotuisting of 
engravings from the Altar Tombs, Effigies, and Monuments, ancient and modern, 
contained within the County of Northampton, from the pen-drawings of 
W H. Hyett. London: Nicholls, 1817. At Wroxeter, Salop, the 
alabaster effigy of Sir Thomas Bromley (S.L. 1 540, C.J. of King's Bench, 
^. 1555) shows scarlet gown lined with light green, a red mantle, and a 
black square cap. (See Transactions of Shropshire Jrchceological and Natural 
History Society, 2nd series, Vol. I., 1889, p. 15.) 

2 De Laudibus Legum Anglic, C. li. : " Roba longa ad instar sacerdotis 
<n T^if ^^^^^ humeros ejus et desuper collobio cum duobus 
" labcllulis quahter uti solent doctores legum in universitatibus quibusdam 
" cum supra descripto birreto vestiebatur." 


*' is clothed in a long robe not unlike the sacerdotal 
" habit, with a furred cape, about his shoulders, and a hood 
'* over it, with two lapels or tippets such as the Doctors 
" of Law use in some universities, with a coif as is above 
" described." 

This bears much similarity to academical costume, there 
being a striking resemblance in the dress of Thomas Rolf, 
S.L., 1440, legi pfessus " at Gosfield, Essex, who appears 
to wear a tabard over his " long robe," to that ot the 
Master of Arts, described p. 135. Indeed, it is well-nigh 
identical but for coif and bands.' {See Professor Clark, 
Vol. L., Archaologkal Journal, pp. 203-4.) 

The " long robe " is best described as being " cassock- 
like," worn without girdle. Over this is seen a fur cape 
or tippet," lined and edged with lambs' wool (budge), and 
a hood. On the colour of these garments much Hght is 
thrown by four illuminations from a MS. {temp Henry VL) 
described and illustrated in the Archaologia^ Vol. XXXIX., 
1863.3 Here the Serjeants are seen standing by their 
clients, and wearing parti-coloured robes (Chaucer's 
<' medlee cote ") of blue and green, rayed or striped, as 

1 At the Exhibition of English Embroidery executed prior to the 
middle of the Sixteenth Century, held at the Burhngton Fine Arts Club, 
IQ05, were shown two copes, f. 1500 (Case R., Nos. 2 and 4). 1^"^. 
Oscott College, Birmingham, on the orphreys of which figures, holding 
rolls in the left hand, appear in robes, possibly those of a serjeant :-a 
long robe (roba talaris) ; over it a shorter gown with surplice-like sleeves 
{taberdtm)oi?. colour lighter than that of the long robe; a green hood 
and white coif. 

2 Langeland's " pelease." 

3 " Observations on four Illuminations representing the Courts of 
Chancery King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer at Westminster, 
from a MS of fhe time of King Henry VI., in a letter from G. R. Corner, 
Esq , F.S.A., to Frederic Ouvry, Esq., Treasurer." Read December 6th, 
i860 pp 7-3 7 2, Vol. XXXIX., ^rfWo^^, 1863. 

A°'Faversham, Kent, was found, in 1851, a fourteenth-century wall- 
paindnroftTneeling'figure (P Robert D°d) wearing red cassock-l^e 
robe, tippet, and hood (apparently combined , and white coif. 
" Fa;ersham Church, Kent," by Thomas Willement, Esq., F.S.A., 
pp. i5o-i53» Archaolo^a Cantiatia, Vol. I., 185b. 



though they had accepted some patron's livery in accord- 
ance with the practice of the age. Sir William Dugdale, 
in his Origines Juridicales, says: "The robes they now 
" use do still somewhat resemble those of the justices of 
"either bench, and are of three distinct colours, viz., 
" murrey, black furred with white, and scarlet ; but^ the 
" robe which they usually wear at their creation only is of 
" two colours, viz., murrey and mouse-colour ; whereunto 
" they have a hood suitable, as also a Coif of white silk or 

Unfortunately the few brasses, which we possess, of 
Serjeants-at-law, give no indication of colour. 

The illuminations, just mentioned, amply illustrate the 
scarlet colour of the robes of the Judges. Li form these 
are the same as those of the Serjeants, as members of the 
same Order : — a long robe (supertunic or surcoat) with or 
without girdle, cape, hood, and coif, with the exception 
that the hood is worn over a mantle fastened on the right 
shoulder, in the manner prevalent in the fourteenth cen- 
tury. "After he [the Serjeant] is made a Judge, instead 
" of the Hood he shall be habited with a cloak fastened 
" upon his right shoulder. He still retains the other 
" ornaments of a Serjeant, with the exception that a Judge 
" shall not use a parti-coloured habit, as the Serjeants do ; 

^ " In the Liber Famelkus of Sir James Whitelocke, edited by John 
"Bruce, Esq., F.S.A., and published by the Camden Society, 1858, he. 
" relates that on the occasion of his being created a Serjeant, June 29th, 
" 1620, after taking his leave of the Society of the Middle Temple, they 
" attended him to Serjeants' Inn in Fleet Street ; where, his party-coloured 
" robe being put upon him in his chamber, he was conducted into the 
" hall by the tipstaves, his scarlet hood and his coif laid upon it being 
" carried before him by his man. And, after recording the expenses of his 
"creation and robes, he adds: 'Memorandum: I made no black robe, 
" nor purple, because I was not to need them, but only a party-coloured 
" and a scarlet ; the party-coloured, a robe, a hood, and tabard ; the 
" scarlet, a robe and hood,' He says further : *I rode circuit in summer, 
" 1620, Serjeant-at-law, and practised in my party-coloured robe on 
"Sundays and holidays, both in the circuit and in the term.'" — "Obser- 
vations on Four Illuminations, etc" Jrchieolo^ayWoX. XXXIX., 1863, 
p. 37°- 




" and his cape is furred with minever, whereas the Serjeant's 
" cape is always furred with lambs' wool." ' 

From this we see that more costly fur, minever, was 
used,^ and that the robes were not to be parti-coloured. 

The Barons of the Exchequer {Scaccarium), except the 
Chief, and the Masters in Chancery, were not, necessarily, 
of the Coif, and, accordingly, were of lower rank. The 
illuminations cited show four Barons,^ each either wearing 
or holding a curious high cap (or chaperon), not unlike 
that worn by John Edward, 1461, Rodmarton, Gloucs. 
{see below). The four Masters in Chancery are tonsured. 
In each case these robes are of mustard colour, in the case 
of the Exchequer of the same shape as the Judge's ; but 
the centre figures are in scarlet. 

The following are the brasses of Judges remaining : — 

1400. Sir John Cassy, Kt., Deerhurst, Gloucs., Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer ; wife on dexter side ; 
mantle lined with vair ; cape does not appear ; 
the sleeves of the under-tunic end in buttoned 
mittens ; feet rest on lion, facing sinister. 

' Fortescue, De Laudibus, C. li., quoted by Serjeant Pulling, p. 223-4. 
See also Stow's Survey : " And now, in some Things, his former Habit 
" of a Serjeant is altered. His long Robe and Cap, his Hood and Coif 
"are the same. But there is besides a Cloak put over him, which is 
" closed on his right shoulder ; and his Caputium is lined with Minez'er, 
" that is, divers small Pieces of white rich Furr. But the Two Lord 
" Chief-Justices, and the Lord Chief Baron, have their Hoods, Sleeves 
"and Collars, turned up with Ermine." Ed. 1720, Book L, p. 122. 

*The Orders of 1635 prescribe as follows: — "The facing of their 
" Gowns, Hoods, and Mantles, is with Changable TafFata ; which they 
" must begin to wear upon Ascension Day, being the last Thursday in 
" Easter Term ; and continue those Robes until the Feast of Simon and 
" Jude : And upon Simon and Jude's day the Judges begin to wear their 
" Robes faced with white furs of Minever ; and so continue that facing 
"till Ascension Day again." See Pulling, p. 225. 

3 " Mr. Corner suggests that they are the other Barons of the Exchequer ; 
" but I doubt it, as the robes issued to them appear to have been always 
"similar in colour to those of the chief." — Planch6, Cychpadia of Costume^ 
1876, sub Robe. 

Brav, Berks. 



141 5. Sir Hugh de Holes, Kt., Watford, Herts., 
Justice of the King's Bench; feet gone. 
(Placed on the wall in 1 8 7 1 .) 

141 9. Wilham Lodyngton, Gunby, Lines., Justice of 

the Common Pleas to Henry V., S.L. 14 10; 
wearing anelace ; ' feet on leopard. 

1 420. Richard Norton, Wath, N. Yorks., Chief Justice 

of the King's Bench, S.L. 1406 ; much worn ; 
feet on lion. 

c. 1430. John Staverton (?), Eyke, Suffolk, Baron of the 
Exchequer; head gone. Probably did not 
wear the coif. 

1436. John Martyn, Graveney, Kent, Justice of the 
King's Bench, S.L. 141 5; holding heart in- 
scribed, " Ihu mcy"; feet on lion. 

1439. ^'^^ John Juyn, Kt., St. Mary RedclifFe, Bristol, 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench, S.L. 1403 ; 
feet rest on ground. 

1439. John Cottesmore, Brightwell Baldwin, Oxon., 
Chief Justice ; mural, kneeling. Commemo- 
rated by two brasses, one mural, the other on 
the floor. 

c. 1465. Nicholas Assheton, Callington, Cornwall, "one 
of the Kynges Juges," " Secundarie " of the 
Common Pleas ; feet on ground. 

1467. Sir Peter Arderne, Kt., Latton, Essex," Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, Judge of the Common 
Pleas, S.L. 1443 '■> tunic covering his feet. 

1475. Sir William Laken, Kt., Bray, Berks., Justice of 
the King's Bench, S.L. 1453 ; rosary and 
anelace hanging from girdle. 

^ An anelace and gypci^re are worn by Sir William Gascolgne, Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench temp. Henry IV. (stone effigy), Harewood, 
Yorks. The latter is seen on the alabaster effigy of Sir Richard Newton 
(S.L. 1424), Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, c. 1448, at Yatton, 

^See paper entitled, "Arderne's Chantry at Latton, Essex," by C. E. 
Johnston, The Home Counties Magazine, Vol. IV„ 1902, pp. 222-5. 


1476. Sir Richard Bingham, Kt., Middleton, Warwick- 
shire, Justice of the King's Bench, S.L. 1443 I 
wearing fur-lined gown open in front, over 
which is mantle ; feet on ground. 

1479. Sir Thomas Urswyke, Kt., Dagenham, Essex, 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 1472, formerly 
Recorder of London ; became S.L. 1479, 
which year he died. An early date of en- 
graving may account for the absence of the 
coif. Neither tippet nor hood show ; wearing 
rosary ; feet on dog. 

148 1. Sir Thomas BilHng, Kt., Wappenham, North- 
ants, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 
S.L. 1448. The slab was semee of scrolls, 
Ihu mercy " and " lady helppe." Origin- 
ally at Biddlesden, Bucks. 

1494. Brian Rouclyff, Cowthorpe, W. Yorks., third 
Baron of the Exchequer ; no coif. The 
monument has been much injured. 

1 5 13. Sir William Greville, Kt., Cheltenham, Gloucs., 
Justice of the Common Pleas, S.L. 1504; 

1538. Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, Kt.,' Norbury, Derby- 
shire, Justice of the Common Pleas, S.L. 
1 5 10; much mutilated, head gone; casting 
hood on right shoulder ; holding roll in right 

1544/5. Sir Walter Luke, Kt., Cople, Beds., Justice of 
the Common Pleas, S.L. 1531 ; mural in 
stone frame ; kneeling ; scarlet mantle and 
hood ; wearing gypciere. The traces of colour- 
ing matter are visible. 
1545. Thomas Holte, Esq., Aston, Warwickshire, 
Justice of North Wales ; the head is lost, but 

I For "The Will of the celebrated Judge, Sir Anthony Fitzherbert," 
by the Rev. R. H. C. Fitzherbert (proved 26th August, 1538), see TAe 
Reliquary, Vol. XXI., 1 880-1, p. 234. 



probably no coif, as he was not a Serjeant ; 

holding scroll in hands ; a gypciere attached 

to girdle on right ; broad shoes. 
1553. Henry Bradschawe, Esq., Halton, Bucks., Chief 

Baron of the Exchequer; kneeling; head 

bare; gypciere. 
1553. William Coke, Esq., Milton, Carnbs., Justice of 

the Common Pleas, " communi banco," S.L. 

1 547 ; casting hood hanging on right shoulder; 


1556. Sir John Spelman, Kt., Narburgh, Norfolk, 
secundary justice of the King's Bench, S.L. 
1521 ; kneeling at prayer-desk. 

1563. Nycholas Luke, Esq., Cople, Beds., Baron of 
the Exchequer ; no coif ; similar in design to 
that of Sir Vv" alter Luke, above ; gypciere. 

1567. Sir Anthony Browne, Kt., South Weald, Essex, 
Chief Justice of Common Pleas, S.L. iSSS '■> 
kneeling at prayer-desk ; only lower part of 
effigy left. 

1598. Hen. Bradshawe (ob. 1553), Noke, Oxon., 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer ; no mantle. 

c. 1470. Sir William Yelverton, Kt., Rougham, Norfolk, 
Justice of the King's Bench, S.L. 1440 ; wear- 
ing armour, over which mantle, hood, and 
collar of suns and roses ; on his head a coif. 
1570. Sir Clement Heigham, Kt., Barrow, Suffolk, 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer to Queen 
Mary, S.L. 1555; kneeling; in armour. 

At Writtle, Essex, are three shields, belonging to the 
altar-tomb of Richard Weston, Justice of the Common 
Pleas, 1572 (S.L. 1559). 

At Sedgebrook, Lines., is the matrix of the brass of 
John Markham, Lord Chief Justice iemp Edward IV. 

The few brasses of Serjeants-at-law vary more in type 
than those of the Judges : — 



1404. John Rede, Checkendon, Oxon., S.L. 1401, 
" Serviens domini Regis ad legem," or King's 
Serjeant ; wearing the cassock-like gown, from 
beneath the sleeves of which appear the 
buttoned mitten-sleeves of the under-tunic ; 
hood and pointed shoes ; no coif nor girdle ; 
the hair flowing ; feet on ground. 

1410. Nichol Rolond, Cople, Beds., possibly S.L. ; 

wearing robe with tight sleeves, tippet, hood,' 
and coif. The wife occupies the dexter side. 

1440. Thomas Rolf, Gosfield, Essex, S.L. 141 8, "legi 
pfessus " ; wearing cassock-like gown, tabard 
(as described p. 135), tippet, hood, bands, and 
coif; ''inter iuristas quasi flos enituit." Some- 
what similar to this, though without cape or 
hood, is a recumbent stone effigy of the four- 
teenth century at Pembridge, Herefordshire.^ 

1 5 1 9. Thomas Pygott, Whaddon, Bucks., S.L. 1 503. 

1522. John Brook, St. Mary Redclifl^e, Bristol, Serjeant- 
at-law to King Henry VIII., Justice of Assize 
in the west parts of England,' Chief Steward 

^ Engraved in Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Jrcka-ological 
Society, Vol. XVIII., 1 893-4, illustrating a paper, "The Dress of Civilians 
in the Middle Ages from Monumental Effigies," by Mrs. M. E. Bagnall- 
Oakeley, pp. 252-270. On brass of Thomas Rolf, see Professor Clark's 
"Mediaeval Academical Costume," Vol. L., Archaolo^cal Journal, 
pp. 203-4. Sculptured effigies of Serjeants-at-law, of a later date, exist, 
^.^.,1622, Edward Drew, Esq. (S.L. 1589), Broadclyst, Devon, "qui 
Regins Elizab. serviens erat ad legem"; 1640, John Darcy, Serjeant-at- 
law, died 1638/9, St. Osyth, Essex, above which is a mural brass inscrip- 
tion in Roman capitals engraved by Fr. Grigs. In the Proceedings of Somerset 
Archaeological and "Natural History Society, Vol. XXXVIII., 1 892, is a paper 
by H. C. Maxwell Lyte, C.B., on the Lytes of Lytescary, with an illus- 
tration from a pedigree compiled in 1631 by Thomas Lyte, of glass 
formerly in Charlton Makerel Church, depicting William Lyte, Serjeant- 
at-law, temp Edward I., kneeling in his robes. 

^See Pulling, p. 4, note 3. "Assizes may be taken before any justices 
of the one Bench or the other, or Serjeant le Roi jure, i.e., every Serjeant- 
at-law.— 4 Edw. III., c. 16." He quotes, p. 4, Chaucer's :— 
"Justice he was ful often in assise. 
By patent, and by pleine commissiun." 

St. Mary Rkdcuffe, Bristol. 




of Glastonbury Abbey ; wearing coif, tippet, 
hood, and round-toed shoes, gown, and 

15—. John Newdegate, Harefield, Middlesex, S.L. 

1 510 (wife died 1544); no cape; holding a 

1 68 1 . Edmund West, Marsworth, Bucks., S.L. 1679; 

represented in armour and lying on his left 
side, a book in right hand, a sword in left. 

At Brampton, Norfolk, is an inscription for Guybon 
Goddard, Serjeant-at-law, 1671, remarkable for its ending 
"cujus animae propitietur deus " at so late a date. 

At Great Bardfield, Essex, was formerly the effigy of 
William Bendlowes, 1584 (S.L. 1555). 

Barons of the Exchequer and Masters in Chancery are 
occasionally mentioned on brasses : — 

Barons of the Exchequer. 

1 44 8 . Nicholas Dixon, rector, Cheshunt, Herts. , " pipe 
subthesaurarius," Baron of the Exchequer; 
in cope. 

1460. Inscription, Outwell, Norfolk, to Margaret, 
wife of Gilbert Haultoft, one of the Barons of 
the Exchequer to King Henry VL 
c. 1520. Inscription, Attlebridge, Norfolk, William, son 
and heir of William Elys, Baron of the Ex- 

Masters in Chancery. 

1 56 1. John Eyer,Esq.,Narburgh, Norfolk ; in armour ; 

1565. Sir John Tregonwell, D.C.L, and a Master of 
the Chauncerye, Milton Abbas, Dorset; in 
heraldic tabard. 

1586. Nicholas West, Marsworth, Bucks. ; in armour. 


Barristers are represented by a few brasses. The terms 
in lege peritus and Apprenticius ad legem or ad leges are occa- 
sionally found, and probably denote this degree ' : — 

1437. Robert Skerii, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, 

" lege peritus " ; in civilian tunic. 
1461. John Edward, Rodmarton, Gloucs., " ffamosus 
apprenticius in lege peritus " ; wearing the 
civilian tunic of the period, but on his head 
a curious high cap of velvet or some soft 
material with an edging of fur."^ 
c. 1460. An Effigy, St. Peter's, Chester, wearing a high- 
crowned cap with vandyked base, and the 
civilian bag-sleeved gown, without girdle. 
The inscription is lost, but the similarity to 
the last-mentioned brass may justify its in- 
clusion in this class. 
1472. Robert Ingylton, Esq., Thornton, Bucks., 
in armour ; Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
Browne Willis gives a lost inscription, "qui 
quondam erat juris peritus, et totius virtutis 


1 50 1. Robert Baynard, Esq., Laycock, Wilts., "vir 
egregius et legis peritus, etc." ; in armour 
with heraldic tabard. 

1507. William Eyre, Esq., Great Cressingham, Nor- 
folk, "juris peritus" ; in civilian gown. 

15 14. Robert Southwell, Esq., Barham, Suffolk, 

the Calendar of the Freemen of Nortvich from 1317 to 1603 
(Edward II. to Elizabeth inclusive), by John L'Estrange, and edited by 
Walter Rye (London : Elliot Stock, 1882), occur the names of Edmund 
Grey, Esq., Juris Peritus, and Nicholas Hare, Esq., Legis Peritus, each 
admitted 28 Hen. VIIL 

At Preston Bagot, Warwickshire, is the brass of Elizabeth, wife of 
Wm. Randoll, legis consiliarius," 1637, 

- "In the church of Norton St. Philip, Somersetshire, is a stone effigy 
surmounted by a similar cap." — p. 61, The Monumental Brasses of 
•Gloucestershire^ by Cecil T. Davis, 1899. 



" apprenticius ad leges": wearing civilian 
fur-lined gown. 
1574. Richard Payton, Isleham, Cambs., "In Greys 
Inne student of the lawe, wheare he a Reader 
was " ; in false-sleeved gown ; holding a book 
in right hand. 

1585. Francis Saunders, Welford, Northants, "legum 
Anglie apprenticius " ; in armour. 

1596. Robert Trencreeke, St. Erme, Cornwall, 
couseler at lawe " ; kneeling in false-sleeved 

1 62 1. Thomas Palmer, Epping, Essex, "A Professor 
of that illustrious and flourishing Scyence of 
ye common Lawe, and an utter Barrester 
of that Right Worshipfull Socyetie of Lin- 
colnes Inne " ; in false-sleeved gown and 

1668. Robert Shiers, Great Bookham, Surrey, "of the 
Inner Temple, London, Esq." ; called to the 
Bar 1641, Bencher 1660, Lecturer 1667; in 
civilian costume ; holding open book in right 


1 531. Robert Fulwode, Tam worth, Warwickshire, 
"JExcellentissie doctrinat' siue litterat' in 
coie lege Anglie." 

1585. Nicholas Pury, Esq., Sanderstead, Surrey (a 
palimpsest reverse of the brass of Nicholas 
Wood, 1586, and probably a spoilt plate), 
" Templi que medii socius erat." 

1 604. John Clarke, Bennington, Herts., " Councill at 

1613. James Mott (?), Mattishall, Norfolk, four 

English verses, " He professed the lawe." 

1 614. Andrew Gray, Esq., Hinxworth, Herts., "double 

reader of ye Lawe in ye Inner Temple in 




1483. Wm, Crofton, Gent., B.C.L. of Grey's Inn, 

Trotterscliffe, Kent ; civilian gown. 
158 1. William Saxaye, Stanstead Abbotts, Herts., 

"late of Grais In gentlema," aged 23. 
1596. Inscription, William Bramfeilde, Gent., Wal- 

kern, Herts., " sumtym student of Grayes 


1 612. Arthur Strode, St. Aldate's, Oxford, of Broad- 
gates Hall, "in medio templo Londinensis 
legum studiosi," aged 23 ; wearing gown with 
false sleeves. 

The following are some brasses of other legal function- 
aries and officials : — 

1470. Hen. Unton, Sculthorpe, Norfolk, " Gentilman 

Cirographorius " (engrosser) of the Court of 

Common Pleas; in armour, kneeling; restored. 
c. 1470. Inscription to John Colard, Hailing, Kent, for 

thirty-seven years one of the King's Clerks of 

the Exchequer. 
1492. Bartholomew Willesden, Willesdon, Middlesex, 

" comptroller of the great roll of the Pipe " ; 

inscription lost ; cap with pendent scarf on 


1 5 12. John Muscote, Gent., Earls Barton, Northants, 
a prothonotary of the Court of Common 

c. 1520. John Sedley, Southfleet, Kent, '*an auditor ot 
the King's Exchequer." 

1552. Mr. Wm. Fermoure, Esq., Somerton, Oxon., 
" Clarke of the Crowne in the Kyng' Benche." 

1586. Henry Dynne, Esq., Heydon, Norfolk, "an 
auditor of the Court of Exchequer." 

1588. William Tooke, Esq., Essendon, Herts., kneel- 
ing ; Auditor of the Courte of Wardes and 



1590. William Death, Gent., Dartford, Kent, "once 
Prynsipall of Staple Inne, and one of the 
Attorneys of the Comon Pleas at Wes- 
minster " ; gown with false sleeves. 

i6i2.(?) Richard Symonds, Esq., Great Yeldham, 
Essex, a Cursitor in Chancery; kneeling; 
gown with false sleeves. 

1 630. Inscription to Richard Fittz, Letheringsett, Nor- 
folk, " one of the Cursitors of the Court of 

Besides the Notaries mentioned on pp. 209, 211, we 
have the following:: — 

1499. William Curteys, Necton, Norfolk, " notarius," 

with pen-case and ink-pot. (Wrongly stated 
by Cotman and Boutell to be at Holme Hale.) 

1500. Rich. Foxwist, Llanbeblig, Carnarvonshire ; 

Notary ; in bed holding a shield charged with 
the Stigmata ; pen-case and ink-bottle. 


1474. Robert Aldrych, Sail, Norfolk, public notary; 

1 56-. Robert Garet, Hayes, Kent, Rector of Hayes and 

Chiselhurst ; notary public. 
1580. John Bossewell, Gent., Kingsclere, Hants, " notarye 


At Great Bircham, Norfolk, was formerly the effigy of 
Master John Wattys, c. 1470, notary. 



ALYNE, c. 1325, 
Westley Waterless, Cambs. 



More from a sense of convenience than of chivalry we 
have given precedence in this account of costume to 
knights and civiHans ; for the dress of the ladies, whether 
of the fourteenth or of the nineteenth century frequently 
shows a marked tendency to imitate that of their husbands. 
It is well, therefore, to have some knowledge of the latter 
before discussing the former. 

The earliest brass of a lady, which survives in England, 
is that of Margarete de Camoys, c. 13 lo, at Trotton, 
Sussex. She wears a long and flowing cote-hardie, the 
sleeves of which end a little below the elbows, thereby 
exposing the tight-fitting buttoned sleeves of the kirtle, 
which end at the wrists. Round the throat is a wimple, 
covering the chin and carried up the sides of the face, to 
which it gave a triangular appearance.' On the head is 
the covRECHEF, kercMcf^ or veil, falling upon the shoulders, 
and held in place by two pins on either side of the fore- 
head, which, probably, also help to sustain the wimple. 
The hair is bound by a narrow fillet across the forehead, 
allowing a small curl to appear on either side. Pointed 
shoes cover the feet, at which lies a small dog. The 
hands are clasped in prayer. Originally the cote-hardie 
was semie of nine enamelled shields, which have been 

» See the stone effigy of Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, d. 1 269, 
Westminster Abbey (engraved by Stothard). At Gonalston, Notts., is the 
stone effigy of a lady, c. 1320, showing well the wimple and hair fillet, 
(engraved in the Archaolo^cal Journal, Vol. VI., 1849). A good MS 
example is afforded in Royal MS. 19BXV., British Museum, by "The 
Woman sitting upon the Scarlet-coloured Beast " (/^^ Plate II. illustrating 
"English Costume of the Early Fourteenth Century."— T/^^ Ancestor 
No. VII., October, 1 903). She wears a cote with wide slits for the arms! 
Compare the military coif de mailles. 



stolen.^ The slab also was sprinkled with flowers 
(? marguerites) and held eight shields. The efiigy was 
enclosed by an elegant crocketed canopy (lost), with 
slender sideshafts. Round the verge of the slab the 
Lombardic-uncial inscription ran : — 


DEvs : DE : SA : alme : eit : merci : amen. 

A similar effigy is that of Lady Joan de Cobham, c. 1320, 
Cobham, Kent. The covrechef is somewhat differently 
treated, curving outward at the sides and barely touching 
the shoulders. There is no dog at the feet. The cote- 
hardie is plain. The effigy is surmounted by a fine 
pedimental canopy, the earliest surviving on a brass in 
England. The marginal Lombardic inscription, of which 
no brass letters remain, runs : — 

+ dame : lONE : de : kobeham : gist : isi : 
DEVS : DE : SA : alme : eit : merci : 
KIKE : PVR : le : alme : priera : 
qvaravnte : iovrs : de : pardovn : avera. 

Two other effigies in this costume exist : — 

c. 1320. The reverse of the palimpsest brasses of Sir 
Anthony Fitzherbert,'' 1538, and Lady, at 
Norbury, Derbyshire, shows a large portion 
of the figure of a lady, possibly Dame 
Matilda, wife of Sir Theobald de Verdun, 
13 1 2, buried in Croxden Abbey. The 
long cote-hardie, over which is a mantle, is 
tucked up under the right arm. The feet 
rest on a lion. 

* The mantle on a sculptured effigy of the thirteenth century at 
Worcester, is similarly adorned with the arms of Clifford. See engraving 
in Hollis and Journal of the British Archceological Association, Vol. VI., 
185 I, p. 5, "On the effigy of a Lady in Worcester Cathedral," by J. R. 

2 See among the Judges, p. 228. 



c, 1350. At Upchurch, Kent, is the half-effigy of a lady 
(for male effigy, see p. 199). The edge of the 
covrechef is crimped. 

Besides the above, a few effigies survive of the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the costume of 
which enables them to be classed together. The head is 
still attired in covrechef and wimple, but the hair is shown 
plaited on either side of the face, bearing some reseni- 
blance to ears of wheat. Over the close-fitting kirtle is 
worn a sleeveless cote-hardie, an interesting stage in the 
development of which toward the sideless cote-hardie^ soon 
to be noticed, may be seen in the costume of Lady Creke. 
This low-necked cote-hardie was of great length. Con- 
sequently we find it gathered up under one arm, which, 
besides exposing the skirt of the kirtle, affiDrded scope to 
the engraver for a delicate treatment of the folds of the 
drapery. Over this garment was worn a mantle, fastened 
in front by a cord either passing through holes in the 
mantle itself, or fastened to studs or brooches called 
fermailes or tasseaux. 

Examples, more or less conforming to the above 
description, are as follows : — 

A Lady, kneeling, Sedgefield, Durham, to which 
Mr. J. G. Waller ascribes the date c. 1300-10.'^ 
The cote, which is girded, is gathered up 
under the left arm. Over all a mantle. 
c. 1325. Alyne, Lady Creke, Westley Waterless, Cambs., 
on the dexter side of her husband.^ The 
cote-hardie (Jsurcote overte), gathered up under 
the left arm, has large slits at the sides for 
the arms, though not large enough for it to 
be called '■^ sideless y Both mantle and cote- 
hardie have an invecked pattern along their 
borders. The feet rest on a small dog. 

^ See ArchaologLa Aeliana, Vol. XV. 

2 For whom, and inscription, see pp. 152-3. 




c. 1325. Maud, wife of Johan de Bladigdone {see p. 197), 
East Wickham, Kent. Half effigy on dexter 
side of husband ; wearing a cote-hardie with 
slits of similar size to those of Lady Creke's, 
but no mantle. 

c, 1330. Joan de Northwode, Minster, Kent (for husband, 
seey. 153). ^ Her chin, and the sides of her 
hair, which Is plaited, are enclosed in a large 
gorget.' Her head, which is without covre- 
chef, rests on a cushion. Her hair is parted 
in the centre. The sleeveless cote-hardie, 
gathered up under the right arm, has two 
curious pointed lappets hanging down in 
front from the neck, lined with fur, and with 
buttons on their inner edges. The right 
foot rests on a dog with bell-collar. This 
brass is probably of French workmanship' 
(see p. 56). 

^ Compare the stone effigy of A Lady of the Ryther Family, Ryther, 
Yorkshire, Engraved by Hollis. 

2 The costume on this brass is thus described in Stothard's Monumental 
Effigies of Great Britain, new edition by John Hewitt, 1876, p. 91 a. 

" Lady Northwood wears a kirtle with tight sleeves, terminating in an 
"ornamental border at the wrists. The hooded surcoat is lined with 
" vair, and bordered in the same pattern as the kirtle. The hood, being 
" thrown off the head, shows us its fur lining in front of the figure. 
" When worn close, it was drawn over the back and sides of the head till 
" it reached the forehead in front, and was then fastened at the throat 
" by that row of small buttons which is seen at its edge, below the hands. 
"Armholes, for occasional use, add to the commodity of this garment. 
" No example of a surcoat exactly similar to that of Lady Northwood has 
" hitherto been observed in English monuments ; but in Montfaucon's 
"'Monarchic Fran9aise' will be found two figures in which the resem- 
" blance is very close : that of Jeanne de St. Verain, 1297, 'gravee sur sa 
"tombe dans le Chapitre de I'Abbaye de Vauluisant' (ii., pi. 32) and 
"that of Marguerite de Beaujeu, 1336 (ii., pi. 52). Of the latter, 
"Montfaucon observes that 'son habit est assez remarquable' ; showing 
" that, even in French monuments, this dress was not of common occur- 
"rence. In this resemblance of the Minster effigy with known French 
" examples is found an additional reason for believing it to have been of 
" foreign workmanship. Over the neck and chin of the figure is seen the 


1347. Ellen, Lady Wantone, Wimbish, Essex (for 
husband, see p. 156) ; wearing a plain mantle 
fastened by a broad band in front, over a 
flowing cote. The hair, which is uncovered, 
except for a fillet is curiously braided. 

1349. . Margaret de Walsokne, St. Margaret's, King's 
Lynn, Norfolk. Flemish {see pp. 46, 197); 
wearing wimple and covrechef, a finely-em- 
broidered kirtle, over which is a sleeveless, 
almost sideless, cote-hardie gathered up under 
the right elbow, and a mantle, of which but 
little appears. Feet on a dog. 

1 364. Leticia and Margaret, wives of Robert Braunche, 
St. Margaret's, King's Lynn. Flemish {see 
pp. 46, 197) ; wearing wimple and covrechef, 
the latter concealing the hair, and over an 
embroidered kirtle a plain cote-hardie which 
has liripipia or lappets, lined with vair, hang- 
ing from the elbows, in shape like those of 
the male cote {see p. 197). On the skirt sits 
a toy-terrier. 

In the second half of the century less uniformity of 
costume is found. The last brass mentioned introduces us 
to a form of the cote-hardie with which we became familiar 
in the male costume of the period. Its characteristic lies 
in the long liripipes or streamers, usually of a white 
colour, hanging from the elbows.^ 

gorget, a variety of the wimple, which came into vogue in the reign of 
"Edward the First. It was 'poked up with pins'; but its difference 
" from the older wimple of the thirteenth century may best be seen by 
"comparing the effigy of the Countess of Lancaster (plate 40). Tresses 
" of hair are brought from the back of the head and fastened over the 
" flowing hair of the sides, in a manner by no means ungraceful. Beneath 
" the feet is a dog, with its collar of bells." 

I Compare the sculptured effigy of Blanche de la Tour, daughter of 
Edward III., 1 372, in Westminster Abbey, whose hands are in the pockets 
of the cote, and the small figures in Westminster Abbey, and Oxford 
Cathedral. S^-^ footnote, p. 198. 



Another form is. that known as the sideless cote- 
HARDiE,' in which the sides of the garment have been cut 
away, leaving narrow strips, often faced with fur, passing 
over the shoulders and down the body. Its skirt, some- 
times with a fur border, is occasionally found slit up at 
the sides. From the neck to the waist large circular or 
lozenge-shaped ornaments frequently appear. Over it 
the mantle is usually worn, often with long pendent 
cords held together by a slide. Under the cote, or 
sometimes without it, is worn the kirtle with low neck 
and tight-fitting sleeves, the latter usually buttoned on the 
underside and terminating in mittens.^ 

Another tunic or cote, found worn over the kirtle 
at Great Berkhampstead, Herts., 1360; Hellesden, 
Norfolk, 1370; Chinnor, Oxon, 1380; Reepham, 
Norfolk, 1391 ; and Ore, Sussex, c. 1400, has tight 
sleeves with cuffs, and at Chinnor and Ore buttons from 
neck to feet. 

The head-dress presents much variety. The braided 
style, with fillet already noticed, occurs ; but, broadly 
speaking, the coiffures divide into two classes, the veiled, 
and that known as zig-zag, nebule, or reticulated, 
according to the manner of engraving. 

The first consists of two kerchiefs ; the inner one fitting 
the head like a cap and enclosing the forehead and sides 
of the face, its edges being frequently crimped ; the outer 
one falling on the shoulders, and corresponding to the 
covrechef^ mentioned above. The gorget^ or wimple^ is 
rarely found, but occurs at West Hanningfield, Essex 
(Isabel Clonvill, half efligy, 1361), and at Topcliffe, York- 

1 Fine examples on brasses of the sideless cote worn over embroidered 
kirtle are at Ringstead in Zealand (Queen Ingeborg of Denmark, 13 19), 
and at Thorn, in Prussian Poland (the Wife of Johan von Zoest, 1361), 
figured by Creeny. 

2 The kirtle is worn alone, and plain by Johane Plessi, c. 1 360, Quainton 
Bucks (half effigy) and by Elyenore Corp, 1391, Stoke Fleming, Devon, 
with buttons from neck to waist and on the sleeves from shoulder to 


shire (Mabel de Topcliff, i390- ^ut these effigies pro- 
bably illustrate the garb of widows, in whose attire the 
gorget or plaited barbe survived. 

The second class of attire consisted of cauls or close 
caps, enclosing the hair and forming a kind of frame to 
the face. The zig-zag, or nebule, appearance is probably 
intended to represent frills^; the reticulated to portray 
network, usually jewelled— a step towards the cresptne 
head-dress soon to be noticed. The natural hair was 
probably supplemented by pads of false ; as otherwise it is 
difficult to account for the evident presence of a cap 
beneath the coiffure. Sometimes a jewelled fillet, or 
bandeau, crosses the forehead, as at Spilsby, Lines., 1391 
Later in the century the nebule head-dress does not come 
so low down the sides of the face as formerly, and resting 
on the shoulders are shown two balls, or cushions, prob- 
ably confining escaped tresses, between which and the 
upper part of the head-dress the veil appears at the sides, 
as at Cobham, Kent, 1395. 

Two instances of young girls with flowing hair, in the 
case of the latter enclosed in a simple jewelled fillet or 
garland, may be seen at Quainton, Bucks. (Johane Plessi, 
c. 1360), and Sherborne St. John, Hants. (Margaret 
Brocas, c. 1360). 

As a rule, a small toy terrier with a collar of bells is 
seen at the lady's feet. 

The following examples are arranged according to 
coiffure. It may be understood that, where not otherwise 
stated, the kirtle has mitten sleeves, buttoned beneath. 

In veil head-dresses : — 

c. 1370. Dame Elizabeth de Cornewaylle, Burford, 
Shropshire ; lower part gone ; cote-hardie 
with pockets in front, and tight sleeves; 

I These frills bear some resemblance to the bonnets, now sometimes 
seen worn by elderly peasants. That they are frills is plainly shown on the 
monument of Elizabeth, Lady Montacute, 1 354, at Christ Church, Oxford. 


mantle with short pendent cords ; head 
resting on an embroidered cushion. 
1370. A Lady, possibly Blanche Bradstone, Winter- 
bourne, Gloucs. ; similar, but without mantle 
or cushion. The cote-hardie enfolds the feet. 
c. 1370. Dame Joan de Faversham (?), Graveney, Kent; 

half effigy, on dexter side of son John (?). 
The cote has tight sleeves like those of Lady 
Camoys. The kirtle sleeves end at the 
wrists and are without buttons. The outer 
veil, or covrechef, which is voluminous, alone 

c. 1370. Beatrice, wife of Richard de Heylesdone, Hel- 
lesdon, Norfolk (three-quarter effigy). Covre- 
chef like the last. The cote has close sleeves, 
and buttons down the front. 

c. 1370. Agneys, wife of John de Kyggesfolde, Rusper, 
Sussex (half effigy, on dexter side) ; in 
similar head-dress ; the buttoned kirtle sleeves 
ending at the wrists. A mantle with cords and 
slide is worn. 

1379. Alienora, wife of Robert de Paris, Hildersham, 
Cambs. (kneeling on sinister side of cross) ; 
the sleeves of the kirtle buttoned to the 
shoulder, over it a cote, buttoned from neck 
to feet, with short arm lappets.' 
c. 1380. Alice, wife of Simon de Felbrig, Felbrigg, Nor- 
folk; mutilated; kirtle and mantle. 

At St. Alkmund's, Shrewsbury, was formerly the brass 
of Simon and Joan Walshe, c. 1370. The latter wore the 
cote-hardie with liripipes at the elbows, and the veil 

The costume of widows remained practically the same 
throughout three centuries, and was similar to that of the 

' A similar coifFure is given in Strutt's Dress and Habits, Vol. II., 
Plate XCIX. "Mourning Habits of the Fourteenth Century." 


nun {see p. 98), where the Order of Vowesses or widow 
who had taken a vow of chastity, is referred to. _ This 
profession was known as « taking the mantle and ring 
Widows' weeds consisted of kirtle, mantle, veil head- 
dress, and plaited barbe or gorget, which was worn above 
or below the chin according to rank.^ 
^.n6o. Half effigy of a widow, Clifton Campville 

Staffs., on bracket, the stem of which is lost. 

Kirtle, with buttoned sleeves ending at wrists. 
1361. Isabel ClonviU (half effigy), West Hanning- 

field, Essex (son, a priest, lost). The 

buttoned kirtle sleeves end at the wrists. 

The cole sleeves are like those at Upchurch. 
1383. Philippa de Beauchampe {nee Ferrers), Necton, 

Norfolk ; two dogs fighting at her feet. 
c, 1390. A Lady, Stebbing, Essex; dog on skirt. 
1 39 1. Mabel, wife of Thomas de Topclyff, Topchffe, 

Yorks. Flemish. A hood attached to the 

fur-lined mantle ; a dog gnawing a bone on 

her skirt. 

1 39 1. Albreda, wife of John Curteys, Wymington, 

1 For further information see Surrey Archceological Collections, Vol. III., 
1865, p. 208. "Thomas Burgh and Isabella, his wife; with a few 
words on the Benediction of Widows," by Francis Joseph Baigent ; 
ArchaologLcal Journal, Vol. XLIX., 1892, p. 69. "Widows and 
Vowesses," by J. L. Andre, F.S.A. ; Antiquarian Communications, being 
papers presented at the meetings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Vol, I., 

1859, No. XVII., p. 71. "The Vow of Widowhood of Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond and Derby (Foundress of Christ's and St. John's 
Colleges) : with Notices of similar vows in the 14th, 15th, and 1 6th cen- 
turies," by C. H. Cooper, F.S.A. 

2 " Mentioned by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry 
"VII., in her 'Ordinance for the Reformation of apparell for great 
"Estates of Women in the tyme of Mourning.' — (Harleian MS. 6064). 
"The queen, and all ladies down to the degree of a baroness, are therein 
" licensed to wear the barbe above the chin. Baronesses, Lord's daughters 
" and knights' wives, are ordered to wear the barbe beneath it, and all 
" chamberers and other persons, * below the throat goyle,' or gullet, that 
" is, the lowest part of the throat." — Planche Cyclopcedia of Costume, sub. 



Beds., on dexter side ; head on two cushions ; 
feet on two bell-collared dogs. 
1393/4- Elyne, wife of Sir Edward Cerne, Draycot 
Cerne, Wilts., on dexter side; holding her 
husband's right hand in hers; the kirtle 
sleeves ending at the wrists ; the head resting 
on a cushion. 

1399. Alianore de Bohun, Westminster Abbey, widow 
of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Glouces- 
ter,' youngest son of Edward III. A cote, 
or tunic, worn over the kirtle ; head on two 
cushions ; crimped edge to the inner veil. 

The hair plaited at the sides, and bound with a fillet':— 

1384. Katherine {nee Calthorpe), wife of Sir John 
Harsick, Southacre, Norfolk, on dexter side 
of husband, and holding his right hand in 
hers; kirtle, on which are their arms im- 
paled,^ and mantle ; feet on dog. 

1403- Joan and Alice, wives of John Hauley, Dart- 
mouth, Devon ; the husband, in the centre, 
holding in his right hand that of his first wife. 
Each wife wears a kirtle with sleeves buttoned 
to the shoulders, and a sideless cote-hardie 
with circular ornaments from neck to waist, 
and a veil added to the head-dress. At the 
feet of each are two dogs with bell-collars. 

1407. Margaret, wife of Sir William Bagot, Baginton, 
Warwickshire (head restored by Waller) ; on 
dexter side ; kirtle with girdle ; sideless cote- 
hardie ; vair-lined mantle ; collar of SS. ; two 
dogs on the skirt ; head resting on two 

^ Who, also, was commemorated by a fine brass in the Abbey, now lost. 

* Compare the sculptured effigy of Blanche de la Tour, 1372, daughter 
of Edward III., in Westminster Abbey. 

3 Geslingthorpe, assumed by Calthorpe (see Cotman) : — Ermine a 
maunch gules impaling Harsick. 5^<? p. 161. 


The lost effigy of loan, wife of Sir Miles de Stapelton, 
1364, Ingham, Norfolk, showed her on the dexter side of 
her husband, holding his right hand in hers and wearing 
a cote-hardie with Hripipes and buttons, and with pockets 
in front, over a kirtle. A veil hung behind the hair. 
At the feet was a dog. 

The zig-zag head-dress, which is less frequently found 
than the nebu/e, differs from the latter merely in the 
treatment of the lines. Examples of it are as follows : — 

1. In the earlier form, framing the sides of the face, but 

not touching the shoulders. 
c. 1370. Isabel Beaufo,' Waterpery, Oxon., mutilated. 

The kirtle sleeves end at the wrists. The 
cote-hardie has liripipes, and buttons to the 
waist. The crimped cap appears below the 

1372. Ismayne de Wynston, Necton, Norfolk. The 
kirtle skirt does not cover the feet, and is 
seen beneath that of the cote. Its sleeves 
end at the wrists. The cote-hardie has liri- 

2. In the later form, framing the face, but with veil and 
cushions of hair falling to the shoulders. 

1376. Lady Elizabeth Cobham, daughter of Ralph, 
Lord Stafford, wife of Sir Reginald, 2nd 
Baron Cobham, of Sterborough, Lingfield, 
Surrey ; in sideless cote-hardie, with button- 
like ornaments from neck to waist, and a 
broad flounce of fur bordering the skirt ; 

^ At Wennington, Essex, is the matrix of an effigy (? Marjorie dc 
Gildesburgh, c. 1380), which probably showed a similar costume. 

2 In Kite's Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire, is an illustration restored 
from a sketch by John Aubrey, of a lost brass, formerly at Draycot Cerne, 
Wilts., probably of Philippa dc Cerne. Her costume is similar to that 
at Necton, except that the head-dress is nebule instead of zig-zag. 


1380. Maud, wife of Sir Thomas Cobham, Cobham, 
Kent; kirtle with buttons to waist, and 
flounce of fur at the foot, over which is a 
mantle. The feet rest on a dog of large 
size, with bell-collar. 

In nehuU head-dress, similar in form to the zig-zag 
coiffure, last mentioned (2) : — 

1356. Margaret, wife of Richard Torrington, Great 
Berkhampstead, Herts. ; on dexter side of 
husband and holding his right hand in hers ; 
cote-hardie with liripipes worn over kirtle ; 
two dogs with bell-collars at feet. 
^- 1370- Joan {j^^^ Cobham), wife of Sir John de la Pole, 
Crishall, Essex, holding her husband's right 
hand in hers ; over kirtle a cote with liri- 
pipes, and buttoned to the waist ; feet on dog 
with bell-collar. 

1375. Elizabeth (de Ferrers), wife of David de 
Strabolgie, Earl of Athole, Ashford, Kent, 
mutilated ; wearing over kirtle a sideless cote- 
hardie, with lozenge-shaped ornaments from 
neck to waist ; the skirt slit up at the sides. 

1375. Dame Margarete de Cobham, Cobham, Kent; 

wearing a sideless cote-hardie similar to the 
last ; dog at her feet. 

1378. Matilda and Joan, wives of Sir John de Foxley,^ 
Bray, Berks, (on bracket, the stem of which 
rests on a fox couchant), each wearing over 
kirtle a cote-hardie, with long liripipes hang- 
ing from the elbows. Matilda's cote bears 
the arms of Foxley (Gules two bars argent) 
impaling Sable a lion rampant or (.''Brocas) ; 
that of Joan {nk Martin) those of Foxley alone. 

^ He is in armour of the Camail period, with jupon bearing his arms. 
For his will, see Archaological Journal, Vol. XV., 1858, p. 267. "The 
will of Sir John de Foxle of Apuldrefield, Kent, dated November 5th, 
1378." Communicated by the Rev. William H. Gunner, M.A. 



CoBHAM, Kent. 



c, 1380. -, wife of Sir — Dalyngrugge, Fletching, 

Sussex ; wearing over kirtle, with buttons to 
the waist, a mantle ; feet on dog. 

c, 1380. Elizabeth, wife of Roger de Felbrig, Felbrigg, 
Norfolk ; in kirtle and mantle. 

c 1380. Thetwo wives of Reginald de Malyns, Chinnor, 
Oxon. The lady on the dexter side wears 
over a kirtle a long gown with close sleeves, 
and buttons from neck to feet, unbuttoned 
in the lower part. But the wife on the 
sinister side differs somewhat ; her head- 
dress being square and with the zig-zag orna- 
ment, while the sleeves of the over-gown are 
not represented. This may be due to an 
engraver's error. 

c. 1390. A Lady (?of the Roos family), Gedney, Lines. 

over kirtle a sideless cote-hardie and mantle ; 
at feet a dog with bell-collar. 
139 1. Cecilia, wife of Sir William de Kerdiston, 
Reepham, Norfolk ; kirtle, tunic, and mantle. 

In the later form of nebule head-dress, in which the 
sides of the face are not enclosed : — 

c. 1370. A Lady, probably the wife of Sir Henry Red- 
ford, Broughton, Lines. ; in kirtle and mantle, 
holding a heart in her hands. 
1395. Dame Margarete de Cobham, Cobham, Kent; 

kirtle and mantle; head on embroidered 

c. 1400. Wife of Civilian, Ore, Sussex ; kirtle, over 
which tunic or cote, buttoned from neck to 
feet, with close sleeves and square-cut corsage. 
1 40 1. Isabel, wife of Sir Morys Russel, Dyrham, 
Gloucs., on dexter side of husband ; in kirtle 
and mantle. 

^Discovered 17th June, 1889. 



1406. Margaret, wife of Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl 
of Warwick (daughter of William, Lord 
Ferrers of Groby), St. Mary's, Warwick ; in 
kirtle and mantle, beautifully diapered with 
arms: on kirtle: — Gules seven mascles 3, 3, 
and I (Ferrers) ; on mantle : — Gules a fess be- 
tween six crosses-crosslet gobony or, (Beau- 

Margaret, wife of Sir Henry Englissh, 1393, Wood 
Ditton, Cambs., wears a kirtle and mantle, and her head, 
now lost, was attired in this fashion. 

The following wear the reticulated head-dress : — 

1 39 1. Margaret, wife of Robert, Lord Willoughby 
D'Eresby, Spilsby, Lines. ; in kirtle, sideless 
cote-hardie with ornaments to waist, and 
mantle ; jewelled fillet across forehead ; head 
on two cushions ; feet on two bell-collared 
dogs addorsed. 

1393. Katherine, wife of Sir Thomas Walsh, Wanlip, 

Leics., in similar costume. 

1394. Dionisia, wife of Sir Richard Attelese, Sheldwich, 

Kent ; in kirtle and mantle. 
1400. Alicia, wife of Sir John Cassy, Deerhurst, Gloucs. ; 

wearing over the kirtle a long gown reaching 
to the feet, with close sleeves, and buttoned 
high up round the neck ; no girdle nor 
mantle. On the feet, which rest on a dog 
with bell-collar, called Terri, are embroidered 

1400. Elianor, wife of Sir John Mauleverere, AUerton 

Mauleverer, W. Yorks. ; in a girded kirtle 
and flowing mantle. 

1 40 1. Elizabeth , Goring, Oxon. ; in kirtle girded 

and buttoned all down the front, and mantle ; 
feet on dog with bell-collar. 


The long close-sleeved gown worn by some ladies over 
the kirtle {e.g., 1400, Lady Cassy, mentioned above), 
bears a close resemblance to the long tunic of the civihans. 
Usually high in the neck, it is either buttoned up close, 
or turned down forming a small collar. It is found both 
with and without a girdle. Examples : — 
c. 1400. A Wool Merchant's Wife, Northleach, Gloucs., 
on dexter side ; in mantle and veil head-dress, 
but without barbe ; a ring on the third finger 
of the right hand ; lap-dog on skirt. 
1 40 1. Marion, wife of William Grevel, Chipping 
Campden, Gloucs. ; in late form of nebuie 
head-dress. Buttons are seen from neck to 
feet on the gown. 
c. 1405. Wife of Herry Notingham, Holm-by-the- 
Sea, Norfolk ; in nei?u/e head-dress ; on dex- 
ter side ; wearing a girdle ; buttons from neck 
to waist. 

14 10. Alicia, wife of Sir John Wylcotes, Great Tew, 
Oxon, on dexter side ; no mitten sleeves to 
kirtle ; wearing a mantle and nebule head-dress, 
with veil hanging in front of the shoulders ; 
a lap-dog on the skirt. 

In the case of Margery, wife of Sir Thomas Burton, 
Little Casterton, Rutland, 1410, the hair is confined in 
reticulated cauls at the sides of the face, and is sur- 
mounted by a kind of coronet. Possibly this may form 
a connecting link between the reticulated and crespine 

An early form of the crespine head-dress, soon to be 
described, is seen on a few brasses taking the form 
of ornamented network placed above the ears, and en- 
closing the hair on the top of the head, where a veil is 
pinned which hangs behind. Examples : — 

^ Compare the sculptured effigy in Westminster Abbey, of Edward the 
Third's Queen, Philippa of Hainault, d. 1369. 


1 39 1. Elyenore Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon, on short 

bracket on dexter side of her grandfather 
John Corp ; wearing kirtle alone, buttoned to 
the waist, and on the arms from shoulders to 

1392. Margaret, wife of Thomas, Lord Berkeley, 

Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucs., on dexter side ; 
in kirtle and mantle ; head on two cushions ; 
dog at feet. 

1397. Lora, wife of Sir John de St. Quintin, Brands- 
burton, Yorks. ; wearing over kirtle a long, 
loose gown, high in the neck, and with wide 
sleeves, a step, possibly, toward the surplice- 
sleeve to be noticed below. From the head- 
dress hang strings of pearls looped up at the 
ears. She wears a necklace with pendant. 
Dog at feet. 

1400. Ele, wife of Richard Bowet, Wrentham, Suffolk ; 

wearing over kirtle a wide-sleeved gown, 
similar to the last, but with buttons from 
neck to feet, and a girdle. 

1 40 1. Margaret, wife of Sir Fulk Pennebrygg, Shottes- 

brooke, Berks.; wearing over kirtle a long 
gown with close sleeves and buttons from neck 
to feet. The head rests on two cushions. The 
gown is confined at the waist by a girdle, the 
end of which falls down in front. 
At Great Berkhampstead, Herts., is the brass of a lady, 
c. 1360, wearing over a kirtle a long, close-sleeved gown 
low in the neck. On her head is an early crespine head- 
dress, with a veil arranged so as to frame the sides of the 
face. One of the latten effigies of the children of 
Edward IIL, on his tomb in Westminster Abbey, shows 
a similar head-dress. 

The chief change in the fashions of the first part of the 
fifteenth century was in the head-dress. The kirtle and 
mantle (both occasionally heraldic, and the former with 


mitten sleeves, buttoned underneath, until about the year 
1420, when they ended at the wrists), and the sideless 
cote-hardie preserve the forms with which we^ are already 
familiar. These garments were worn by ladies of rank, 
who sometimes, instead of the mantle, wore a long, loose 
robe, probably fur-lined, with short, girded waist, surplice- 
like sleeves reaching to the ground, and broad, falling 
collar. This may be a form of the houppelande,"- of which 
we have noticed two probable specimens on p. 206. A 
dress corresponding to the bag-sleeved tunic of the 
civilian of the period {see p. 203), but with longer skirt, 
seems to have become an ordinary female outer-garment, 
worn more particularly, but by no means exclusively, by 
the middle classes. 

The head-dress worn is the crespine, or crestine, com- 
posed by gathering up the hair into jewelled cauls or 
nets, on each side of the face and over the forehead, with 
a veil hung over the top, and falling behind. This head- 
dress went through various changes, which may be traced 
in the examples given below. 

The following wear the earlier form of crespine head- 
dress (the hair bunched at the sides above the ears, which 
are visible ; the veil falling gracefully in front), in con- 
junction with kirtle and mantle. Small lap-dogs, usually 
with bell- collars, are found either on the skirt or at the 
feet : — 

1404. Maria, wife of a Le Moigne, Sawtry All 
Saints', Hunts., on dexter side ; head on two 

^ Possibly introduced from Spain into France, and so into England, 
where it was fashionable as early as the reign of Richard II. Claricia, 
wife of Robert de Freville, Esq., Little Shelford, Cambs., c, 1405, wears 
a modified form of houppelande, the sleeves of which bear some 
resemblance to those of Lora, wife of Sir John de St. Quintin, 1397, at 
Brandsburton, Yorks. They are fur-lined. She wears a girdle and holds 
her husband's right hand in hers. Her hair is plaited at the sides and 
bound by a fillet, the veil appearing on the top of the head only. At her 
feet are two toy terriers with bell-collars. 


1405. Margery, wife of Sir Roger Drury, Rougham, 
Norfolk ; head on two cushions ; kirtle with 
button-like ornaments to the waist from neck. 
c. 1405. Iohanna(?), wife of Sir Thomas Massyngberde/ 
Gunby, Lines. ; collar of SS. 
1407. Margaret Brounflet, Wymington, Beds. ; 

lozenge-shaped ornament on kirtle from neck 
to waist. 

1409. Margaret, first wife of Bartholomew, Lord 
Bourchier, Halstead, Essex, on dexter side. 

1409. Alianora, wife of Sir William de Burgate, Bur- 
gate, Suffolk. 

1409. Ada, wife of Robert de Haitfeld, Owston, 
Yorks., on dexter side, her right hand clasped 
in that of her husband ; a collar possibly of SS. 

1409/ 10. Alicia, wife of WiUiam Snayth, Addington, 

^.1410. A Lady, Hillmorton, Warwickshire; a scroll 

from the hands. 
141 1. Juliana, wife of Thomas de Cruwe, Wixford, 

Warwickshire, on dexter side. 
c. 141 2. Margaret, wife of Robert, Lord Ferrers of 

Chartley, Merevale, Warwickshire ; head on 

two cushions. 

1414. Johanna, wife of John Urban, Southfleet, Kent, 
on bracket. 

A similar attire for the head is occasionally found with 
the bag-sleeved gown worn over the kirtle, e.g. : — 

c. 1400. Wife of a Civilian, Tilbrook, Beds. ; ungirded. 
1420. Johanna, wife of John Urban, Southfleet, Kent ; 

with girdle. The second memorial of the 
same lady. 

^ For an account of this family, see "The Massingberds of Sutterton, 
Gunby and Ormsby," by the Rev. W. O. Massingberd. — TAe Jncestor, 
No. VII., October, 1903, p. i. 


The cauls of the crespine head-dress gradually became 
larger, assuming a square shape and covering the ears : 
the veil hung on the shoulders much as before : — 

1416. Margaret, wife of Sir Simon Felbrigge, K.G., 
Felbrigg, Norfolk ; in kirtle and mantle. 

141 8. Agnes, wife of Sir Thomas de Saint Quintin, 
Harpham, Yorks., on dexter side ; in girded 
gown with voluminous bag-sleeves, with 
large cuffs, and broad collar. 

The square cauls are more prominent, and are over- 
lapped by the veil which hangs behind : — 

1410. Agnes, wife of Sir John Routh, Routh, Yorks., 
on dexter side ; in girded bag-sleeved gown 
like that at Harpham above, with inlaid 
collar and cuffs, and probably a collar of SS. 
like that of the knight, but owing to the 
destruction of the enamel only the pendant 
appears. The veil of the head-dress is 
gathered up on the top of the head, as in the 
case of Lady Phelip, 141 5, at Kidderminster 
(see below). 

1 414. Dame PhiHppa Byschoppesdon, Broughton, 
Oxon., in kirtle and mantle. 

1423. Alice, wife of Sir Ralph Shelton, Great Snoring, 

Norfolk ; in kirtle and mantle ; the former 
without mitten sleeves, and charged with her 
arms : — Argent a cross moline gules, Uvedale. 

1424. Elizabeth, wife of Thomas, Baron Camoys 

(previously of Henry Percy " Hotspur "), 
Trotton, Sussex ; in kirtle with girdle ; side- 
less cote with ornament from neck to waist ; 
mantle and collar of SS. Her son (Sir 
Richard) stands on her skirt {see p. 206). 

Similar head-dresses appear on the brasses of Millicent 
Meryng, 1415, East Markham, Notts, and of Margery 
Arundell, 1420, East Anthony, Cornwall, mentioned 




among those wearing the gown with surplice sleeves. A 
celebrated and enormous instance of this attire, sur- 
mounted by a large coronet, the veil wired on either side, 
is to be seen on the sculptured effigy of Beatrice, Countess 
of Thomas Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel {d. 1439, Arundel, 
Sussex), who wears kirtle, sideless cote and mantle. 

The next development shows the cauls curving outwards 
and upwards, and terminating above the head in a pair of 
horns. This form is called the Horned, lunar^ mitre or 
heart shaped head-dress, according to the shape which it 
assumes. This coiffure is said to have been made fashion- 
able by Isabella of Bavaria, Queen of Charles VI. of France,^ 
where it was known in this and its later developments as 
the Hennin, escoffion cornue or aux comes, and seems sorely 
to have wounded the susceptibilities of the clergy and of 
contemporary satirists, many of whom inveighed against it.^ 

In the following instances it is worn with kirtle and 
mantle, and except where otherwise stated, the cauls are 
richly worked ^ : — 
141 9. Margaret, wife of William Cheyne, Hever, 
Kent ; plain cauls ; mitten sleeves to the kirtle ; 
head resting on a cushion supported by two 
angels clad in amices and girded albs. 
c. 1420. Elizabeth, wife of Peter Halle, Esq., Herne, 
Kent ; on dexter side, holding husband's right 
hand in hers ; the girdle of the kirtle showing 
beneath the sideless cote ; necklace with cir- 
cular pendant. 

^ See Planche, General History, pp. 124-128, and Dictionary, sub mm. 
" Head-dress." In the former, facing p. 1 26, is a coloured plate, " Christine 
de Pisan presenting her Book to Isabel of Bavaria, Queen of Charles VI. of 
France. From the book itself now in the British Museum, Harl MS., 
643 I." The Queen and some of her ladies wear the wide-horned head- 
dress, exposing the ears, and the long surplice-sleeved, girded gown, 
fur-lined and with broad falling collar. 

2 The horned head-dress is caricatured on the carved woodwork of the 
stalls at Ludlow, Shropshire. 

3 A good instance was the brass of Cecilia, wife of Brian de Stapilton, 
1438, lost from Ingham, Norfolk. 


l\mmt Wm jMUndtiin milra or afji imijni iim oltttt fltr mrafta sum M-ftw • a^mmj ■ c c £f5° 
Ilf 'iBfiimwa ii?iIiiiiiiifi/5 miira Oi« [ram irsfynniriinTi Hm mmi oliiitilfllif flttobua Odi of ftrrrton ffrjijlR unnffrtmr 

Etchingham, Sussex. 




1435. Isabella, wife of Richard Delamere, Esq., Here- 

ford Cathedral ; sideless cote ; Collar of SS. 
(not worn by her husband). 

1436. Anna, wife of John Martyn, Justice of the 

King's Bench, Graveney, Kent. 

1437. Joan, wife of Robert Skerne, Kingston-upon- 

Thames, Surrey; on dexter side; wearing 
necklace with circular ornament. 
1437. Joan, wife of Sir Thomas Brook, Thorncombe, 
Devon ; Collar of SS. 

c. 1440. The Lady Philippa, wife of John Halsham, 
West Grinstead, Sussex {d. 1395) ; plain cauls. 
She was daughter of David de Strabolgie, 
Earl of Athol. Her mother's brass at Ashford 
is cited on p. 250. 

c. 1440. A Lady, {J) of Devenish family, Hellingly, 
Sussex (discovered 1869). 

c. 1440. A Lady, Great Ormesby, Norfolk (three-quarter 
effigy), appropriated for Alice, wife of Sir 
Robert Clere, 1538. In her hands a heart 
circumscribed in black letter Erth my body 

1 give to the / on my soule Ihti have m'cy." 
Plain cauls. 

1 44 1. Joice, wife of Sir Hugh Halsham, West Grin- 
stead, Sussex; on dexter side. 

1444. Joan, wife of Sir William Echyngham, Etching- 
ham, Sussex ; between husband and son. 

1444. Elizabeth, wife of William Fynderne, Esq., 
Childrey, Berks. The kirtle bears : — Argent a 
chevron between three crosses patt6 fitche sable, 
the chevron charged with an annulet of the 
field for difference — Fynderne. The mantle 
bears: — Quarterly i and 4 Argent a bend 
nebule between two cotises gules (the arms 
of Sir John Kyngeston, her first husband) ; 

2 and 3 Argent a whirlpool gules — Chelvey 
(her paternal coat). On the skirt of the 
kirtle is a lion couchant. 



Joan, first wife of Sir Giles Daubeney, daughter 
of John, Lord Darcy, South Petherton, 
Somerset. The girdle of the kirtle appears 
from beneath the sideless cote. The girdle 
and head-dress cauls are ornamented with 

Alice, first wife of William, Lord Zouch, 
Okeover, Staffs. ; plain cauls (appropriated 
for Isabell, wife of Humphrey Oker, Esq., 


The following are some instances of the surplice-sleeved 
gown (described above, p. 255), possibly a form of the 
houppelande, worn by ladies of position^: — 

c. 14 10. Lucy, first wife of William, fourth Baron 
Willoughby d'Eresby, Spilsby, Lines. ; on 
dexter side. The gown has a standing collar. 
The crespine head-dress does not cover the 
ears, nor has it a veil ; it is surmounted by a 
kind of coronet. The hands are held up, not 

1 Possibly in allusion to the Daubeney Arms {see p. 1 69 note). This effigy 
lies on an altar tomb with that of Sir Giles. His second wife, Mary, 
daughter of Simon Leek has a brass on the floor, 1442. Her costume is 
similar to that of the first wife, except for the absence of girdle and 
toy terrier. See illustration Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, Vol. I., 
1890, p. 241, accompanying description by Hugh Norris. 

2 A fine example of this costume on an incised slab is at East Horndon, 
Essex, Alice, wife of Sir John Tyrell, Knight, 1422. The Flemish brass 
at All Saints', Newcastle, I429,representing Agnes, wife of Roger Thornton, 
Esq., shows broad sleeves, but scarcely sufficiently so to be said to belong 
to the houppelande. Mr. J. G. Waller in Jrchaolo^a Jeliana, Vol. XV., 
p. 78, writes : "It is not easy to describe the lady's dress, but it consists 
" of a tunic flowing to the feet, confined at the waist by a girdle, having 
" open hanging sleeves, plaited upon the chest, and buttoned about the 
" neck. Over all is an ample mantle, and it seems to have an upright 
" stifl" collar, the wings of which are seen projecting on each side of her 
"veil. [CompareLucy, Lady Willoughby d'Eresby, f. 1 410.] Her head- 
" dress is curious. There is an inner covering, veil-like in form, over 
" which is the veil proper, which seems to have projecting horns or pads 
" from which it hangs down in the usual manner." 




clasped. This brass belongs, as does the 
next instance, to a local school of engraving. 
1410. Wife of a Knight, South Kelsey, Lines. ; in early 
form of horned head-dress with large veil.' 

1415. loan, wife of John Peryent, Esq., Digswell, 
Herts. ; on dexter side ; wearing Collar of SS. 
A swan is engraved on the left side of the 
collar ; a hedgehog is represented on the skirt. 
The head-dress, to which no similar example 
is known on a brass, is triangular in form ; 
the veil merely showing in folds on the top, 
after the manner of that worn by Lady 
Phelip (141 5) Kidderminster, and by Lady 
Routh {c. 14 10) Routh, Yorks. 

141 5. Matilda, wife of Sir John Phelip, Kidderminster, 
Worcs. ; square cauls with veil folded on the 
top of the head ; } Collar of SS. 
.1415. Mellicent, wife of Sir William Meryng, East 
Markham, Notts. ; square cauls. 

141 8. Matilda, wife of John Fossebrok, Esq., Cranford 
St. Andrew, Northants ; horned head-dress 
unornamented ; wearing a Collar (.?) of SS. 

1420. Margery, wife of Thomas Arundell, Esq., East 
Anthony, Cornwall ; square cauls. 

1420. Isabella, wife of lohn Doreward, Esq., Bocking, 
Essex ; square cauls. 
c. 1420. Katherine, wife of Thomas Quartermain, Thame, 

c. 1420. A Lady, Horley, Surrey (inscription added for 
Joan Fenner, 1516). The veil of the head- 
dress is tucked up behind, not falling on the 
shoulders. Collar (J) of SS. 

c. 1420. A Lady, Brampton- by -Dingley, Northants; 

head gone. Possibly she may have worn a 
head-dress like that of Lady Phelip. 

^Another Lincolnshire example was at Scrivelsby, c. 1430, Elizabeth, 
wife of Sir Thomas Dymoke. Illustrated in Transactions of the Monumental 
Brass Society, Vol. II., p. 108. 5^^ also Jeans' List, p. 58. 



c. 1440. 

1430. Agnes, wife of Thomas Salmon, Esq., Arundel, 
Sussex ; horned head-dress ; a large Collar of 
SS. Principal woman to Beatrice, Countess 
of Arundel and Surrey (daughter of John I. 
of Portugal). 
Catherine, wife of William Rikhill, Northfleet, 

Kent ; horned head. 
Elizabeth, first wife of Sir Laurence Pabenham, 
Orford Darcy, Hunts. ; in horned head-dress 
(lower half of effigy lost). 

The following are among those who wear the girded 
bag-sleeved gown ' with the horned head-dress, the cauls 
of which are usually unornamented : — 

1 4 1 4. Cristina, wife of John Cressy,Dodford,Northants ; 

on dexter side. 
1420. Cristina Bray, Felstead, Essex (half effigy). 
1424. Elizabeth, wife of John Poyle, Esq., Hampton 

Poyle, Oxon. 

1426. Sarra, wife of John Cosyngton, Esq., Aylesford, 

1430. Alyanora, wife of John Pollard, St. Giles-in-the- 
Wood, near Torrington, Devon. 
c. 1430. A Lady, in private possession, Wroxall Abbey, 

c. 1430. Johanna Kelly, Tintagil, Cornwall (three-quarter 

c. 1430. Wife of a Man in Armour, Harlow, Essex. 
1432. Isabelle, wife of Nicholas Carew, Beddington, 

1435. Elizabeth and Alice, wives of Thomas Wide- 
ville, Esq., Bromham, Beds.; ornamented 
cauls. The second wife has the rare addition 

I Occasionally a girded gown with tight sleeves is found worn with the 
horned head-dress, e.g. : — 

1428. Maud, wife of John Norwiche, Yoxford, Suffolk. 
c. 1480. Anna, wife of Henry Jarmon, Geddington, Northants. 

Jiriant ijDlfts (Bflnra qmraflui imiff/l ftmtaMlmifloti p ( 

All Hallows' Barking, London. 



of the mantle worn with this gown. The 
brass was appropriated to commemorate Sir 
John Dyve, his mother and wife, 1 535. 

1435. Margaret, wife of John Launcelyn, Cople, Beds. 

1435. Margery, wife of John Ailmer, Erith, Kent; on 
dexter side. 

c. 1435. Margaret, wife of Hugo Bostock, Wheathamp- 
stead, Herts. 

1437. Joan, wife of John Bacon, All Hallows' Barking, 

c. 1440. A Lady, Bigbury, Devon ; a crescent in front of 
head-dress, the cauls of which are ornamented. 

1 44 1. Elizabeth, wife of John Boteler, Mepshall, Beds. 

1442. Margaret and Joan, third and fourth wives of 

Reginald Spycer, Cirencester, Gloucs. 
1447. Joan, wife of Robert Hoton, Wilberfosse, Yorks. 

Occasionally the veil head-dress is worn^ with the bag- 
sleeved gown. Examples : — 

1400. Joan, wife of John Mulsho, Newton-by- 
Geddington, Northants ; kneeling on sinister 
side of cross, in the head of which is the figure 
of St. Faith ; no girdle. 

1402. , wife of Richard Martyn, Dartford, Kent. 

f. 1410. A Lady, St. Stephen's, Norwich ; two bedesmen 
below the feet. Appropriated for Eel Buttry, 
"su'tyme pryores of Campese," 1546. 

1 4 1 6. Elena, wife of Thomas Stokes, Ashby St. Legers, 

141 8. Edith, wife of Thomas Polton, Wanborough, 
Wilts, (half effigy), parents of Archdeacon 
Polton, see ^. 138. 
c. 1425. Margaret, wife of John Framlingham,Debenham, 
Suffolk (half effigy). 

'Katherine Stoket, c. 1420, at Lingfield, Surrey, wears the veil head- 
dress with kirtle with mitten sleeves and mantle. 



In a few cases the covrechef seems to have plain bands 
or frilling framing the forehead, e.g. : — 

141 5. Maria, wife of William West, Sudborough, 

c. 1430. A Lady, with ecclesiastic and civilian, Melton, 

c. 1440. Margaret, wife of Robert Pa^ge, Cirencester, 

1442. Margaret, first wife of Reginald Spycer, Ciren- 
cester, Gloucs; wearing gown with close 

A widow appears dressed in a kirtle, over which is a 
long close-sleeved gown, sometimes girded, and a mantle. 
The head-dress consists of the close-crimped cap and 
covrechef, and the plaited l^arl^e or chin-cloth^ which in 
some cases {e.g., Tong, Salop ; Lowick, Northants, 1467 ; 
and Stretham, Cambs., 1497) covers the shoulders like a 
cape. Among palimpsest brasses may be mentioned the 
figure of a widow (c. 1440) in gown with long surplice 
sleeves on the reverse of the efiigy of Bishop John White 
{c. 1548), Winchester College, and that of a widow {c. 1460) 
on the reverse of a priest in cope, of the same date, in the 
Temple Church, Bristol. 

Instances of this costume, lacking the barbe, are rare. 
Of the three which we mention Lady Cobham was not a 
widow at the time of her death : — 

1425. Beatrice, wife of William Chichele, Higham 
Ferrers, Northants ; mitten sleeves to kirtle. 

1433. Katherine, wife of John Leventhorpe, Esq., 
Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 

1433. Joan, Lady de Cobham, Cobham, Kent; mitten 
sleeves to kirtle. She married (i) Sir Robert 
Hemenhale ; (2) Sir Reginald Braybrok ; (3) 
Sir Nicholas Hawberk ; (4) Sir John Old- 
castle ; (5) Sir John Harpedon, who survived 
her, and whose brass is in Westminster 
Abbey {see p. 169). 

CoBHAM, Kent. 


CoBiiAM, Kent. 


The following examples of widows throughout the 
fifteenth century conform to the above costume except 
where otherwise mentioned^ : — 

1405. Margaret, wife of Thomas de Freville, Esq., 
■ Little Shelford, Cambs. ; on dexter side, 
holding husband's right hand in hers.^ 
1409. Idonea, second wife of Bartholomew, Lord 
Bourchier, Halstead, Essex. 
c. 1 410. Pernel, wife of Nichol Rolond, Cople, Beds.; 
on dexter side. 
1 41 9. Alice, wife of John Lyndewode, Linwood, 
Lines. ; mitten kirtle sleeves. 
c, 1420. Johanna, wife of Sir Arnold Savage, Bobbing, 

c. 1420. Widow of a Civilian Joan, wife of John 

Barloe) Pelham Furneaux, Herts. 
c. 1420. Joan, wife of Thomas Quartermain, Esq., 
Thame, Oxon. 
1422. Cecilia, wife of William Wylde, Esq., Dodford, 
Northants ; dexter side (the mother of Cristina 
Cressy, mentioned above). 
1425. Margery, wife of Sir WiUiam Molyns, Stoke 

Poges, Bucks. 
1427. Margery Argentine {bis viduatd) Elstow, Beds. 
c. 1430. AHce, wife of Sir Edmund Bryan, Acton, 

1430. Joan, widow of Sir Wm. (.?) Clopton, Quinton, 
Gloucs. ; vowes " Que tibi sacrata clauditur 
hie vidua." 

1432. Cristiana, wife of Robert Baxter, St. Giles', 

Norwich ; mitten kirtle sleeves. 

1433. Margery, wife of William Harwedon, Esq., 

Harrowden Magna, Northants ; on bracket. 

^ A good example, lost from Ingham, Norfolk, was that of Ela, wife 
of Sir Miles Stapleton, c. 1425. 

2 " Postea sacre maiestatis arnica professa." 



1436. Matilda, wife of Thomas Chaucer, Esq., Ewelme, 
Oxon. ; at feet a lion couchant queue 
fourchee (crest of Burghersh). 

1436. Margaret, wife of Richard Purdaunce, St. Giles', 

1440. Matilda, wife of Clitherow, Ash-next- 

Sandwich, Kent ; lower part gone. 

1445. Alianora, wife of John Throckmorton, Esq., 

Fladbury, Worcs. 

c. 1445. , wifs or mother of Sir William Wadham, 

Ilminster, Somerset. 

1446. Agnes, wife of Thomas Reynes, Esq., Marston 

Morteyne, Beds. 

1454. Agnes, wife of Sir Thomas Molyngton, Dart- 
ford, Kent. Her first husband was William 
Hesilt, Baron of the Exchequer, whose brass 
was at Northfleet, Kent. 

1459. Eufemia, wife of Sir John Langton, St. Peter's, 
Leeds, Yorks. 

c. 1460. A Widow of the Forster family, Harpsden, Oxon. 
c. 1460. A Widow, Great Thurlow, Suffolk. 
c. 1460. Margaret, wife of Sir John Byron, Manchester 

1462. Matilda, wife of Sir Thomas Grene, Greens 

Norton, Northants. 
1462. Isabella, wife of George Langham, Esq., Little 

Chesterford, Essex. 
1464. Anna, wife of Sir Henry Norbury, Stoke 

D'Abernon, Surrey ; children on skirts. 

1466. Margaret, wife of Richard Ask, Esq., Aughton, 


1467. Margaret, wife of Sir William Vernon, Tong, 

Salop; barbe covering shoulders; sideless 

cote ; ermine-lined mantle ; feet on elephant. 
1467. Margaret, wife of Henry Grene, Esq., Lowick, 

Northants ; head on embroidered cushion. 
1474. Elizabeth, wife of William Fitzwilliam, Sprot- 

borough, Yorkshire. 

Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. 




1476. Margaret, wife of Sir Richard Byngham, Justice 
of the King's Bench, Middleton, Warwick- 
shire ; large rosary hanging from waist. 

c. 1480. A Widow, Grendon, Northants ; between two 
men in armour. 

c. 1480. Anne, wife of Sir Thomas Tyrell, East Horndon, 

1487. Joan, wife of William Brokes, Esq., Pepper 
Harrow, Surrey; kneeling at desk; rosary 
hanging from right hand. 

1489. Agnes, wife of Thomas Mountford, Esq., 
Hornby, North Yorks. 
c. 1490. A Widow, Luton, Beds. 

1497. Matilda, Lady Willoughby d'Eresby, Tatters- 
hall, Lines. (? engraved c. 1460). ist husband, 
Robert, sixth Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, 
K.G., d. 1454; (2) Sir Thomas Neville, 
d. 1460; (3) Sir Gervase Clifton, d. 1471. 

1497. Joan, wife of John Swan, Stretham, Cambs. 

1 501. Catherine, wife of Sir William Pyrton, Little 
Bentley, Essex. 

About the year 1460 we find a different form of gown 
in use, worn over the kirtle, which latter garment appears 
at the neck, and sometimes at the feet. This gown, with 
but small alteration, remained in fashion for three-quarters 
of a century. In the earlier examples it is distinguished 
by being cut very low at the neck, where a fur border 
appears. The sleeves are tight-fitting, ending in cuffs 
reaching to the knuckles, but usually turned back, showing 
a fur lining, which, often probably, was extended to the 
whole garment. The gown appears to have had a fur- 
edged opening, reaching to below the waist, and kept closed 
by means of a girdle. 

The horned head-dress becomes more acutely pointed, 
the cauls usually being plain, and the veil either hanging 
behind the shoulders or, more frequently, raised off the 



shoulders in two folds. The following examples illustrate 
this change in the head-attire : — 

{a) In kirtle and mantle, the veil falling behind the 
shoulders, except at Thame and Latton : — 

1440. A Lady, Minehead, Somerset (ornamented 

cauls) ; sideless cote. 
c, 1440. A Lady, Horton Kirby, Kent. 
c. 1450. Elena, wife of Sir John Bernard, Isleham, 

Cambs. (ornamented cauls). 
1458. Jamima, wife of Sir Thomas Shernborne, Shern- 

bourne, Norfolk ; sideless cote. 
1460. Sybil, wife of Richard Quatremayns, Esq., 

Thame, Oxon. ; sideless cote. 
c. 1460. Margaret, wife of William Browne, All Saints, 

Stamford, Lines. 
c. 1460. Elizabeth, wife of , Bigbury, 

Devon ; ornamented cauls ; sideless cote ; 

head on cushion ; a cross hanging by a chain 

round neck. 

c. 1460. Elizabeth, wife of Roger Dencourt, Upminster, 
Essex ; sideless cote ; ornamented cauls. 
1467. Catherine (.?), wife of Sir Peter Arderne, Latton, 
Essex ; ornamented cauls ; sideless cote. 

(J?) In other costume, where not mentioned, the fur- 
cuffed gown : — 

1454. Cecily, wife of Roger Felthorp, Blickhng, Nor- 
folk ; bag-sleeved gown ; five daughters 

1458. Agnes, wife of Sir Robert Staunton, Castle 
Donnington, Leics. ; ornamented cauls ; cross 
hanging by chain round neck ; three daugh- 
ters similarly dressed on her skirt. 
1462/3. Agnes, wife of Oto Trevnwyth, St. Ives, Corn- 
wall ; bag-sleeved gown ; kneeling before St. 

frfjtoiljrfiiMfnfjanrted ^ 
HfJrniDisailirttotfflniji]!! paft ^ 
Jnaififti^liiffliiTiiriafll ^ 
saijfltpo It inail^uii' nmi ami 

^Iio%!i rrtjift0 atljrotWiiiOfiTlDiif 
f\$ fljat gif filif III lilifir^uTuf V 

JANE KERIELL, c. 1460, 
Ash-n?.xt-Sandwich, Kent. 



1465. Margaret, wife of Nicholas Assheton, Callington, 

1470. Dame Christina, wife of Matthew Phelip, Heme, 
Kent; ornamented cauls showmg alternate 
suns and roses— the badge of the House of 
York ; fur-lined mantle over fur-cuffed gown ; 
large rosary ; hands held outwards. 

1470. Alicia, wife of Robert Watton, Addington, 


c. 1470. Emma, wife of Sir Henry Grey, Ketteringham, 

147 1. Johanna, wife of Roger Kyngdon, Quethiock, 


1472. Margaret, Clemens, and Isabella, wives of 

Robert Ingylton, Esq., Thornton, Bucks. 
1478. Petronilla, wife of Richard Bertlot, Esq., Stop- 
ham, Sussex. 

c. 1480. A Lady, Baldock, Herts., ? Margaret or Joan, 
wife of William Crane, 1483. 
1485. Avice, wife of William Goldwell, Great Chart, 

The horned head-dress seems to have become more of 
a mitre shape ; witness the brass of Jane, wife of — Keriell 
(1460) Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent, wearing the fur-trimmed 
gown with broad sleeves, and a unique head-dress with a 
horseshoe ornament in front, but no veil. 

Decorated cauls, surmounted by coronets, are seen in 
the two following instances : — 

c. 1470 (eng.) Joice (d. 1446), daughter and heir of Sir 
Edward Charlton (Lord Powis) and Eleanor 
(daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, 
and formerly wife of Roger Mortimer, Earl 
of March) and wife of Sir John Tiptoft, 
Baron Tiptoft and Powis, Enfield, Middlesex. 
Wearing kirtle, ermined sideless cote, heraldic 



mantle charged with Charlton impaling Hol- 
land, and a large necklace. The veil is curiously- 

1483. Isabel Plantagenet, daughter of Richard, Earl 
of Cambridge, and wife of Henry Bourchier, 
Earl of Essex (whose mother, Anne, was 
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, sixth son of 
Edward III.), Little Easton, Essex. Wearing 
kirtle, ermined sideless cote, mantle and Collar 
of Suns and Roses, with a pendant or toret of 
the lion couchant of March. The ears are 
concealed by two cauls, behind which is seen 
a veil. The head rests on a cushion upheld 
by two angels ; the feet on an eagle, a Bour- 
chier cognizance. A magnificent brass, retain- 
ing its colour. 

The mitred head-dress without veil is sometimes found 
worn by groups of daughters below the effigies of their 
parents. Instances exist at South Weald, Essex, c. 1450, 
in a group of twelve children, six of them daughters, of 
whom the parents are lost ; at Quy, Cambs., c. 1465, worn 
by four daughters of John Ansty, Esq. ; at Abingdon 
Pigotts, Cambs., by eight daughters of a Civilian, c. 1470. 

The transition from the horned form of head-dress to 
that known as the Butterfly is interesting to note. As 
in the case of the chaperon or hood, noticed above, p. 209, 
the early kind of the butterfly head-dress seems to have 
been formed by wearing the horned head-dress horizontally 
instead of perpendicularly ; in other words, the cauls con- 
fining the hair are removed from the sides to the back of 
the head, and the hair is strained off the forehead and 

For this manner of wearing the coronet, compare illustration, p. 273, 
Planche's Cyclopaedia of Costume, 1876 (Vol. I., Dictionary) -. "Ladies, 
circa 1450, from a drawing in the portfolio of M. De Gagnieres, Paris." 
The arms of Charlton, Lord Powys, are: — A lion rampant gules; those 
of Holland, Earl of Kent :— Three lions of England within a bordure 


d. 1++6, ENGRAVED C. I47O, 

Enfield, Middlesex. 


confined behind. From the veil of the horned head-dress 
then was developed the winged appearance behind, which 
has given the name of hutterfly head-dress to this style 
which prevailed in the reign of Edward IV Examples 
of this transition, showing but slight traces of the veil and 
taking the form of square projections at the back ot the 
head, are to be found on brasses chiefly amongst the 
effigies of daughters on the tombs of their parents, e.g, 
(all wearing the fur-lined gown, low in the neck) : — 

1467. Three daughters on the brass of Sir William and 
Lady Vernon, Tong, Salop. 

1475. A Lady, Rainham, Essex. 

1477. Three daughters on the brass of John Feld and 

son, Standon, Herts. 
1480. Five daughters on the brass of Civilian (lost) and 

wife, who wears the later horned-head with 

veil, Chelsfield, Kent. 

Indeed, on the brass of Robert Ingleton and three wives 
(1472) Thornton, Bucks., one daughter is turned sideways 
showing the butterfly-head, whilst the others, affronte, wear 
the same head-dress as their mothers. 

The later form of the " hennin " may be said to have 
taken two shapes, the steeple and the butterfly ; the former 
consisting of " round caps gradually diminishing to the 
" height of half or three-quarters of an ell, with a loose 
*' handkerchief atop, sometimes hanging as low as the 
" ground." ^ Of this no example occurs on a brass, unless 
the five daughters of Sir Thomas and Lady Urswyk (1470) 
Dagenham, Essex, are wearing a modified form without 
the veil. 

Planche's description^ defines the butterfly variety. 
Illuminations give a better idea of this head-dress than 

1 Planche's Cyclopadia, Vol. II., "General History," p. 127. 

2 " The bonnet or cap, the proper name for which was cornet, is seen 
" through the veil of gauze which is sustained, curiously folded, high 
" above its apex by wires so fine as to be invisible, instead of being loosely 


brasses, though it must be admitted that the latter are 
sufficiently successful, considering the difficulty of the 
medium when employed to represent the diaphanous texture 
of the veil, which constituted one of the great elegancies 
of this attire. It will be noticed that in order to give a 
due representation the engravers resorted to the expedient 
of drawing the head-dress en profile^ thereby producing the 
effect from which this has been called the '■''butterfly'' or 
" wired " head-dress/ 

The following examples are noteworthy." Those at 
Ingrave, Harley, Melford and Crowan have a narrow veil 
in front, to be developed later into the frontlet of the 
pedimental head-dress. Fine necklaces or carcanets occur. 
The girdles sometimes have pendent ends : — 

1466. Mare^aret, daughter of Sir Lewes John, Ingrave, 
Essex ; in kirtle and mantle ; dog with bell 
collar on skirt. 

1470. , wife of Sir Thomas Urswyk, Dagenham, 

Essex ; mantle over fur-trimmed gown, the 
cuffs of which are not turned back; belled 
dog at feet ; a fine necklace. 
c. 1470. , wife of Aubrey, Clehongre, Here- 

fordshire. The gown, instead of exposing a 
fur-lining,shows one of some diapered material. 
c. 1 470. Agnes, wife of Sir William Yelverton, Rougham, 
Norfolk ; fur-trimmed gown and mantle ; 
large necklace. 

" thrown over it, or attached only to the top, and allowed to stream down 
" behind almost to the ground. In the latter instance a smaller veil was 
" worn over the head beneath the cornet shading the face and neck." 
Planche, Vol. II., p. 127-8. (5r<? Woodcuts annexed, Front and side 
views of Hennins, from the Traite de Tournois of Rene d'Anjou, c. 1450, 
and also p. 275 of Vol. I. {Dictionary).) 

' A similar attire called the cauchoise has survived in Normandy, in the 
Pays de Caux. It is also worn by the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent 
de Paul. 

2 It is easy to tell from a matrix, if the lost head-dress were of the 
butterfly variety. See, for instance, the brass of Thomas Hampton, 1483, 
and Isabella, his wife, at Stoke Charity, Hants, of which the upper part 
of the lady's effigy is lost. 



Elizabeth, wife of William Culpeper, West 
Peckham, Kent. 

Joan, wife of Thomas Colte, Roydon, Essex; 
kirtle, sideless cote, and mantle; collar of 
suns and roses. 

Elizabeth, wife of Sir John Say, Knt., Brox- 
bourne, Herts.; kirtle, sideless cote, and 
heraldic mantle, with her paternal coat 
(Cheyny) ; elaborate necklace. 

Wife of a Gentleman of the Lacon (?) family, 
Harley, Salop ; fur-trimmed gown, the skirt 
tucked up under the left arm, thereby expos- 
ing the kirtle. 

Anna, wife of Thomas Playters, Esq., Sotterley, 
Suffolk; fur cuffs not turned back ; broad 

Isodia, wife of Thomas Selby, East Mailing, 
Kent ; similar to the last. 

Isabella and lohanna, wives of John Cobleigh, 
Chittlehampton, Devon ; fur-trimmed gown. 

Two Ladies of the Clopton family. Long Mel- 
ford, Suffolk ; heraldic kirtle and mantle. 

Two Ladies, Saffron Walden, Essex ; fur-cuffs 
not turned back. 

Margaret and Margaret, wives of Thomas 
Peyton, Esq., Isleham, Cambs. ; the wife on 
the dexter side has fur-trimmed gown, em- 
broidered throughout; that on the sinister 
wears one unornamented. 

Isabella, wife of William Cheyne, Blickling, 
Norfolk ; fine necklace ; hands held out. 

Anne, wife of Robert Herward, Aldborough, 
Norfolk ; hands held out. 

Elizabeth, wife of Sir Biconyll, Becking- 

ton, Somerset ; fur-cuffs not turned back ; 

Issabella, wife of Sir Robert Strelley, Strelley, 
Notts. ; cuffs not turned back ; mantle. 


1487. Anne, wife of John Lambarde, Hi nx worth, 

Herts. ; cuffs not turned back. 
1490. Margery, wife of Philip Bosard, Gent., Ditching- 
ham, Norfolk. 

c. 1490. Margaret, wife of Nicholas Gaynesford, Esq. 

Carshalton, Surrey (kneeling in mantle) ; the 

red colour is still preserved. 
c. 1490. Alicia, wife of Geoffry Seyntaubyn, Crowan, 

Cornwall ; cuffs not turned back. 

A curious treatment of the butterfly head-dress with 
decorated caul is found in Norfolk, showing some con- 
nection with its predecessor. A good example formerly 
existed at Ingham, 1466, representing Katherine and 
Elizabeth, wives of Sir Milo^Stapleton. Others are: — 

1 47 1. Joan, wife of Sir John Curson, Belaugh, Nor- 

1483. Margaret, wife of Rauf Wylloughby, Esq., 
Raveningham, Norfolk; cuffs not turned 
back ; collar of suns and roses ; dragon and 
dog at feet. Her husband was " Squier for 
Kyng Rychard the thyrd's body." 

A modified and much smaller form of butterfly head- 
dress is seen in the following examples : — 

c. 1480. Marion, wife of Jenkyn Smyth,^ St. Mary, Bury 

St. Edmunds ; kneeling, 
c. 1480. Wife of a Civilian, Chrishall, Essex; kneeling. 
c. 1 480. A Lady (unknown), St. Lawrence, Isle of 


1488. Katherine, wife of John Hertcombe, Kingston- 

upon-Thames, Surrey; kneeling. 
1488. Alice, third wife of Symon Brooke, UfFord, 

c. 1490. Two wives of — Paycock (.?), Great Coggeshall, 

' But see Farrer's List of Suffolk Brasses, 1903, in which this brass is 
said more probably to belong to John Smyth, 1480, and wife Anne. 


c. 1490. Agnes, wife of Edmund Grene, Hunstanton, 

1496. Amia, wife of John BerifFe, Brightlingsea, Essex. 

About 1490, soon after Henry VII. came to the 
throne, the butterfly head-dress gave way to that known 
as the PEDiMENTAL, pyramidal^ kennel^ or diamoKd-sha.pcd 
head-dress. This development consisted in the amplifica- 
tion of the strip bordering the forehead, which we have 
noticed occurring on some of the butterfly head-dresses,^ 
and in the depression or total abolition of the wing-like 
veil. The caul, or "cornei,'' into which the hair was 
strained, became a kind of bonnet or cap worn at the back 
of the head, and sometimes assuming a crown-like appear- 
ance {e.g., 1488, Elizabeth, wife of Edmund Clere, Esq., 
Stokesby, Norfolk, and c. 1490, Elizabeth, wife of William 
Berdewell, Esq., West Herling, Norfolk). The band or 
frontlet^'' framing the face and falling to the shoulders 
(to the shape of which the head-dress owes its designa- 
tion), though sometimes represented as plain, is more 
often found engraved to represent embroidery and 
jewelled work. It was made of rich materials, velvet,^ 
or sometimes fur, and in some cases may have had borders 
of pearls, e.g. : — 

c. 1490. Elizabeth, heiress of the Barony of St. Amand, 
held by her husband William Beauchamp, 
Lord St. Amand, Bromham, Wilts. ; kneel- 
ing in kirtle, ermine sideless cote, and mantle. 
1499. Anne, wife of Thomas Hevenyngham, Esq., 
Ketteringham, Norfolk; kneeling in mantle 
charged with her husband's arms, worn over 

I That at Crowan, Cornwall, c. 1490 (Alicia wife of GeofFry Seynt- 
aubyn) shows evident signs of transition. 

=^ " My Cosin Alice Storke shall have my best bonet and a frontlet of 
tawny velvet."— Codicil to will of Isabella, widow of lohn Fitzlames of 
Redlynch, Somerset, proved October 23rd, 1527. Proceedings of Somerset 
Jrch<eological and N aturalHistory Society, Vol. XXIV. 1878, p. 3 5. 



fur-cufFed gown charged with her own. (One 
of her five daughters kneeling behind her 
wears a similar head-dress.) 
1520. Mary and Grace, wives of William de Grey, 
Esq., Merton, Norfolk ; kneeling. 

Sometimes more strips or lappets are seen at the side of 
the head when represented in profile. A good instance is 
at Laycock, Wilts., 1501, Elizabeth, wife of Robert 
Baynard, Esq., wearing an heraldic mantle, Baynard 
quartering Ludlow. Instances of the retention of the 
veil are not uncommon, e.g.^ c. 1500, Elizabeth, wife of 
Richard Wakeherst, Ardingley, Sussex, and, 1533, Joan, 
wife of Henry Hatche, Faversham, Kent. The Flemish 
brass at St. Mary Quay, Ipswich, 1525, shows Emma, 
wife of Thomas Pownder, wearing over a kirtle a fur- 
lined gown with loose sleeves, and pedimental head-dress 
with veil, the peaked form of which is explained by the 
netted cauls worn by the six daughters without veils.' 

The gown worn with this head-dress is, as a rule, that 
with tight-fitting sleeves, fur-cuffs, and border, already 
noticed ; but the aperture for the neck is not so large and 
is cut square. The kirtle sometimes appears at the neck, 
and also at the feet when, as at Ardingly, c. 1500 (just 
mentioned), the skirt of the gown is tucked up under the 
arm to give an air of greater convenience in walking. 
Although usually the mark of the opening in the gown 
extends to the waist, in some instances it appears to have 
been fastened from neck to feet {e.g.^ Anne, wife of 
Thomas Asteley, Esq., 15 12, Blickling, Norfolk). With 
this gown was worn a broad ornamental girdle,^ fastened 
by various methods, often by a buckle at the side, from 
which a long pendent end hangs, sometimes as low as the 
ground. At Hadley, Middlesex, 1500, Joan, wife of 

I A rosary hangs from the centre of the girdle. Compare with the 
Evyngar Flemish brass, 1535, AH Hallows' Barking, London. 

*"to my daughter Lady Fitzlames a girdle of gold harneysed with 
gold." — Will of Isabella Fitzlames, see note 2, p. 275. 



William Turnour, wears a girdle fastened at the back, and 
without pendent end.'' Another form of girdle is fastened 
in front, and from the centre ornament, often consisting 
of three rosettes, hangs a chain supporting an ornament 
or a silver or gold pomander (^pomme d^amhre)^ or perfume 
box for scents or disinfectants ^ ; or a receptacle for 
pommes chaufferettes^ the equivalent of the modern mujff- 
warmer. Rosaries are found in the first half or the 
sixteenth century hanging from the girdle, and round the 
neck chains or necklaces with pendent crosses. Where 
shoes appear they are of the broad, rounded shape worn 
by civilians. 

Some brasses show a veil instead of the pedimental 
head-dress, e.g. : — 

1509. Jacquetta, lady of John, Lord Strange, Hilling- 
don, Middlesex, sister of Elizabeth Wood- 
ville. Queen of Edward IV. ; in mantle. 
c. 1 520. A Lady, Dengie, Essex. 

1526. Julyen Deryng, gentylwoman, Pluckley, Kent. 

1535. Ellyn, wife of Andrew Evyngar, All Hallows' 
Barking, London; Flemish (rosary hanging 
from the centre of the girdle). 

somewhat similar girdle of earlier date (after 1460) is worn by 
Elizabeth, wife of William Culpeper, West Peckham, Kent. She wears 
the butterfly head-dress. 

2 See Archaeological Journal, Vol. XXXI., 1874, P- 337- "Notes on 
Pomanders," by R. H. Soden-Smith, M.A., F.S.A. A perfumed orange 
sometimes served a similar purpose ; see the beautiful little picture by 
Sir John Gilbert, in the Art Gallery, Birmingham, illustrating the passage 
in Cavendish's Life of Cardinal Wolsey. "Of the manner of his going 
" to Westminster Hall." " He. . .came out of his Privy Chamber about 
"eight of the clock, ready apparelled and in red like a Cardinal; his 
upper vesture was all of scarlet or else of fine crimson taffeta or crimson 
satin engrained, his pillion of scarlet, with a black velvet tippet of sables 
^1 about his neck, holding in his hand an orange the meat or substance 
"■^ thereof being taken out and filled again with a piece of sponge, with 
vinegar and other confections against pestilent airs, the which he most 
" commonly held to his nose when he came to the presses, or when he 
"was pestered with many suitors." {See pp. 46, 47, Edition, London, 
1 901, by Grace H. M. Simpson). 



Examples wearing the pedimental head-dress are very- 
numerous, and a long list might be compiled. The 
following are some instances' : — 

1492. Joyce, wife of Geoffrey Sherard, Stapleford, 

Leics. ; cuffs turned over hands. 
1494. Margaret, wife of William Catesby, Esq., 
Ashby St. Legers, Northants ; in heraldic 
mantle, wearing a cross. 
c. 1495. (^«^-) Margery, wife of Sir Hugh Calveley, Knt., 

Ightfield, Salop. 
c. 1495. Myrabyll, wife of Edward Sulyard, High Laver, 

1496. Ela, wife of Henry Spelman, Esq., Narburgh, 

Norfolk ; on dexter side ; large rosary. 
1496. , wife of John North wode, Milton-next- 

Sittingbourne, Kent. 
1500. Elizabeth, wife of Richard Conquest, Esq., 

Houghton Conquest, Beds. 
1500. Alice, wife of John Tame, Esq., Fairford, 


1502. Elizabeth, wife of Robert Russell, Esq., Stren- 
sham, Worcs. 

1505. Margaret, wife of John Burgoyn, Impington, 

Cambs. ; sideless cote ; heraldic mantle. 

1506. Margaret, wife of Sir John Brooke, 5th Baron, 

Cobham, Kent ; in mantle. 
1508. Anne, wife of John Mohun, Esq., Lanteglos 
juxta Fowey, Cornwall ; wearing a tau cross. 
1 5 10. Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Culpeper, Esq., 
Ardingley, Sussex. 
c. 1 510. Wife of Man in Armour, .?of Compton family, 
in possession of the Surrey Archaeological 
Society; said to have come from Netley 
Abbey, Hants. ; mantle. 

I The lost brass of Agnes, Duchess of Norfolk, 1524, formerly at 
Lambeth, was a fine example of heraldic mantle worn with pedimental 
head-dress surmounted by coronet. 






















1 514. Ann, wife of Sir John Danvers, Dauntesay, 

15 16. Katherine, wife of Sir William Huddesfeld, 

Shillingford, Devon; kneeling behind her 
husband, in heraldic mantle charged with 
Courtenay (daughter of Sir Philip Courtenay, 
of Powderham). 

15 1 7. Katherine, wife of Anthony Hansart, March, 

Cambs. ; kneeling ; heraldic mantle. 

151 8. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Knevet, 

Eastington, Gloucs. ; in heraldic mantle. 

15 19. Jane, wife of Sir John Iwarby, Ewell, Surrey; 

in heraldic mantle. 

1524. Margaret, wife of Henry Everard, Esq., Den- 

stone, Suffolk ; head on cushion ; heraldic 

1525. Joyce, wife of Reynold Pekham, Wrotham, 

Kent ; in heraldic mantle. 

1526. Ehzabeth, wife of John Shelley, Esq., Clapham, 

Sussex; in heraldic mantle, Shelley impaling 
Michelgrove ; round neck the partlet (see 

1 527. Ellen, wife of Sir Peter Legh, Winwick, Lanes. ; 

ermined sideless cote girdled; heraldic mantle ; 
wearing large Tau cross. 

1528. Margaret, wife of William Bulkeley, Esq., 

Sefton, Lanes. ; large Tau cross. 
c. 1528. The four wives of Sir Richard FitzLewes, In- 
grave, Essex,' wearing ermined sideless cotes 
like Lady Legh's, and large Tau crosses. The 
first (probably Alice Harlestone), the third 
(Elizabeth Sheldon), and the fourth (Jane 
Hornby), wear heraldic mantles. The mantle 
of the second is not heraldic. 

^Ascribed by Haines to John FitzLewis and four wives, c. 1500, but 
see " FitzLewes of West Horndon, and the brasses at Ingrave," by Rev. 
H, L. Elliot, M.A., Essex Archeeological Society Transactions, New Series, 
Vol VI., 1898, p. 28. 6 ^ 



c. 1535 (eng.) Lady Katherine Howard {d. 1452), Stoke- 
by-Nayland, Suffolk ; ermine-trimmed side- 
less cote and heraldic mantle charged with 
Howard arms. Wife of Sir Thomas Howard, 
K.G., created in 1483 Duke of Norfolk. 
1 540. Margaret, wife of John Semys, St. John Baptist, 

1547. Elizabeth, wife of Richard Covert, Esq., Slaug- 
ham, Sussex. 

The next change is found about 1525, when the tight 
sleeves of the gown are superseded by wide sleeves, richly 
furred, ending near the elbows. On the forearms full 
sleeves of fine materials, embroidered or slashed, are 
worn, probably attached to an undergarment, and confined 
at the wrists, where frills are inserted, bearing some 
resemblance to a bishop's lawn-sleeves. At the neck is 
worn the partlet, seen by the opening of the gown, and 
usually of fine linen pleated and gathered in round the 
neck. The pedimental head-dress, though its older 
variety is frequently found worn with the above dress, 
now assumes the form with which we are familiar in 
Holbein's portraits of the Queens and Court Ladies of 
Henry VIIL' The ends of the front lappets are turned 
up, no longer falling on the shoulders as hitherto. The 
manner of fastening them is well shown on the stone 
effigy of a lady of the Arden family at Aston, Warwick- 
shire (engraved by Hollis). 

^ See Bartolozzi's engravings in Imitations of original Drawings by 
Hans Holbein in the Collection of His Majesty, for the Portraits of illustrious 
persons of the Court of Henry VIII., with Biographical Tracts. Published 
by John Chamberlaine, Keeper of the King's Drawings and Medals, and 
F.S.A., London, 1792, also Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great 
Britain engraved from authentic Pictures in the Galleries of the Nobility and 
the Public Collections of the Country, with biographical and historical memoirs 
of their lives and actions, by Edmund Lodge, Esq., F.S.A., London : 
Printed for Harding and Lepard, 1835, 12 vols, (the last 5 vols, of later 
period than that covered by this book). 

d. 1452, engraved c. 1535, 
Stoke-by-Navland, Suffolk. 



The following examples illustrate this costume : — 

1 527. Isabell, wife of Walter Curzon, Esq., Waterpery, 
Oxon. (palimpsest). 

^.1^30.. , wife of Hutton, Dry Drayton, 


c. 1530. A Lady, Messing, Essex; with rosary. 

1533. Anne, wife of Francis Yonge, Esq., Edgmond, 

Shropshire ; gown tucked up in front ; rosary 

and pomander. 
1535. Catherine, wife of Lord William Howard, St. 

Mary, Lambeth, Surrey ; heraldic mantle. 

1537. Elizabeth, Countess of Oxford, Wivenhoe, 

Essex, second wife of John de Vere, Earl of 
Oxford, widow of William Viscount Beau- 
mont, in ermined sideless cote and heraldic 
mantle (Scrope quartering Tiptoft) ; the head- 
dress surmounted by a coronet ; chains round 
the neck ; a pendent cross. 

1538. Mawde, wife of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, Nor- 

bury, Derbyshire ; in fur-cuffed gown, heraldic 
mantle and wimple. One of her daughters 
wears an heraldic mantle. 

1539. Ann, wife of Sir John Danvers, Dauntsey, 

Wilts. ; kneeling, on quadrangular plate ; 
gown open in front. 
c. 1 540. Wife of a Man in Armour, Winestead, York- 
shire ; over-gown short, wide sleeves lost ; 
large rosary ; at feet a greyhound. 

1 541. Agnes, wife of Thomas Andrewes, Esq., Char- 

welton, Northants. 

1542. Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Fromond, Esq., 

Cheam, Surrey ; kneeling. 

1543. Elizabeth, wife of Geo. Perepoynt, Esq., West 

Mailing, Kent. 
1545- The Lady Elizabeth and Katherine, wives of 
Sir John Arundell, St. Columb Major, Corn- 
wall ; heads on cushions. 



Elizabeth, wife of Sir John Spelman, Narburgh, 

Norfolk; heraldic mantle. 
Katheryn, wife of Robert Barfott, Lambourne, 

Essex ; in fur-cuffed gown. 
Elizabeth, wife of Edward Chichester, Esq., 

Braunton, Devon ; kneeling. 
Jane, wife of Peter Coryton, St. Mellion, Corn- 
wall ; gown open in front. 
Anne, wife of Richard Fermer, Esq., Easton 

Neston, Northants. 
Alice, wife of Nicholas Saunder, Esq., Charl- 
wood, Surrey ; kneeling. Daughters similar 
with the exception that their head-dress is the 
Paris head (see below). 
Ciselye, wife of Edward Goodman, Ruthyn, 
Denbighshire (daughters wearing the * Paris 
head '). 

Brasses of ladies by provincial artists, especially in the 
eastern counties, exhibit various peculiarities of treatment, 
not observable in the average examples. The gowns are 
frequently pinned up at the sides or turned up in front. 
Some Norfolk examples have a narrow strip of fur down 
the centre of the gown from neck to feet. Rosaries are 
frequent, and large reticules are found. When the 
pomander is added, the effect of the three cannot fail to 
appear somewhat clumsy. A sash often takes the place 
of the girdle, and a small cape is sometimes worn on the 
shoulders. The following examples will suffice : — 

c. 1500. Wife of a Man in Armour (.? Corbet), Assing- 
ton, Suffolk. 

1 5 14. Margaret, widow of — Pettwode, St. Clement's, 

1520. Margaret, wife of Francis Mundeford, Esq., 
Feltwell, Norfolk. 
c. 1520. Jane and Thomasine, wives of John Golding- 
ham, Belstead, Suffolk. 







c. 1540, 
Atiierington, Devon. 




1 5 2 1 . Matilda, wife of William Cheswryght, Fordham, 

1524. Lettys, wife of John Terri, St. John Madder- 

market, Norwich. 

1525. Elizabeth, wife of John Marsham, St. John 

Maddermarket, Norwich. 

1526. Mary, wife of Roger Appleton, Little Walding- 

field, Suffolk. 

1528. Elizabeth, wife of Edward Why te, Esq., Shotes- 
ham St. Mary, Norfolk. 
c. 1530. A Lady of the Drury family, Denstone, Suffolk. 
c. 1530. Anne, wife of Thomas Underbill, Great Thur- 

low, Suffolk. 
c. 1530. Wife of a Civilian, Lakenheath, Suffolk. 

1532. Sabina, wife of Robert Goodwyn, Necton, Nor- 

1 55 1. Anne, wife of George Duke, Esq., Frenze, 

1558. Elizabeth, wife of Robert Rugge, St. John 
Maddermarket, Norwich. 

The following examples from Essex show similar 
peculiarities, and were probably executed by a school of 
engravers centred at Cambridge. A kind tam-o'-shanter 
cap appears, and a short cape on the shoulders : — 

c. 1530. Wife of a Civilian, Hempstead. 

c, 1530. Two Wives of a Civilian, Elmdon. 

c. 1530. Wife of a Civihan, Saffron Walden. 

1532. Agnes, wife of William Holden, Great Chester- 

1533- Joan, wife of John Paycock, Great Coggeshall. 

1534- Agnes, wife of John Cracherood, Toppesfield. 

In somewhat similar attire, but wearing an early form 
of * Paris head,' ' are : — 

I Compare with a Holbein drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn among 
Chamberlaine's Portraits, 1792, engraved by F. Bartolozzi. (For title, 
see p. 280.) 



1557. Malyn, wife of Thomas Harte, Lydd, Kent. 
1560. Elizabeth, wife of Robert Stokys, Eton College, 

The reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and the first part of 
that of Elizabeth, produced but few changes in ladies' 
costume. Moreover, the accessibility of contemporary 
portraits, or of engravings of them, tends to decrease the 
value of evidence, important in earlier periods, which is 
afforded by brasses. The chief alteration is in the head- 
dress, the pedimental attire disappearing, and being super- 
seded by the Paris Head, or French Hood,' popularly 
known as the Mary Queen of Scots cap or bonnet.^ This 
consisted of a close-fitting cap, stiffened by wires, and often 
depressed in the centre. A kind of lappet or jewelled fillet 
formed a border in front, concealing the ears ; a veil fell 
behind. The hair appears on the forehead, parted down 
the centre. The gown^ worn is opened in front below 
the waist, exposing the petticoat or under-gown, which 
soon became elaborately embroidered. The opening is 
partly closed by means of bows. On the arms appear the 
sleeves of the under-gown, usually striped. The over- 
gown has puffed sleeves ending just below the shoulders, 
or hanging down like the filse sleeves of civilians {e.g., 

1553, Alice, wife of Sir William Coke, Milton, Cambs. ; 

1554, Katherine, wife of Christopher Lytkot, Esq., 

^ But see Planche, sub Head-dress and Hood. 

*A possible connecting link between the two styles of coiffure may be 
seen at Heme, Kent, 1539, Elizabeth, wife of Sir John Fyneux. 

3 This gown is sometimes found worn with the old-fashioned pedi- 
mental head-dress, e.g., 1548, Jane and Elizabeth, wives of Sir William 
Molyneux, Sefton, Lanes, (low-necked gowns; no partlets), and c. 1556, 
Margaret, wife of William Disney, Esq., Norton Disney, Lines. Again, 
the gown described as worn with the later form of pedimental head- 
dress is sometimes accompanied by the Paris head; e.g., I557> Ursula, 
wife of Sir Edmund Knyghtley, Fawsley, Northants. 


Swallowfield, Berks.'). The partlet fits the neck closely, 
and is surmounted by frills, to develop into the well- 
known Elizabethan rufF. In many cases, from the waist 
an ornament hangs, or a book (e.g., 1573, Isabel, wife of 
George Arundell, Esq., Mawgan-in-Pyder, Cornwall), or 
possibly a mirror (1577, Ann, wife of Peter Rede, Esq., 
St. Margaret's, Norwich). About 1570, the under-gown 
or petticoat is embroidered, usually in diaper patterns, 
but occasionally with arabesques, as later in Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. The over-gown is usually sleeveless, with 
a stiff collar. The sleeves of the under-garment are 
striped or slit down and refastened by bows.^ At the 
wrists are frills. The shoes, when seen, are of the small, 
round-toed type. A few instances of ladies wearing 
heraldic mantles are found, e.g. : — 

1546/7. EHzabeth, wife of Sir Ralph Verney, daughter 
of Edmund, Lord Bray, Aldbury, Herts. ; dexter 
Verney, sinister Bray. Her husband wears a 

1552. Brydgett and Elizabeth, wives of Sir Humfrey 
Style, Beckenham, Kent ; kneeling. 

1555. Lady Jane Guyldeford, Duchess of Northumber- 
land, St. Luke's, Chelsea ; kneeling ; widow of 
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. 

An instance is known of a lady represented on a brass 
wearing an heraldic tabard : — 

1558. Elizabeth, wife of Sir William Gorynge, Burton, 

' Illustrated in Haines, p. ccxlv. 

2" Some be of the new fashion, some of the olde, some of this fashion, 
" and some of that, some with sleeves hanging down to their skirts, trayl- 
" ing on the ground, and cast over their shoulders, like Cowtayles. 
" Some have sleeves much shorter cut up the arme, and pointed with silk 
" ribons, very gallantly tyed with true-looves knottes, for so they call 
"them." — Phillip Stuhhes' Jnafomie of Ji>uses, 1583 (edited by Frederick 
J. Furnivall for the New Shakspere Society, 1877-9). 



Sussex; kneeling; arms, Gorynge and Covert 

Brasses showing the costume of this time are of frequent 
occurrence. The following selection may be enlarged at 
pleasure : — 

1545. Anne, wife of Gregory Lovell, Esq., Harlington, 

1554. Joan, wife of Edward Shelley, Esq., Warming- 
hurst, Sussex (showing traces of pedimental 

1558. Mary, wife of Vyncent Boys, Gent, Good- 

nestone, Kent. 

1559. Jane, wife of John Corbet, Esq., Sprowston, 

Norfolk ; kneeling. 
c. 1560. Martha, wife of Richard Butler, Esq., North 
Mimms, Herts. 
1 56 1. Mary and Juliana, wives of Sir John Arundell, 

of Trerice, Stratton, Cornwall. 
1 561. Margaret, wife of John Eyer, Esq., Narburgh, 
Norfolk ; kneeling. 
1562/3. Alice, wife of William Heron, Esq., Croydon, 

1563. Margaret, wife of Sir William Dansell, Becken- 
ham, Kent. 

1567. The three wives of Thomas Noke, Esq., Yeoman 
of the Crown, Shottesbrooke, Berks. 

1570. Anne, wife of John Webbe, St. Thomas', Salis- 

1 570. Anne and Anne, wives of Sir Clement Heigham, 

Knt., Barrow, Suffolk ; kneeling. 

157 1. Jane, wife of Henry Bradbury, Gent., Little- 

bury, Essex. 

^ Zee illustration, Vol. II., Transactions of the Monumental Brass Society y 
p. 329, and in Jrckceological Journal, Vol. LVII., 1900, in paper, "Mis- 
cellanea Heraldica," by J. Lewis Andre, F.S.A., pp. 301-24, who men- 
tions a kneeling instance, once existing in glass at St. Michael Bassishaw, 
London, reproduced by Weever in his Funerall Monuments, p. 698, as 
Alice {d. 1579), wife of Adrian d'Ewes. 

i^i^a vx\ja^fcm\Mht{£Ziw^ ^atirafuturrfamtr. 

Newington, Kent. 


• briT iirtli /intiip of Wrir liiuliMplton.Dmiul^nof 

OiiixMriwu finmrr. ^iariitlrniinuHn of foriMOir Mr 

lliirr5mm\+aoiilou'\VH,sniPiitfiiir,oi'ffltifii ' li 

= a^Cr ftr liir liftl'f rnii; fjopr i' I'Di'r i& n . .1 

n-ivatu of olot'if Hjf fiirir j|? ' o«ir ot jiif ■ - ' • 

Great Haseley, Oxon. 



1 57 1. Avice, wife of Thomas Tyndall, Thornbury, 


1 572. Jane, wife of Raphe Jenyns, Esq., Churchill, 


1573. Margaret, wife of Sir William Harper, St. Paul's, 


1 574. The two wives of Richard Atkinson, St. Peter- 

in-the-East, Oxford. The head-dress has a 

three-cornered appearance.' 
1 574. Mary, wife of Richard Pay ton, Isleham, Cambs. 
1577. Margaret, wife of Humfrey Clarke, Kingsnorth, 


1 577. Dorothe, wife of Sir Lawrence Taylare, Ewell, 


1578. Thomasine, third wife of William Play ters, Esq., 

Sotterley, Suffolk. 
1578. Agnes, wife of Sir Edward Baynton, Bromham, 
Wilts. ; kneeling. 

1580. Lady Norton, wife of John Cobham, Esq., 

widow of Sir John Norton, of Northwood, 
Kent, Newington, Kent. 
c. 1580. Nele and Jane, wives of Richard Disney, Norton 
Disney, Lines, (half effigies). 

1 58 1. Wilmota, wife of George Cary, Tor Mohun, 


1 58 1. Mary, wife of Anthony Huddleston, Esq., 

Great Haseley, Oxon. 

1582. Mistress Ann Sackville, widow, Willingale Doe, 


1587. Jane, wife of Michael Fraunces, Esq., St. 
Martin's, Canterbury. 

During the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
about 1590, some changes were introduced which con- 
tinued till the reign of Charles L The Paris head has the 

^ As has that of Joane, second wife of Valontyne Edvarod, Gent., St. 
Nicholas', Thanet, Kent, 1574. 



lappet, hitherto falling behind, turned up over the top of 
the head. This flap may have been the shadoe or bongrace 
used to protect the head from the sun. This head-dress 
is frequently surmounted by a hood (a precursor of the 
calash (caleche) and cardinal) of ample proportions, falling 
like a cape on the shoulders, and sometimes prolonged to 
the ground behind. The hair is brushed up and back in 
the manner familiar to us in portraits of Queen Elizabeth, 
and a jewel is often fastened in front. The circular ruflF 
presents a stiff^er and more formal appearance. The 
outer-gown is usually plain and open in front to show 
a finely embroidered under-gown or petticoat. The 
bodice is conspicuous for its peaked or pointed stomacher, 
often embroidered, and the skirt is distended by means of 
2l farthingale (vardingale, Fr. vertugale)^ the ancestor of the 
eighteenth-century hoop-petticoat and of the nineteenth- 
century crinoline. Sometimes the flounces at the top of 
the skirt assumed a wheel shape (whence the wheel- 
farthingale). Loose lappets or " wings " were worn, 
flowing from the shoulders. The large ruff^,' the special 
adornment of Queen Elizabeth, which was held up by a 
framework of wires, called a supportasse or underpropper^ is 
seen on a few brasses, e.g. (wearing wheel-farthingales) : — 

c. 1 600. Mary, wife of Edward Leventhorp, Esq., Saw- 

bridgeworth, Herts. 
1 60 1. Anne, first wife of GyflFord Longe, Gent., 

Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. 
1 60 1. RadcHfi^, wife of S-^ Thomas Wingfeld, Easton, 


1 6 14. Margaret, wife of Sir George Chute. Marden, 
Herefordshire, whose hair is dressed in a 
wonderful manner, having nine peaks above 

^ Philip Stubbes is severe on " these cartwheeles of the divels charet 
" of pride," and on the unfortunate medium of their stiffness, "a certaine 
" kinde of liquide matter which they call Starch, wherin the devill hath 
" willed them to wash and dive his ruffes wel, which, when they be dr}-, 
" will then stand stiffe and inflexible about their necks." 


the head, possibly upheld by a comb. The 
effigy of her little daughter Anne is similar.' 

Hats frequently occur, worn by ladies, and are sup- 
posed to indicate Puritanical tendencies. They usually 
have broad brims and high, wreathed crowns, somewhat of 
the form associated with Welsh peasant women : that of 
Susan, wife of John Selwyn, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, 
1587, approximates to the shape of the modern felt hat 
(vulgo " bowler "). The shoes worn are small, with thick 
soles. The effigies are often represented standing on low, 
circular pedestals. 

The following are good examples : — 

1590. Elizabeth and Anne, wives of William Death, 

Gent., Dartford, Kent ; in hats. 

1 59 1. Alice, wife of John Rashleigh, Fowey, Cornwall. 
1594. Julian, wife of John Clippesby, Esq., Clippesby, 


1596. Mary, wife of Robert Rust, Necton, Norfolk. 
1598. Dame Mary, widow of Henry Fortescue, Esq., 

Faulkbourne, Essex. 
1600. Elizabeth, wife of Edward Leventhorp, Esq., 

Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 

1602. Mercy, wife of Christopher Septvans, alias Har- 

flete, Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. 

1 603. Joan, wife of Thomas Buriton, Streatley, Berks. ; 


1604. Frances, wife of Richard Frankelin, Latton, 


' Compare head-dress of " Catherine, Duchess du Bar, Sister of 
Henry IV., Died 1604." Planche, General History, p. 248. It is pos- 
sible that this adornment may represent lace stiffened to form a half-hoop 
above the hair. See the portrait of Maria Schurmans, wife of Dirck 
Alewyn Dirckz, by Paul Moreelse (1571-1638, pupil of Mierevelt), en- 
graved in the Magazine of Art, November, 1893, p. 23, in a description 
of the old masters in the collection of Mr. Joseph Ruston, of Monks 
Manor, Lincoln, by Claude Phillips. 



1605. Aphra, wife of Henry Hawkins, Gent., Ford- 

wich, Kent. 

1606. Barbara, wife of Roger Eliot, rector, Sutton 

Coldfield, Warwickshire ; hood. 

1 606. Margaret, wife of Myles Dodding, Esq., Ulver- 

stone. Lanes. 

1607. Margaret, wife of Arthur Chewt, Ellough, 

Suffolk ; an extraordinary hood raised over 
the head. 

1 607. Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Verzelini, Esq., Downe, 
Kent ; fine. The over-gown has an edging of 

1 609. Sybilla and Isabella, wives of Alban Butler, Esq., 

Aston-le- Walls, Northants ; kneeling. 

1 610. Sessely, wife of Arthur Page, Gent, Bray, 

Berks. ; kneeling ; hat. 
1 6 10. Barbara, wife of John Plumleigh, Dartmouth 

S. Petrock, Devon ; hood. 
1 6 10. Hester, wife of Francis Neve, Ham, Essex; 


1 6 10. Dorcas, wife of Thomas Musgrave, Esq., Cres- 

sing, Essex; sitting; hood. 

1 6 1 1 . Elizabeth, wife of John Carewe, Esq., Haccombe, 


1 615. Elizabeth, wife of Henry Crispe, Wrotham, 
Kent ; hood. 

1615. Frances, wife of James Hobart, Esq., Loddon, 


1 61 6. Mary, wife of Richard Hatton, Long Ditton, 

Surrey; large hood. 
1 61 8. Joan, wife of Sir Robert Brooke, Yoxford, 

Suffolk (daughter of Sir Humphrey Weld). 
1 61 8. Dorothie, widow of Nicholas Wadham, Esq., 

Ilminster, Somerset. 
c. 1620. Margaret, wife of Nicholas Poulett, Esq., 

Minety, Wilts. ; kneeling. 
1624. Margaret, wife of Richard Gadburye, Gent., 

Eyworth, Beds. 

,KE w|r bWyeet^ 

FoRDwiCH, Kent. 


* 6 ^' 



(2 -J 


? 2 a 









C/5 O 

S w J 
^ « * 

i2 S:^ s 









h[c lacet sepvlta domina lohann a 
Brooke vxor Koberti Brooke "Militis 


WeldMilttis vixit annos trfginta 


YoxFORD, Somerset. 

C I).] 



Soon after the accession of Charles I. changes appeared, 
gradually introducing that most elegant style, familiar to 
us in the portraits of Vandyke, by whose name it is fre- 
quently called. For, though ruff and farthingale are still 
found, the latter becomes exceptional, whilst the former is 
frequently superseded by hands ^ either falling {falls) or 
upright, the broad, lace-trimmed collars or fichus, so con- 
spicuous in contemporary portraits. Brasses, with but 
few exceptions, among which the Filmer monument at 
East Sutton holds a foremost place,^ do not reproduce the 
dress of the times in a satisfactory manner, partly owing 
to the decay of the art, which became practically extinct 
before the Restoration, and partly to the increasing diffi- 
culty of portraying graceful gowns in so stubborn a 
medium. The plates of Hollar^ form a complete guide 
to the female fashions of Charles' reign. The hair is 
allowed to escape in ringlets from beneath the Paris head 
or embroidered cap, over which the kerchief, hood (or 
calash) is still worn, sometimes of great length {e.g., dated 
1 6 14, Mary and Roesia, wives of Richard Barttelot, Esq., 
Stopham, Sussex). Higher waists are worn, and the 
bodice or doublet often has a short vandyked skirt {e.g., 
1630, Mary, wife of John Kent, Esq., St. John's, Devizes, 
Wilts.). The sleeves are very full, striped, and often tied 
in at the elbows by a bow, which form was called a virago 
{e.g., 1632, Dorothy, wife of Sir Francis Mannock, Bart., 
Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, and the daughters of Sir 
Edward and Lady Filmer). Petticoats beautifully em- 

^ Whence the term " band-box." 

2 Reproduced by Waller ; also in Vol. I., Portfolio of Monumental Brass 
Society, and in Archceologia Cantiana, Vol. XXV., 1902, p. Ivii. 

3 " Ornatus muliebris Anglicanus, or the severall habits of English Women 
"■from the Nobilitie to the Contry woman as they are in these times 1 640. 
"Printed and sold by Rob'. Sayer, Print & Map-Seller, No. 53, Fleet 
" Street. Wenceslaus Hollar, Bohemus, fecit. Londini, A°. 1640. 

In 1643 was issued another set dealing with the costumes of Europe. 
''Theatru Mulierum sive Varietas atque Differentia Habituum Fceminci 
" Sexus diversQvum Europce Nationum hodiemo tempore vulgo in usu'' 



broidered are at Ardingley, Sussex, and Stoke-by-Nayland, 
Suffolk, etc. The shoes have high heels, and sometimes 
rosettes (e-g-i 1638, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Rotton, Meriden, Warwickshire). A handkerchief is 
held by Jane Septvans, 1642, Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. 
A feather fan hangs at the side of Sarah, wife of John Pen, 
Esq., 1 641, Penn, Bucks. Rich necklaces are worn. 
Anne, wife of Eustace Bedingfeild, Esq., 1641, Darsham, 
Suffolk, wears a large, plain gown, similar to a modern 
masculine great-coat. She holds a handkerchief in her 
left hand. 

Some other examples of brasses of this period are: — 

1625. The Lady Elizabeth, wife of Sir Arthur Gorges, 

Chelsea, Middlesex ; kneeling. 

1626. Jane, wife of John Cradock, Gent., Ightham, 

Kent ; high-crowned hat. 
1633. Ann, wife of John Arundel, Esq., S. Columb 

Major, Cornwall. 
1633. Mrs. Ann Kenwellmersh, Henfield, Sussex. 
1633. Frances, wife of Sir Thomas Hord, Bampton, 


1633. Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Culpeper, Arding- 

ley, Sussex. 

1634. Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Wilham and 

Jane Culpeper (aged seven), Ardingley, Sussex. 

1635. Elizabeth, wife of John Blighe, Finchampstead, 


1 635 {eng.) The Lady Ann, wife of Sir John Arundel, 
Knt., S. Columb Major, Cornwall. 

1636. Vahan and Elizabeth, wives of Richard Bugges, 

Esq., Harlow, Essex. 

1 636. Ann, wife of Henry Gibbes, St. James', Bristol ; 
kneeling; hat. 

1638. Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Filmer, Knt., East 
Sutton, Kent ; in large ruff ; her nine daugh- 
ters wearing falling collars. 


1640. Sarah and Eleanor, wives of George Coles, St. 

Sepulchre's, Northampton ; in hats. 
1642. Jane, wife of Walter Septvans, alias Harflete, 

Esq., Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. 
1647. Grace, wife of John Morewood, Bradfield, W. 

Yorks. ; high-crowned hat. 
1650. Elizabeth, wife of Ralph Assheton, Esq., Mid- 

dleton, Lanes. 

1655. Elizabeth, wife of Adam Beaumont, Esq., Kirk- 

heaton, W. Yorks. ; holding infant. 

1656. Ann, wife of Thomas Carew, Esq., Haccombe, 

Devon ; kneeling. 

Two late examples of brasses, both in Kent, must be 
noticed : — 

1. Three ladies of the Toke family, c. 1680, Great Chart, 

kneeling on cushions and holding books and flowers, 
show the low-necked, short-sleeved dress of the 
ladies of Charles IL's reign, so well pictured by 
Lely and Kneller, of which Planch^ writes: "a 
studied negligence, an elegant ddshabille, is the pre- 
vailing character."' The hair falls in curls on the 

2. Philadelphia, wife of Benjamin Greenwood, Esq., 1747, 

St. Mary Cray, gives a very poor idea of the costume 
of the eighteenth century : — a low-necked, tight- 
sleeved bodice, with neck-band above, open skirt 
with petticoat beneath, completed by an immense 
hood or veil (possibly a kind of cardinal), framing 
the head and figure. 

The costume of widows found throughout the fifteenth, 
is not so frequently met with in the sixteenth century. 
Instances of widows wearing the ordinary dress of their 

^History of British Costume, 3rd edition, 1874, p. 332. 


period are not uncommon/ The following show the 
traditional costume already described {see p. 264) : — 

15 1 2. Elizabeth, widow of Henry Porte, Etwall, 

1 5 19. Dame Joan, widow of John Braham, Esq., 

Frenze, Norfolk {see p. 98). 
1529. Joan, wife of John Cooke, St. Mary de Crypt, 


1536. Dame Alice Beryff, Brightlingsea, Essex; on 
bracket with daughter Margaret. 

1540. Dame Susan Kyngeston, "vowess," Shalston, 
Bucks., widow of John Kyngeston, of Child- 
rey, Berks, {see p. 98). 

We have mentioned (p. 245) a very simple method of 
wearing the hair long and flowing, either completely un- 
adorned, or encircled by a plain or jewelled fillet or by 
a chaplet of flowers. This is usually found in the case of 
young unmarried ladies, the wearing of a garland being 
supposed to be indicative of death in virginity.^ Examples 
are uncommon. The following should be noted : — 

^e.g., 1 521. Jane, second wife of John Blen'haysett, Esq., Frenze, 

1582. Mistress Ann Sackville, widow, Willingale Doe, Essex. 
1598. Dame Mary, widow of Henry Fortescue, Esq., Faulk- 
bourne, Essex (quoted, p. 289). 

Sometimes a veil alone would seem to denote the widowed state, as 
in more modern times : — 

1587. Margery, wife of Richard Belassis, Houghton-le-Spring, 

Durham, kneeling. 
1 6 14. Julian, widow of — Osborne, Clyst St. George, Devon, 
kneeling and wearing a high-crowned hat. 

2 Maiden Garlands are found hung up in some churches, as memorials 
of the deceased ; for example, at Minsterley, Shropshire, an illustration 
of which will be found, p. 237, of Nooks and Corners of Shropshire, by 
H. Thornhill Timmins, F.R.G.S. London: Elliot Stock, 1899. This 
practice seems to have been popular in Derbyshire, as at Ashover (see 
Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. II., 1835, p. 99, in article 
entitled, " Notices of Dethick and Ashover, co. Derby, and the families 

Here i^^bvried the sooy of "MAiRy Bkooi^e^ 

LIFE THE XXif"w^ OF Iviy An DnI. 16^00^ 

Newington, Kent. 


c. 1360. Margaret Brocas, Sherborne St. John, Hants; 
wearing garland or jewelled fillet. 
1360. Johane Plessi, Quainton, Bucks. 
c. 1 4 CO. A Maiden Lady, Lingfield, Surrey; with fillet. 
1455. Isabel, daughter of Robert Manfeld, Taplow, 

1458. Cecilie, sister to GeofiFrey Boleyn, Esq., Blick- 
ling, Norfolk (aged 50). 
c. 1470. A Maiden Lady, Bletchingley, Surrey. 
1479. Anna, daughter of William Boleyn, Esq., Blick- 
ling, Norfolk (aged three). Her hair appears 
to be short. 

1479. Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Echyngham, 
and Agnes, , daughter of Robert Oxenbrigg, 
Etchingham, Sussex. The former has a 
narrow fillet ; the latter wears the hair plaited 
on the top of the head, 
f. 1480. A Lady, Felbrigg, Norfolk.' 

1493. Ursula, only daughter of Luke Caspar, Low 
Leyton, Essex. 

of Dethlck and Babington"). Additional information may be found in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1803, p. 403 (Swanscombe, Kent) ; 
Jntiquarian Repertory, Vol. IV., 1 809, pp. 663-4 '■> Brand's Popular Antiqui- 
ties of Great Britain, Vol. II., 1870, p. 220. ^ee also the Journal of the 
British Archaolo^cal Association, Vol. XXXI., 1 875, p. 190, " On Funeral 
Garlands," by H. S. Cuming, F.S.A. Scot., and N.S, Vol. VI., 1900, 
p. 54, " Derbyshire Funeral Garlands," by T. N. Brushfield, Esq., M.D., 
F.S.A. ; The Reliquary, Vol. I., 1860-1, pp. 5-1 1, " On Funeral Garlands," 
by Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., and Vol. XXL, 1 880-1, an additional note 
on "Virgin Grants" or Garlands, by the same, p. 145 ; Vol. XXVI., 
1885-6, p. 239, "Funeral Garlands at Astley Abbots, Shropshire"; 
Walford's Antiquary, Vol. XII., July to December, 1887, p. i6, " Funeral 
Garlands," by J. Potter Briscoe, F.R.H.S. ; The Antiquary; a Fortnightly 
Medium of Intercommunication for ArcheeologLsts, etc.. Vol. III., p. 178, 207, 
by J. Perry ; Wiltshire Notes and Queries, Vol. IV., 1904, p. 5 19, " Funeral 
Garlands, an instance at Stockton, Wilts." Transactions of the Shropshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, 2nd series. Vol. VII., 1895, 
p. 147, mentions maiden garlands formerly at Shrawardine. 

' Compare two daughters on brass of Tomesina, wife of William 
Tendryng, Esq., 1485, Yoxford, Suffolk. 



1508. Edith and Elizabeth, daughters of John Wylde, 
Esq., Barnes, Surrey ; " dyed virgyns," with 

1522. Elisabeth, daughter of George Fitz-William, 

Esq., Mablethorpe, Lines. 
1524. Constance, " meyden doughter," of John Ber- 

ners,Esq., Writtle, Essex; wearing pedimental 


1536. Margaret, daughter of Dame Alice BeryfF, 
Brightlingsea, Essex; on bracket with her 

1545. Amphillis, daughter of Sir Edmund Peckham, 
Denham, Bucks. ; with pedimental frontlet. 

1547. Wenefride Newport, Greystoke, Cumberland; 
in ' Paris head,' 

1626. Grace Latham, "died a mayde," Upminster, 
Essex (aged 22) ; hair brushed back. 

At Maids' Moreton, Bucks., in 1890, a brass was placed 
in the matrix of the lost original commemorating two 
maids, daughters of Thomas Pever, died c. 1480, repre- 
senting them in kirtle and mantle with long hair and 
wreaths of roses. 

Occasionally married ladies are represented wearing 
their hair long. The four examples following have the 
fillet : — 

c. 1450. Isabel, wife of Sir Gervase Clifton, widow of 
William Scott, Esq., Brabourne, Kent. 
1460. Douce, wife of Sir Robert del Bothe, Wilmslow, 

1479. Jo^^) wife of Sir Robert RatclifFe, widow of 
Humphrey Bourchier (Lord Cromwell), Tat- 
tershall, Lines. 
c. 1480. Joan, wife of Nicholas Kniveton, Esq., Muggin- 
ton, Derbyshire. 

The palimpsest fragments of the brass of Elizabeth St. 
John, second wife of William, Lord Zouch, 1447, Okeover, 


Etchingham, Sussex. 




Staffs., show her in long hair, probably filleted, on the 
reverse of the Oker children. 

Some peculiarities in head-dresses of simple form of 
the fifteenth century should be mentioned. They appear 
on effigies of daughters, as follows : — 

The hair done in plaits at the sides above the ears, and 
bound by a fillet : — 

141 6. The twelve daughters, kneeling, on brass of 
Thomas and Elena Stokes, Ashby St. Legers, 

1420. A daughter of Joan Waltham, Waltham, Lines, 
(half effigy). 

A kind of flat cap surmounting the hair, which is 
gathered up at the sides of the face : — 

14 1 4. Philippa Carreu, with her six sisters, Beddington, 

1429. Seven daughters of Roger and Agnes Thornton, 
Ail Saints, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

A fillet having a rolled appearance,' slightly raised at 
the sides : — 

H33- Four daughters on the brass of Joan, Lady de 

Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 
c. 1440. The daughters of Robert and Margaret Pagge, 

Cirencester, Gloucs. 
c. 1440. Anna, Bridgett and Susanna, daughters of John 

and Elizabeth Arderne, Leigh, Surrey. 
c. 1440-50. Susanna, daughter of the same, Leigh, Surrey. 

At Long Melford, Suffolk, a lady of the Clopton 
family, c. 1420, wears a broad band or cap, ornamented 

' A beautiful example of this head-dress, showing it in the form of a 
broad jewelled roll or fillet surrounding the head but exposing the hair 
in the centre, is given in Hefncr-Alteneck's Trachten des christlichen 
Mlttelalters, Plate 65, Vol. II. 


with six estoiles of five points. Her bag-sleeved gown 
has a broad, falling collar. 

A cap-like head-gear, from which the hair escapes 
behind, is seen worn by : — 

c. 1480. Three daughters on the brass of John and Joan 
Jay, St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol. 
1483. Two daughters on the brass of Thomas and 
Isabella Hampton, Stoke Charity, Hants. 

A Note on the Effigies of Children. 

Effigies of children on the brasses of their parents, rare 
in the fourteenth, become frequent in the fifteenth, and 
are common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
The term " children " must not be taken to indicate youth, 
but rather descent; for the persons represented as chil- 
dren on the brasses of their parents are often shown as 
middle-aged. As a rule, the costume is a replica or 
modification of that worn by the parents, and has been 
already described. Sons are more usually in the civilian 
than in the military habit of the period, but instances in 
armour are occasionally found, and a few cases are known 
of sons in holy orders being represented in vestments or in 
clerical habit {see pp. 94, 95, 104, 106). The head-dress of 
the daughter is, as a rule, simpler than that of her mother,' 
long hair being frequently found {e.g.^ four daughters of 
Roger Kyngdon, 1471, Quethiock, Cornwall). In brasses 
of the sixteenth century the daughters sometimes wear 
the Paris head, whilst their mothers show the older pedi- 
mental coiffure {e.g., 1542, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas 
Fromond, Esq., and daughters, Cheam, Surrey, or the 
daughters of Edward and Ciselye Goodman, 1560, Ruthyn, 
Denbighshire). The early part of the fifteenth century 

^ For instance, the pedlmental head-dress is shown with frontlet, but 
allowing the hair to escape behind, e.g., the daughters of Edward Sulyard, 
Esq., c, 1495, High Laver, Essex. 


does not afford many examples of these effigies. A few 
exist, e.g. : — 

1405. Reginald and Robert, sons of Sir Reginald Bray- 
brook, Cobham, Kent ; on small pedestals. 

1407. John, son of Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, 
Kent ; similar to the last. 

141 6. The Children of Thomas Stokes, Esq., Ashby 
St. Legers, Northants. 

1419. The Children of John Lyndewode, Linwood, 
Lines. ; in small canopies beneath the larger 

1429. The Children of Roger Thornton, Esq., All Saints, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; similarly placed. 

As a rule, the children are placed either standing or 
kneeling beneath the principal effigies ; but when a rect- 
angular plate is employed, they are usually found grouped, 
the sons behind their father, and the daughters behind 
their mother. Brasses commemorating young children 
do not become common till a late period. The following 
are some examples, in which seven of the boys wear the long 
skirts of childhood, giving to their costume a feminine 
appearance : — 

1585. Peter, son of Nicholas Best, Merstham Surrey; 

with towel-like handkerchief tied to girdle. 

1 601. John Shorland, Woodbridge, Suifolk (aged seven). 

1623. John, son of Francis Drake, Esq., Amersham, 
Bucks, (aged four). 

1 63 1. The Hon. Edward Saintmaur, fourth son of 
William, Earl of Hertford, CoUingbourne 
Ducis, Wilts, (in his first year). 

1633. William, eldest son of William Glynne, Clynnog, 
Carnarvonshire (aged two) ; a similar hand- 
kerchief to that of Peter Best. 

1 64 1. George Evelyn, Esq., son of Sir John Evelyn, 

West Deane, Wilts, (aged six). 

1642. Arthur, only son of Philip, Lord Wharton, 


Woob urn, Bucks, (aged nine months) j re- 

1599. William, son of George Brome, Holton, Oxon 
(aged ten) ; in trunk-hose, doublet and short 

1606. Ralph, son of William Wiclif, Wycliffe, Yorks. 

(aged fourteen) ; kneeling in similar costume, 
but without cloak. 

1628. Dorothy, daughter of John Turner, Gent., Kirk- 
leatham, Yorks. (aged four) ; large standing 
rufF or collar. 

1630. Ann, daughter of Barnard Hyde, Esq., Little 

Ilford, Essex (aged eighteen). 
1683. Anne, daughter of Henry and Anne Dunch, Little 

Wittenham, Berks, (aged ten months). 

PF Novrffe'DEFHRTED THIS UFE AUG: 30. r(5a 

Little Wittenham. Berks. 



From The Antiquities of Warwickshire, by Sir William 
Dugdale, 2nd edition, revised by William Thomas, 
D.D. London, 1730, Vol. I., pp. 445-46.' 

" On the southside, and adjoining to the Quire of this Church, stands 
that stately and beautiful! Chapell dedicated to the honour of the 
B. Virgin, the fabrick whereof was begun by the Executors of Richard 
Beauchamp Earl of Warwick (according to the appointn\ent of his Will) 
in 2 1. H. 6. and perfected in 3.E.4. together with that magnificent Tombe 
for the said Earl, inferior to none in England, except that of K. H. 7. in 
Westminster Abby; the charge of all which came to no less than 
248111. 04s. oyd. ob. as by the particular accompts appeareth : but to 
how vast a sum such a piece of worke would have amounted to in these 
days, may be easily guest by that great disproportion in the prizes of 
things now, from what they were then, the value of an Oxe being about 
that time xlils. ivd. and of a quarter of bread corne ills. ivd. 

" That the beauty of this goodly Chapell and Monument, through the 
iniquity of later times, is now much impaired, all that have seen it may 
easily discern, and thereby guess at the glory wherein it once stood ; to 
such therefore would there be no great need to say more thereof ; but 
for the satisfaction of others, I have here thought fit to insert a brief of 
the Covenants betwixt the said Executors, viz. Thomas Huggeford, Nlch, 
Rodye, and Will. Berkswell, and the severall Artists that were employed 
in the most exquisite parts of its fabrick and ornaments, as also of the 
costly Tombe before specified, bearing date xill. Junli 32. H. 6. 

" John Essex Marbler, Will. Austen Founder, and Thomas Stevyns 
Copper Smyth, do covenant with the said Executors, that they shall 
make, forge, and worke in most finest wise and of the finest Latten, one 
large plate to be dressed and to lye on the overmost stone of the Tombe 
under the Image that shall lye on the same Tombe ; and two narrow 
plates to go round about the stone. Also they shall make in like wise, 
and like Latten, an Hearse to be dressed and set upon the said stone, 
over the Image, to beare a covering to be ordeyned ; the large plate, to 
be made of the finest and thickest Cullen plate, shall be in length 
viii. foot, and in bredth ill. foot and one inch. Either of the said long 
plates for writing shall be in bredth to fill justly the casements provided 
therefore ; the Hearse to be made in the comliest wise, justly in length, 
bredth, thickness, and height thereof, and of every part thereof, and in 

I See also Description of the Beauchamp Chapel adjoining to the Church oj St. Mary at 
W arwickf and the Monuments of the Earls of tVarivick in the said Church and elsewhere, 
by Richard Gough, Esq. New edition. London, Nichols, 1809, p. 9. 



workmanship in all places and pieces such, and after an Hearse of timber 
which the Executors shall make for a pattern : and in ten panells of this 
Hearse of Letters the said workmen shall set, in the most finest and 
fairest wise, ten Scutcheons of Armes, such as the Executors will devise. 
In the two long plates they shall write in Latine in fine manner all such 
Scripture of Declaration as the said Executors shall devise, that may be 
conteined and comprehended in the plates ; all the champes about the 
Letter to be abated and hatched curiously to set out the Letters, All 
the aforesaid large plates, and all the said two plates through all the over 
sides of them, and all the said Hearse of Latten, without and within, 
they shall repair and gild with the finest gold, as finely, and as well in 
all places through, as is or shall be any place of the aforesaid Image, 
which one Bartholmew Goldsmyth then had in gilding; all the said 
workmanship, in making, finishing, laying and fastning to be at the 
charge of the said workmen. And for the same they have in sterling 
money Cxxvli. 

"Will. Austen Citizen and Founder of London xiv. Martii 30. H. 6. 
covenanteth, &c to cast, work, and perfectly to make, of the finest 
Latten to be gilded that may be found, xiv. Images embossed, of Lords 
and Ladyes in divers vestures, called Weepers, to stand in housings made 
about the Tombe, those Images to be made in bredth, length and thick- 
ness, &c to xiv. patterns made of timber. Also he shall make xviii. lesse 
Images of Angells, to stand in other housings, as shall be appointed by 
patterns, whereof ix. after one side, and ix. after another. Also he must 
make an Hearse to stand on the Tombe, above and about the principall 
Image that shall lye in the Tombe, according to a pattern ; the stufFe 
and Workmanship to the repairing to be at the charge of the said Will. 
Austen. And the Executors shall pay for every Image that shall lye on 
the Tombe, of the weepers so made in Latten, xiiis. ivd. And for every 
Image of Angells so made vs. And for every pound of Latten that shall 
be in the Hearse xd. And shall pay and bear the costs of the said Austen 
for setting the said Images and Herse, 

"The said Will. Austen, xi. Feb. 28. H. 6. doth covenant to cast and 
make an Image of a man armed, of fine Latten, garnished with certain 
ornaments, viz. with Sword and Dagger ; with a Garter ; with a Helme 
and Crest under his head, and at his feet a Bear musled, and a Griffon, 
perfectly made of the finest Latten, according to patterns ; all which to 
be brought to Warwick, and layd on the Tombe, at the perill of the 
said Austen ; the said Executors paying for the Image, perfectly made 
and laid, and all the ornaments, in good order, besides the cost of the 
said workmen to Warwick and working there to lay the Image, and 
besides the cost of the carriages, all which are to be born by the said 
Executors, in total xl li. 

" Bartholomew Lambespring Dutchman, and Goldsmyth of London, 
23. Mali 27. H. 6. covenanteth to repair, whone, and pullish, and to 
make perfect to the gilding, an Image of Latten of a man armed that is 
in making, to lye over the Tombe, and all the apparell that belongeth 


thereunto, as Helme, Crest, Sword, &c. and Beasts ; the said Executors 
paying therefore xiii li. 

"The said Bartholomew and Will. Austen xii. Martii 31. H. 6. do 
covenant to puUish and repare xxxii. Images of Latten, lately made by 
the said Will. Austen for the Tombe, viz. xviii. Images of Angells, and 
xiv. Images of Mourners, ready to the gilding; the said Executors 
paying therefore xx li. 

"The said Bartholomew 6. Julii 30. H. 6. doth covenant to make xiv. 
Scutcheons of the finest Latten, to be set under xiv. Images of Lords and 
Ladyes, Weepers, about the Tombe ; every Scutcheon to be made meet in 
length, bredth, and thickness, to the place it shall stand in the Marble 
according to the patterns. These xiv. Scotcheons, and the Armes in 
them, the said Bartholomew shall make, repare, grave, gild, enamil, and 
puUish as well as is possible ; and the same Scutcheons shall set up, and 
pin fast, and shall bear the charge of all the stuff thereof, the said 
Executors paying for every Scutcheon xvs. sterling, which in all 
amounteth to xli. xs. 

"The said Bartholomew xx. Julii 31.H.6. doth covenant, &c. to gild, 
pullish, and burnish xxxii. Images, whereof xiv. Mourners, and xviii. 
Angells to be set about the Tombe, and to make the visages and hands, 
and all other bares of all the said Images, in most quick and fair wise, 
and to save the gold as much as may be from and without spoiling, and 
to find all things saving gold ; the said Executors to find all the gold that 
shall be occupied thereabout, and to pay him for his other charges and 
labours, either xlli. or else so much as two honest and skilfull Goldsmyths 
shall say upon the view of the work, what the same, besides gold and his 
labour, is worth : and the Executors are to deliver money from time to 
time, as the work goeth forward, whereof they pay Lili. viiis. ivd. 

"The said Bartholomew iii° Martii 32. H. 6. doth covenant to make 
clean, to gild, to burnish, and pullish the great Image of Latten, which 
shall lye upon the Tombe, with the Helme and Crest, the Bear and the 
Griffon, and all other the ornaments of Latten ; and the said Bartholomew 
shall finde all manner of stuffe for the doing thereof, saving gold, and all 
workmanship at his charges, the said Executors providing gold, and 
giving to the said Bartholomew such sum and sums of money for his 
charges and workmanship, as two honest and skilfull Goldsmyths, view- 
ing the work, shall adjudge, whereof some of the money to be payd for 
the borde of the workmen, as the work shall go forward, whereof they 
pay xcvli. iis. viiid. 

"John Bourde of CorfF Castle in the County of Dorset Marbler 
16, Maii 35. H. 6. doth covenant to make a Tombe of Marble, to be set 
on the said Earle's grave ; the said Tombe to be made well, cleane, and 
sufficiently, of a good and fine Marble, as well coloured as may be had 
in England. The uppermost stone of the Tombe and the base thereof 
to contain in length ix. foot of the standard, in bredth iv. foot, and in 
thickness vii. inches : the course of the Tombe to be of good and due 
proportion to answer the length and bredth of the uppermost stone ; and 




a pace to be made round about the Tombe of like good marble, to stand 
on the ground ; which pace shall contain in thickness vi. inches, and in 
bredth xviii. inches. The Tombe to bear in height from the pace iv. foot 
and a half. And in and about the same Tombe to make xiv. principall 
housings, and under every principall housing a goodly quarter for a 
Scutcheon of copper and gilt, to be set in ; and to do all the work and 
workmanship about the said Tombe to the entail, according to a portraic- 
ture delivered him ; and the carriages and bringing to Warwick, and 
there to set the same up where it shall stand : the entailing to be at the 
charge of the Executors: after which entailing the said Marbler shall 
pullish and dense the said Tombe in workmanlike sort : and for all the 
said Marble, carriage and work he shall have in sterling money xlv li. 

" The said Marbler covenanteth to provide, of good and well-coloured 
Marble, so many stones as will pave the Chapell where the Tombe 
standeth, every stone containing in thickness two inches, and in con- 
venient bredth, and to bring the same to Warwick and lay it : and for 
the stuff, workmanship, and carriage of every hundred of those stones, he 
shall have xls. which in the totall comes to ivli. xiiis. ivd." 


From Ancient Funerall Monuments within the United 
Monarchie of Great Britaine^ Ireland^ and the Islands 
adiacenty with the dissolued hlonasteries therein contained: 
their Founders^ and what eminent Persons haue heene in 
the same interred. . . . fVhereunto is prefixed a 
Discourse of Funerall Monuments. Of the Foundation 
and fall of Religious Houses. Of Religious Orders. Of 
the Ecclesiasticall Estate of England, ..." Com- 
posed by the Studie and Trauels of John Weever. 
. . . London. Printed by Thomas Harper, 
1 63 1. And are to be sold by Laurence Sadler at the 
signe of the Golden Lion in little Britaine." 

" The Author to the Reader — 

" Having scene (judicious Reader) how carefully in other Kingdomes, 
the Monuments of the dead are preserved, and their Inscriptions or 
Epitaphs registred in their Church-Bookes ; and having read the 
Epitaphs of Italy, France, Germany, and other Nations, collected and 
put in print by the paines of Schraderus, Chpraus, Szvertius, and other 
forraine Writers — And also knowing withall how barbarously within 
these his Majesties Dominions, they are (to the shame of our time) 



broken downe, and utterly almost all ruinated, their brasen Inscriptions 
erazed, tome away, and pilfered, by which inhumane, deformidable act, 
the honourable memory of many vertuous and noble persons deceased, is 
extinguished, and the true understanding of divers Families in these 
Realmes (who have descended of these worthy persons aforesaid) is so 
darkened, as the true course of their inheritance is thereby partly 
interrupted : grieving at this unsufferable injurie offered as well to the 
living, as the dead, out of the respect I bore to venerable Antiquity, and 
the due regard to continue the remembrance of the defunct to future 
posteritie ; I determined with myselfe to collect such memorials of the 
deceased, as were remaining as yet undefaced ; as also to revive the 
memories of eminent worthy persons entombed or interred, either in 
Parish, or in Abbey Churches ; howsoever some of their Sepulchres are at 
this day no where to be discerned, neither their bones and ashie remaines 
in any place to bee gathered. Whereupon with painefull expences 
(which might have beene well spared perhaps you will say) I travailed 
over the most parts of all England, and some parts of Scotland," etc. . . . 

Chapter X. — 

[Page 50.] " Of the rooting up, taking away, crazing and defacing of 
Funerall Monuments in the reignes of King Henry the eighth, and Edward the 
sixth. Of the care Queene Elizabeth, of famous memory, had for the preserva- 
tion of the same. Her Proclamation in the second of her raigne against defacing 
of Monuments. 

"Toward the latter end of the raigne of Henry the eight, and 
throughout the whole raigne of Edward the sixth, and in the beginning 
of Queene Elizabeth, certaine persons of every County were put in 
authority to pull downe, and cast out of all Churches, Roodes, graven 
Images, Shrines with their reliques, to which the ignorant people came 
flocking in adoration. Or any thing else, which (punctually) tended to 
idolatrie and superstition. Under colour of this their Commission, and in 
their too forward zeale, they rooted up, and battered downe, Crosses in 
Churches, and Church-yards, as also in other publike places, they 
defaced and brake downe the images of Kings, Princes, and noble estates ; 
erected, set up, or pourtraied, for the onely memory of them to posterity, 
and not for any religious honour : they crackt a peeces the glasse- 
windowes wherein the effigies of our blessed Saviour hanging on the 
Crosse, or any one of his Saints was depictured ; or otherwise turned up 
their heeles into the place where their heads used to be fixt ; as I have 
scene in the windowes of some of our countrey Churches. They 
despoiled Churches of their copes, vestments. Amices, rich hangings, and 
all other ornaments whereupon the story, or the pourtraiture, of Christ 
himselfe, or of any Saint or Martyr, was delineated, wrought, or 
embroidered ; leaving Religion naked, bare, and unclad ; as Dionysius 
left lupiter without a cloake, and Aesculapius without a beard. 

[Page 5 1 .] But the foulest and most inhumane action of those times, 



was the violation of Funerall Monuments. Marbles which covered the 
dead were digged up, and put to other uses (as I have partly touched 
before) Tombes hackt and hewne apeeces ; Images or representations of 
the defunct, broken, erazed, cut, or dismembred, Inscriptions or Epitaphs, 
especially if they began within an orate pro anima, or concluded with 
cuius anima propitisiur Deus. For greedinesse of the brasse, or for that 
they were thought to bee Antichristian, pulled out from the Sepulchres, 
and purloined ; dead carcases, for gaine of their stone or leaden coffins, 
cast out of their graves, notwithstanding this request, cut or engraven 
upon them, propter misericcrdiam lesu requiescant in pace. These Com- 
missioners, these rvi-t^tiipvypi, these Tombe-breakers, these grave- 
diggers, made such deepe and diligent search into the bottome of ancient 
Sepulchres, in hope there to find (belike) some long-hidden treasure ; 
having heard or read that Hircanus ex Davidis Sepulchro tria millia auri 
talenta eruit: That Hircanus tooke three thousand talents of gold out of 
King Davids Sepulchre ; Crimen Sacrilegio proximum, a sinne the nearest 
unto Sacriledge. Not so much for taking out the money, for Aurum 
Sepulchris juste detrahitur, ubi Dominus non habetur, as for the drawing out, 
and dispersing abroad the bones, ashes, and other the sacred remaines of 
the dead. And hereupon the grave-rakers, these gold-finders are called 
theeves, in old Inscriptions upon Monuments. 

Plutoni sacrum munus ne attingite fures. 
And in another place : Abite hinc pessumi fures. 

" But I have gone further then my commission, thus then to returne. 

" This barbarous rage against the dead (by the Commissioners, and 
others animated by their ill example) continued untill the second yeare of 
the raigne of Queene Elizabeth, of famous memory, who, to restraine 
such a savage cruelty, caused this Proclamation (following) to bee 
published [page 52] throughout all her dominions; which after the im- 
printing thereof, shee signed (each one severally) with her owne hand- 
writing, as this was, which I had of my friend. Master Humphrey 


" A Proclamation against breaking or defacing of Monuments of Antiquitie, 
being set up in Churches, or other publike places, for memory, and not for 
superstition. . 

"The Queenes Majestie understanding, that by the meanes ofsundne 
people, partly ignorant, partly malicious, or covetous ; there hath been 
of late yeares spoiled and broken certaine ancient Monuments, some of 
metall, some of stone, which were erected up aswell in Churches, as in 
other publike places within this Realme, onely to shew a memory to the 
posterity of the persons there buried, or that had beene benefactors to 
the building or dotations of the same Churches or publique places, and 
not to nourish any kinde of superstition. By which meanes, not onely 
the Churches, and places remaine at this present day spoiled, broken, 
and ruinated, to the offence of all noble and gentle hearts, and the 


extinguishing of the honourable and good memory of sundry vertuous 
and noble persons deceased ; but also the true understanding of divers 
Families in this Realme (who have descended of the bloud of the same 
persons deceased) is thereby so darkened, as the true course of their 
inheritance may be hereafter interrupted, contrary to lustice, besides 
many other offences that doe hereof ensue to the slander of such as 
either gave, or had charge in times past onely to deface Monuments of 
idolatry and false fained images in Churches and Abbeyes. And there- 
fore, although it be very hard to recover things broken and spoiled : yet 
both to provide that no such barbarous disorder bee hereafter used, and 
to repalre as much of the said Monuments as conveniently may be : Her 
Majestie chargeth and commandeth all manner of persons hereafter to 
forbeare the breaking or defacing of any parcell of any Monument, or 
Tombe, or Grave, or other Inscription and memory of any person 
deceased, being in any manner of place, or to breake any image of Kings, 
Princes, or nobles Estates of this Realme, or of any other that have beene 
in times past erected and set up, for the onely memory of them to their 
posterity in common Churches, and not for any religious honour ; or to 
breake downe and deface any Image in glasse-windowes in any Church, 
without consent of the Ordinary : upon paine that whosoever shal herein 
be found to offend, to be committed to the next Goale, and there to 
remaine without baile or mainprise, unto the next comming of the 
lustices, for the delivery of the said Goale ; and then to be further 
punished by fine or imprisonment (besides the restitution or reedification 
of the thing broken) as to the said lustices shall seeme meete ; using 
therein the advise of the Ordinary, and if neede shall bee, the advise also 
of her Majesties Councell in her Starre-chamber. 

"And for such as bee already spoiled in any Church, or Chappell, 
now [page 53] standing: Her Majestie chargeth and commandeth, all 
Archbishops, Bishops, and other Ordinaries, or Ecclesiastical persons, 
which have authoritie to visit the Churches or Chappels ; to inquire by pre- 
sentments of the Curates, Churchwardens, and certaine of the Parishoners, 
what manner of spoiles have been made, sithens the beginning of her 
Majesties raigne of such Monuments ; and by whom, and if the persons 
be living, how able they be to repaire and reedifie the same ; and there- 
upon to convent the same persons, and to enjoyne them under paine of 
Excommunication, to repaire the same by a convenient day, or other- 
wise, as the cause shall further require, to notifie the same to her 
Majesties Councell in the Starre-chamber at Westminster. And if any 
such shall be found and convicted thereof, not able to repaire the same ; 
that then they be enjoyned to doe open penance two or three times in 
the Church, as to the qualitie of the crime and partie belongeth under 
like paine of Excommunication. And if the partie that offended bee 
dead, and the executours of the Will left, having sufficient in their hands 
unadministred, and the offence notorious ; The Ordinary of the place 
shall also enjoyne them to repaire or reedifie the same, upon like or any 
other convenient paine, to bee devised by the said Ordinary. And when 


the ofFendour cannot be presented, if it be in any Cathedrall or 
Collegiate Church which hath any revenue belonging to it, that is not 
particularly allotted to the sustentation of any person certaine, or other- 
wise, but that it may remaine in discretion of the governour thereof, to 
bestow the same upon any other charitable deed, as mending of high- 
wayes, or such like ; her Majestie enjoyneth and straightly chargeth the 
governours and companies of every such Church, to employ such parcels 
of the said sums of money (as any wise may be spared) upon the speedy 
repaire or reedification of any such Monuments so defaced or spoiled, as 
agreeable to the originall, as the same conveniently may be. 

"And where the covetousnesse of certaine persons is such, that as 
Patrons of Churches, or owners of the personages impropriated, or by 
some other colour or pretence, they do perswade with the Parson and 
Parishioners to take or throw downe the Bels of Churches and Chappels, 
and the lead of the same, converting the same to their private gaine, and 
to the spoiles of the said places, and make such like alterations, as thereby 
they seeke a slanderous desolation of the places of prayer : Her Majestie 
(to whom in the right of the Crowne by the ordinance of Almighty God, 
and by the Lawes of this Realme, the defence and protection of the 
Church of this Realme belongeth) doth expresly forbid any manner of 
person, to take away any Bels or lead of any Church or Chappel, under 
paine of imprisonment during her Majesties pleasure, and such further 
fine for the contempt, as shall be thought meete. 

"And her Majestie chargeth all Bishops and Ordinaries to enquire of 
all such contempts done from the beginning of her Majesties raigne, and 
to enjoyne the persons offending to repaire the same within a convenient 
time. And of their doings in this behalfe, to certifie her Majesties privie 
Councell, or the Councell in the Starre-chamber at Westminster, that 
order may be taken herein. 

[Page 54.] " Teven at Windsor the xix of September the second yeare of 
her Majesties raigne. God save the Queene. Imprinted at London in Pauls 
Churchyard by Richard lugge and John Cazvood, Printers to the Queenes 
Majestie. Cum privilegio Regime Majestatis. 

" This Proclamation was seconded by another, to the same purpose, in 
the fourteenth yeare of her Majesties raigne, charging the Justices of her 
Assise to provide severe remedie, both for the punishment and reforma- 
tion thereof. 

" But these Proclamations tooke small effect for much what about this 
time, there sprung up a contagious broode of Sclsmatickes ; who, if they 
might have had their wills, would not onely have robbed our Churches 
of all their ornaments and riches, but also have laid them levell with the 
ground ; choosing rather to exercise their devotions, and publish their 
erronious doctrines, in some emptie barne, in the woods, or common 
fields, then in these Churches, which they held to be polluted with the 
abhominations of the whore of Babylon." 



Note on vestments showing personal devices, as illustrated 
by the exhibition of the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 

In the remarks made on pp. 83-4 concerning the ornamentation of 
Mass Vestments as they are shown on brasses, we mention the rare 
occurrence of personal devices and of figures of samts on chasubles. 
Although the latter are rare on brasses, they are not uncommon on the 
orphreys of actual chasubles, which are still in existence, especially m the 
form of representations of sacred subjects, such as the Crucifixion or 
Assumption. But personal and heraldic ^ devices are more rarely found. 
In the Exhibition of English Embroidery, executed prior to the middle of the 
Sixteenth Century, held by the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1905, were 
included some good examples of this form of decoration, e.g. : — 

Chasuble (Case A, No. 3), of early sixteenth century work, with the 
initials " R T " combined with pastoral staff and mitre, for 
Robert Thorneton, Abbot of Jervaulx (1510-1533); lent by 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Chasuble (M, 3), early sixteenth century, inscribed Pray for / 
sotvlls of Thorns] Sales and Helene hys wyfe; lent by St. George's 
Cathedral, Southwark. 
Chasuble (M, 5), early sixteenth century, decorated with the 
badges of Henry VIII. and Catherine of Aragon ; lent by 
the Right Rev. Bishop Knight. 
Chasuble (G, 2), middle sixteenth century, ornamented with the 
letters " P " and " R " and gloves, with inscription on cruci- 
form orphrey. Orate p\r6\ ala fcimli tui P [a glove] R, for Glover ; 
lent by Downside Abbey, Bath. 
Chasuble orphrey (B, 2), middle fourteenth century, with arms of 
John Grandlsson, Bishop of Exeter, i 327-1 369; lent by the 
Marquis of Bute. 

Chasuble (I) of red velvet, embroidered with the lions of England 
in gold, and with the arms of Solms on the orphrey, probably 
made from a horse-trapper of fourteenth-century work ; lent 
by H.H. Prince Solms-Braunfels. 

Chasuble (V), fifteenth century; on cross-shaped orphrey the 
Crucifixion, flanked by two shields with bear and griffin sup- 
porters, each bearing the arms of Henry Beauchamp, Duke of 

1 Personal devices are not infrequently found on copes shown on brasses {see 
pp. 89-90). Figures of saints on the orphreys of copes are common, and are found on 
brasses {see p. 93). Fine examples were shown at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 
Exhibition, and splendid copes figure in several pictures in the National Gallery. 

2 Good examples of heraldic chasubles are in the collection at the South Kensington 



Warwick {d. 1445 or 1446) :— Quarterly, i, Beauchamp ; 2, 
Clare; 3, Despenser ; 4, Newburgh ; impaling those of his 
wife Cecily Nevill, sister of the King-Maker :— Quarterly, 
I and 4, Montacute quartering Monthermer ; 2 and 3, Nevill' 
with a label of three points. Lent by Mr. R. C. Adams 

Chasuble (X, i), fifteenth century, with the arms of PlantageneC, 
Stafford, De Bohun, Clare, and FitzWalter ; the shields sup 
ported by swans ; the Stafford knot figuring in the decoration ; 
lent by Colonel J. E, Butler-Bowdon. 

Chasuble orphrey (Z, 1 7), early sixteenth century, showing below 
the Crucifixion the arms of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford 
{d. 1513), impaling those of his second wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Richard Scrope and widow of William, 
Viscount Beaumont; lent by Lieutenant-Colonel Croft- 

A fine heraldic Stole (E, 3) and Maniple (E, 2) of fourteenth-century 
work, the former decorated with forty-six shields, were lent by Miss 
Weld, of Leagram, and a Stole (E, 4), of similar date, containing thirty- 
eight shields, by Lord Willoughby de Broke. 

Two other examples of church needlework, showing personal devices, 
must be mentioned, (i.) An altar cover (M, 8) made from fragments of 
three vestments, showing a rebus, consisting of the letters " Why " in 
gold on red velvet and the figure of a church, for William Whychurch, 
Abbot of Hayles, near Buckland, in 1470; lent by the Rector and 
Churchwardens of Buckland Broadway, (ii.) A Hanging (BB) made 
from parts of two vestments (? copes), showing an angel supporting a 
shield with the arms of Ralph Parsons,^ d. 1478 (Argent on a chevron 
sable three roses or) ; a scroll below reading. Orate p\ro\ ata dm Radi />[ar] sos; 
lent by the Vicar and Churchwardens of Cirencester. 

I His brass is at Cirencester, showing him in mass vestments and holding a chalice 
with wafer. See The Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire, by Cecil T. Davis. London. 
1899. Pages 75-6. 



p. 29, line I7,>r Blomfield read Blomefield. 

P. 34, line 18,/or Bowers GlfFard read Bowers Giftord. 

P. 40, line z, for WldvUle r^^i Wideville. 

„ line I o,_/o;- fourteeth fourteenth. 
P. 43, line 16, for TopclllF read Topclyff. 

P. 44, line 8, insert Bishops before Burchard ; /^r lohn r^^^ Johan. 

„ line 22, note, Flemish palimpsests here. 
P. 50, line 8, j^r enamelling read colouring. 
P. 52, line 20, r^^^ Bishop Johan de Mul. 

„ line 27,/orTopcllffr^a^ Topclyff; also p. 53, line 3. 
P. 55, footnote 2, 6, Grave; Stone; line 8, rivited & fastened; 

line 9, cleane; line 10, add YroY^^ 8 June 1631, 
P. 70, lines 3-4, yor Gamma (y) readX. 

line lo,_/or Horsemonden r^<z^ Horsmonden. 
line l6,>r Shottesbrook r^^z^ Shottesbrooke. • 1 1 1, 

P. 71. The dates c. 141 1, 1472, must not be considered to include the 
paragraphs following ; but merely the first brass in each paragraph. 
P. 76, footnote, line 4,>r 1630 read 1 630-1. 

P. 80, footnote 3, line 2,>- William Neele, 15 10, ?W William Jomb- 

harte, c. 1 500. 
P. 82, line ■],for through read owing to. 
P. 84, footnote 4, line /\.,for sixteenth read fifteenth. 

Add A Richard Standon or Stondon, Friar Preacher, was appointed 
a papal chaplain, 141 3, 6 Kal. Feb. ^ee p. 175» Calendar of 
Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland. 
Papal Letters, Yo\.Yl., h.n. 1404-1415, 1904; and the same, 
p. 381. 

P. 86, footnote 2, line 3, add 1895, p. 41. 

P. 87, line zo, for Butler read Buttler. 

P. 88, line \o,for Clothal read Clothall. 

P. 94, line \,for Penhalluryk read Penhallinyk. 

P. 95, line \<^,for c. 1490 read c. 1400. 

P. 102, line 30,_/o;- Wimlngton /r^^a' Wymington. 

P. 105, footnote I, line \,for Crishall read Chrlshall. 

P. 106, line \ ^,for Laycock read Lacock. 

P. 108, footnote 2, line (),for Redfarn read Redfern. 

P. Ill, footnote 2, line zi, for Badelsmere read Badlesmere. 

P. 112, footnote I, line 'i,for Ruthyn read Ruthin. 

P. 127, footnote 3, line Z,for Maltheureux r^rt^^ Malheureux. ■ 

P. 129, line 1 2,_;^r Yslyngtone r^^zt^ Yslyngton. 

P. 131, line 7, p. 132, line 6, for Sowthe read Lowthe. 

P. 134, line 33,70^ Jacob read James. 



P. 140, add to footnote:— In the Losely Chapel, St. Nicholas' Church 
Guildford, IS the sculptured efflgy of Canon Arnald Brocas, Rector' 
I 395> showing him in cassoclc, surplice, grey almuce, and red cope^ 
with the close-fitting buttoned sleeves of a red undergarment 
appearing at the wrists. The brass inscription describes him as 
" baculari' ut'usq[ue] iuris." 
P. 141, line 27, /or \\io\read 1434. See Winchester Scholars, by Thomas 
Frederick Kirby, M.A., London, 1888, p. 54. (An illustration of 
this brass forms the frontispiece.) 
P. 150, line z6,for Neyland Nayland. 

55, line 14, after torteaux add gules, over all a label of three points. 
61, line l/^,for lohn read ]ohn. 

69, line I, for Sir John Leventhorpe r^^a' John Leventhorpe, Esq. 

70, line II, for Sir John Throckmorton read John Throckmorton, 

75, line ^,for Anstey r^^a' Ansty. 
79, line J, for Lyttcot read Lytkot. 
79, line II, for Redcliff r^-^^ Redcliffe. 
81, line i<i,for Heveningham read Hevenyngham. 
83, line ^,for Ralph read Raphe. 
85, line 2$, for Arundell read Arundel. 
90, line 27,7^;- Sir Thomas Peryent read John Peryent, Esq. 

90, line Suffer Arnold read Arnald. 

91, line 2S, for Sir Thomas de St. Quintin read Thomas de St. 
Quintin, Esq. 

92, line JO, for Sergeant read Serjeant. 

93, line 16, for Coates read Cotes. 
P. 200, line 16, for Agnes read Agneys. 

P. 201, line 2%, for Frankelein read Civilian. See p. 200. 

P. 207, line 33,7^r Lechdale r^<7^ Lechlade. 

P. 208, line id, for Smith read Smyth. 

P. 212, line ZZ,for Hatch read Hatche. 

P. 214, line 22, for Rawmarch read Rawmarsh. 

P. 216, line 1\,for William r^^z^ Walter (Septvans). 

P. 218, line if, for Brown read Browne. 

P. 228, line \,for Bingham read Byngham. 

„ line ^,for Urswyke read Urswyk. 
P. 232, line 22, for Laycock read Lacock. 
P. 234, line 20, for Willesdon r^^a' Willesden. 
P. 244, line \\yfor Hellesden read Hellesdon. 
P. 245, line \,for TopclifF read TopclyfF. 
P. 249, line \,for Stapelton read Stapleton. 
P. 250, line \\,for Crishall read Chrishall. 
P. 251, line ig,for Kerdiston read Kerdeston. 
P. 261, line i %,for Mellicent r^^;^ Millicent. 

„ line 2 J, for Quartermain read Quartremayn. 
P. 263, line ^,for Launcelyn read Launceleyn. 





p. 265, line 16, read Furneaux Pelham. 

line 17, for Quartermain read Quartremayn. 
P. 268, line \ojor Sir Thomas Shernborne read Thomas Shernborne, 

P. 268, line 22, omit ? after Catherine. 
P. 271, line i8,>r Ingleton read Ingylton. 
P. 275, line i6,>r Herling read Harling. 
P. 276, line %, for Laycock read Lacock. 

„ line 2 3,>r Ardingly read Ardingley. 
P. 279, line \, for Dauntesay read Dauntsay. 
P. 284, line 24, /or Sir William Coke read William Coke, lisq. 
P. 296, line 33, >r c. 1480 read c. 1475. 
P. 298, line 10, for Ruthyn read Ruthin. 
P. 299, lines 1-\,for Braybrook read Braybrok. 




Names of Authors cited in italics. 

Abbot, Alice, 115; Archbishop 
George, 115; Maurice, 115; 
Bishop Robert, 1 1 5 

Abell, William, 13, 82, 102 

Aberfeld, John, 139 

Acklam, George, 1.5 

Adams, Richard, 95, 102 

Adrianson, Adrian, 56 

Aileward, Thomas, 90, 91, 93 

Ailmer, John, 207, 263 ; Margery, 

Alray, Provost Henry, 14, 117 
Alban, St., 47 

Albemarle, Isabel de Fortibus, 
Countess of, I47». ; William de 
Fortibus, Earl of, I47«. 

Albinus, Cardinal, 86 

Albyn, Robert, 160 

Alcala, Don Parafan de Ribera, 
Duke of, 25 

Aldeburgh, William de, 157, 159, 
1 60 

Alderburne, John, 71 
Aldrych, Robert, 235 
Alfounder, Robert, 216 
Alnwyk, John, 1 36 
jindre,J .Lems,¥.^.P^., 98 «., 247 «,, 

Andrewes, Agnes, 281; Thomas, 

Esq., 281 
Anjou, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count 

of, 5 : Rene d', 272 «. 
Anne Boleyn, Queen, 283 «. 
Ansty, John, Esq., 175, 270, 316 
Antiquaries, Society of, 2I4«. 
Anyell, Dame Juliana, 98 

Appleton, Mary, 283 ; Roger, 283 
Arden family, lady of, 280 
Arderne, Anna, 297 ; Bridgett, 297 ; 
Dame Catherine, 268, 317; 
Elizabeth, 297 ; John, Esq., 217, 
297 ; Dame Matilda, 2o6«. ; Sir 
Peter, Chief Baron, 227, 268 ; 
Susanna, 297 ; Sir Thomas, 2o6w. 
Argentein, John, 128, 133 
Argenteine, see D'Argenteine 
Argentine, Margery, 265 
Armstrong, W., ^zn. 
Arthur, Robert, 93 
Arundel and Surrey, Beatrice Fitz- 
Alan, Countess of, 258, 262 ; 
Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of, 258 
Arundel, the Lady Ann, 292 ; Ann, 
292; Sir John, 216, 292 ; John, 
Esq., 185, 216, 292, 316 ; Arch- 
bishop Thomas, 90 «. 
Arundell, family of, 45 ; Edward, 
214; Eleanor, Lady, i89«. ; the 
Lady Elizabeth, 281 ; George, 
Esq., 285 ; Isabel, 285 ; Sir John, 
182, 281 ; Sir John, of Trerice, 
182, 286; John, i66«. ; Dame 
Juliana, 286 ; Dame Katherine, 
281 ; Margery, 257, 261 ; Dame 
Mary, 286; Richard, l66«. ; 
Thomas, Esq., 261 
Asger, John, 217 
Asheley, Robert, 1667;. 
Asheton, Nicholas, 116 
Ask, Margaret, 266 ; Richard, Esq., 

172, 266 
Asscheton, Mathew de, 91 «. 


I See also List of Illustrations. 



Persons Assheton, Edmund, yow., 82, 102 ; 

Elizabeth, 293 ; Margaret, 269 ; 
Nicholas, 227, 269 ; Ralph, Esq., 
186, 293 

Asteley, Ann, 276 ; Thomas, Esq., 

Atchley, E. G. CuthbertF., 121 «. 

Athelstan, King, 58«. 

Athole, David de Strabolgie, Earl 

of, 250, 259; Elizabeth de 

Ferrers, Countess of, 250 
Athowe, John, loi 
Atkinson, Richard, 56«., 218, 287; 

his two wives, 287 
Attelath, Johanna, 33,49 ; Robert, 

33, 42«., 49, 52, 201 ». 
Attelese, Dame Dionisia, 252 ; Sir 

Richard, 252 
Aubernoun, see D'Aubernoun 
Aubrey y John, 249 ». 
Aubrey, — , Esq., 175, 272 ; wife 

of, 272 

Aumberdene, Nichole de, 103 »., 

Aurelian, Emperor, 67 
Austen, Will. Founder, 303-5 
Avenyng, John, \o\n. 
Awmarle, Thomas, 103 
Ayl worth, Anthony, 133 


B., A. L., \\n.y see Bradbridge 
Babington family, 295 ». 
Babyngton, Radulph, 1 01 
Bache, Simon, 79, 8g, 91, 93 
Bacon, Adam de, 1 1 »., 64 n. 
Bacon, Joan, 263 ; John, 207, 263 ; 

Sir — de, 151 
Badlesmere, Joan de, ^6; see North- 


Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs. M. E., z'^on. 
Bagot, Dame Margaret, 190, 248 ; 

Sir William, 162, 190, 248 
Baigeni, Francis Joseph, 54»., 247 «. 
Bailey, 'Nathan, \o<^n. 
Bailey, Walter, 133 
Baily, Charles, 52». 

Baker, John, 83 ; Thomas, 141 
Balsam, John, 82 
Bar, Catherine Duchess du, 289 ». 
Barantyn, Reginald, Esq., 173 
Barbur, Geoffrey, 204 
Baret, Valentyne, Esq., 165 
Barfoot, John, 22 
Barfott, Katheryn, 282; Robert, 

213, 282 
Barker, Thomas, 128 
Barkham, Dame Mary, 185 a.; Sir 

Robert, i85«. 
Barloe, Joan, 205, 265 ; John, 205, 


Barnardiston, Sir Thomas, 99, 106 
Barnes, Fridesmonda, 1 5 ; Bishop 

Richard, 15 
Barratte, John, 141 
Barron, Oswald, F.S.A., 5«. 
Barstaple, John, 204 
Bartolozzi, F., iSon., 283 «. 
Barttelot, Mary, 291 ; Richard, 

291 ; Roesia, 291 
Bauchon, Johan, 2l». 
Bavaria, Ameleie, Duchess of, 59«. 
Bawdyn, William, 22 «. 
Baxter, Cristiana, 265 ; Robert, 

217, 265 
Bayly, William, 205 
Baynard, Elizabeth, 106, 276; 

Robert, Esq., 106, 181, 232, 


Baynton, Dame Agnes, 287 ; Sir 

Edward, 184, 215, 287; Henry, 

Esq., 215 
Beauchamp, see Bedford, St. Amand, 

Beauchampe, Philippa de, 247 
Beaufo, Isabel, 249 
Beaufort family, 190 
Beaufort, Henry Cardinal, 64 ». 
Beaujeu, Marguerite de, s6n., 

242 «. 

Beaumont, Adam, Esq., 186, 293; 
Elizabeth, 293 ; Bishop Lewis de, 
28, 42«., 81, 83»., 84». ; Wil- 
liam, Viscount, 180, 281, 312 



Beauner, Robert, 96 
Beck, R. C. Adams, 312 
Becket, see St. Thomas 
Bedford, Simon de Beauchamp, 

Earl of, 1 6 
Bedingfeld, family of, 1 1 
Bedingfeild, Anne, 292 ; Eustace, 

Esq., 292 
Belassis, Margery, 294??. ; Richard, 


Bell, Edward, 214; Bishop John, 
35, 74, 80 ; Bishop Richard, 80, 

Bellingham, Elizabeth, 166 «.; 

Walter, i66w. 
Beloe, E. M., junr.j i8«., zm., 

32«., 33«. 
Beltoun, Richard de, 71, 82 
Bendlowes, William, S.L., 231 
Bennett, Richard, M.A., 13, 101, 


Benolte (Benold), Thomas, i66«. 

Benson, Archbishop, 26; Martin 
White, 26 

Berdewell, Elizabeth, 275 ; Wil- 
liam, Esq., I70W., 275 

Beresford, Margaret, 7 

BerifFe, Amia, 275; John, 210, 


Berkeley, Margaret, Lady, 254; 

Thomas, Lord, 161, 191, 254 
Berkswell, Will., 303 
Berkyng, Abbot Richard de, 1 7 
Bernard, Dame Elena, 268 ; Sir 

John, 191, 268 
Berners, Constance, 296 ; John, 

Esq., 296 
Bernewelt, Reginald, 96 
Bertha, Queen, 58». 
Bertlot, Petronilla, 269 ; Richard, 

Esq., 269 
BeryfF, Dame Alice, 294, 296; 

Margaret, 294, 296 
Best, Nicholas, 299 ; Peter, 299 
Bethell, Richard, 106 
Betten, Abbot Leonardus, 72^., 

83«., 84 

BewfForeste, Richard, 91, 96 
Biconyll, Dame Elizabeth, 273 ; 

Sir — , 273 
Bill, Dean William, 1 1 5 
Billing, Sir Thomas, C.J., 228 
Billingford, Richard, 125, 127 
Bingham, Bishop, of Salisbury, 1 7 
Bingham, see Byngham 
Bisshop, William, 1 01 
Bitton, Sir Walter de, 4 
Bladigdone, Johan de, 197, II99» 

242 ; Maud de, 197, 242 
Blakwey, William, 125, 137 
Blanche de Castille, i6«. ; of 

Champagne, 5 w. ; de la Tour, 

243 »., 248 «. 

Blen'haysett, Jane, 294«. ; John, 
Esq., 176, 294 ».; Ralph, Esq., 

Blighe, Elizabeth, 292 ; John, 292 
Blodwell, John, 89, 93 
Blomefield, Rev. Francis, 29, 315 
Blomfield, Bishop, 1 1 1 ». 
Blondell, Esperaunce, 71 
Blondevile, Edward, 183; Ralph, 

183 ; Richard, 183 
Bloor, William, Gent., 211 
Blount, Sir Hugh le, 150 
Bloxam, M. //., 87«., no 
Bloxham, John, 134 
Boccaccio, izjn. 
Bodiham, John, Esq., 160 
Bohun, de, see Gloucester, Hereford 
Boileau, Sir M., 84«, 
Bokkyngg, Robert de, 2 1 n. 
Boleyn, Queen Anne, see Anne 
Boleyn, Anna, 295 ; Cecilie, 295 ; 

Geoffrey, Esq., 295 ; William, 

Esq., 295 
Borard, Prior John, I27«. 
Borell, Geraldus, I27». 
Borrell, John, 35, 179, 192 
Borrow, Robert, Esq., 180 
Bosard, Margery, 274 ; Philip, 274 
Boscawen, John, Esq., 185 
Boselyngthorpe, Sir Richard de, 

145, 150 



Persons Bossewell, John, Gent., 235 

Bostock, Hugo, 207, 263 ; Mar- 
garet, 263 
Boteler, Elizabeth, 263 ; John, 263 
Bothe, Robert, Esq., 191 ; Dame 
Douce del, 296 ; Sir Robert del, 
174, 296 
Botiler, Johan de, 4 
Bourbon, Katharine de, 59 
Bourchier, Bartholomew, Lord, 
256, 265 ; Idonea, Lady, 265 ; 
Margaret, Lady, 256 ; see Crom- 
well, Essex 
Bourde, John, Marbler, 305-6 
Boutell, Rev. Charles, i , 4 «., 13 

i6»., 43, 48, 55, 64ff., 235 
Boutrod, William, 93 
Bovile, John, Esq., 171 
Bowet, Ele, 254; Richard, 254 
Bowke, John, 102, 137 
Bownell, Constance, 24 ; Mordecai, 

Bowthe, Bishop John, 80 
Bowthe (Booth) family, 80 ». 
Bouiyer, George, 221 «. 
Boynton, Thomas, Esq., 180 
Boys, Mary, 286 ; Vyncent, 286 
Bradbridge, Alice, I4». ; William, 

Bradbury, Henry, 287 ; Jane, 287 
Bradschawe, Henry, C. Baron, 229 
Bradshawe, Hen., 229 
Bradstone, Blanche, 246 
Braham, Dame Joan, 98, 294 ; 

John, Esq., 294 
Bramfeilde, William, Gent., 234 
Brand, Rev. John, 295 «. 
Brandenburg, Archbishop Albrecht 

von, J J, 79 _ 
Branwhait, William, 71 
Brassle, Robert, 95, 129 
Brasyer, Richard, 218; Robert, 218 
Braunche, Leticia, 43, 48, 5°"3> 

197, 243; Margaret, 43, 48, 

50-3, 197, 243 ; Robert, 43, 48, 

Braunstone, Sir Thomas de, 163 

Bray, Cristina, 262 ; Edmund, 

Lord, 285 
Braybrok, Sir Reginald, 264, 299, 

317; Reginald, 299; Robert, 


Brentyngham, Robert de, 202 
Brewster, Humphrey, Esq., 184 
Brewys, Sir John de, 57, 168 
Bridlington, Prior Thomas, 97 «. 
Brieux, John, 128 
Brigges, P., 1 5 

Brindley, William, 6jn.; i58». 

Briscoe, J. Potter, F.R.H.S., 295 «. 

Bristol, Digby, Earl of, 193 «. 

Brocas, Canon Arnald, 316; Mar- 
garet, 245, 295 ; Raulin, 199 

Broke, Thomas, Esq., 192 

Brokes, Joan, 267 ; William, Esq., 

Brokill, Thomas, Esq., 169 
Brome, George, 300 ; William, 

Esq., 175; William, 300 
Bromley, Sir Thomas, C.J., 223 «. 
Brook, Dame Joan, 259; John, S.L., 

230; Sir Thomas, 204^., 206, 


Brooke, Alice, 274; Dame Joan, 

290 ; Sir John, 278 ; Dame 

Margaret, 278 ; Sir Robert, 290; 

Symon, 274; Sir Thomas, 180 
Brounflet, Margaret, 256; Sir 

Thomas, 165, 168 
Browne, Sir Anthony, C.J., 229 
Browne, Charles, M.A., 747?. 
Browne, John, Gent., 184 ; John, 

217; John, junr., 218, 316; 

Margaret, 268; William, 217, 


Bruce, John, F.S.A., 225 ». 

Brun, Bishop Lambert von,75»., 77 

Brun, Nicholas le, Bailly de Jeu- 

mont, 56 
Brunswick, Bishop Otto de, 17,63 
Brushfield, T. N., M.D., F.S.A., 

57«., 295«. 
Bryan, Dame Alice, 265 ; Sir Ed- 
mund, 265 


Bryant, T. Hugh, io6w. 
Buckingham, Anne Stafford, Duch- 
ess of, 187; Humfrey Stafford, 

1st Duke of, 187 
Bugge, Edward, Gent., 215 
Bugges, Elizabeth, 292 : Richard, 

Esq., 292 ; Vahan, 292 
Bulkeley, Margaret, 279 ; William, 

Esq., 279 
Bulkley, Richard, 94 «. 
BuUen, Sir Thomas, K.G., Earl of 

Wiltshire and of Ormunde, 180, 

187, 209 
BuUingham, Archdeacon Nicholas, 

1 1 3 «. 

Bulowe, Bishop Frederic de, 27, 
44, 52, 83 ; Bishop Godfrey de, 
27, 44, 52, 83: Bishop Henry 
de, 44 ; Bishop Ludolph de, 44 

Bulstrode, Edward, Esq., 193; 
Margaret, 39, 193 

Bures, Henry, Esq., 180; Isaia, 
M.A., 116; Sir Robert de, 145, 
147, 148 _ 

Burgate, Dame Alianora de, 256; 
Sir William de, 256 

Burgh, Isabella, 247 «.; Thomas, 
247 «. 

Burgoyn, John, 278 ; Margaret, 

Burgundy, Isabella, Duchess of, 59 
Buriton, Joan, 289 ; Thomas, 289 
Burnedissh, Esm.ound de, 70 
Burnell, Sir Nicholas, 159, 161 
Burton, John, 116; Dame Mar- 
gery, 253 ; Sir Thomas, 162, 
190, 253 
Bushell, Seath, 13 
Bute, Marquis of, 311 
Butler, Alban, Esq., 290 ; Isabella, 
290 ; Martha, 286 ; Richard, 
Esq., 286 ; Sybilla, 290 
Butler- Bowdon, Col. J. E., 312 
Buttler, Thomas, 87, 94, 315 
Buttry, Eel, 263 

Byngham, Dame Margaret, 267 ; 
Sir Richard, 228, 267, 316 

Byrkhede, John, 72«., 90«., 93 ' 
Byron, Sir John, 266 ; Dame Mar- 
garet, 266 
Byschop, Geoffrey, 70 
Byschoppesdon, Dame Philippa, 


Byschopton, William, 70 
Byttone, Bishop St. William de, 4 


Caerwent, Nicholas de, 70 
Calthorpe, Sir William, 168, 190 
Calveley, Sir Hugh, 278 ; Dame 

Margery, 278 
Calwe, William, 104 
Camber, John, 210 
Cambridge, Richard Plantagenet, 

Earl of, 270 
Camoys, Elizabeth, Lady, 13, 190, 

206, 257; Margarete de, 57, 
239, 246; Sir Richard, 206, 
257; Thomas, Lord, K.G., 13, 
168, 186, i87«., 190, 206, 257 

Campbell, Sir Alexander, Bart., 


Campeden, John de, 10, 86, 93 
Campedene, Roger, 71 
Canteys, Nicholas, 205 
Cantilupe, Bishop Thomas, 18, 

63»., 81 
Capillan, Jacob, 68 
Capp, Thomas, 130 
Carew, Isabelle, 262 ; Nicholas, 

207, 262 

Carewe, Elizabeth, 290 ; John, 

Esq., 290 
Carreu, Philippa, 204, 297 
Carter, John, 67 «. 
Cary, George, 287 ; Wilmota, 287 
Cassey, Richard, 89-90 
Cassy, Dame Alicia, 252, 253 ; Sir 

John, 226, 252 
Caterall, Raffe, Esq., io6». 
Caterick, Bishop John, 57 
Catesby, Margaret, 278 ; William, 

Esq., 278 



Persons Catherine of Aragon, Queen, 3 1 1 
Cavendish, George, 277 «. 

Cazmiri, Cardinal, 64 «. 

Cerne, Sir Edward, 248 ; Dame 
Elyne, 248 ; Philippa de, 249 ». 

Cervington, Sir Oliver de, 152«. 

Ceysyll, John, 210 

Chamberlaine, John, zSon., 283 w. 

Chambers, Anne, 14; Edmund, 
I4». ; Elizabeth, 14«. ; John, 
14 ; William, 14 

Chandler, Thomas, 124 

Charles I., 19, 215, 287, 291 

Charles II., 293 

Charles IV., 57W. 

Charles VI., 258 

Charles le Chauve, 68 

Charlton, see Powis 

Charyls, Walter, 1 37//. 

Chaucer, 180, 224, 2307;. 

Chaucer, Matilda, 266 ; Thomas, 
Esq., 165, 169, 266 

Cheddar, Sir Thomas, 165, 169 

Chernock, Edward, 141 

Cherowin, John, Esq., 4 

Chervyll, Thomas, 70 

Cheswryght, Matilda, 283; Wil- 
liam, 212, 283 

Chewt, Arthur, 290; Margaret, 290 

Cheyne, Isabella, 273 ; Margaret, 
5i«., 258; Robert, Esq., 182; 
Thomas, Esq., 158, 161 ; Wil- 
liam, Esq., 150W., 161 ; William, 
273 ; William, 51 n., 258 

Chichele, Archbishop, 126; Bea- 
trice, 264; William, 205, 264 

Chichester, Edward, Esq., 282 ; 
Elizabeth, 282 

Chidiock, Sir John, 163 w. 

Child, John, 104 

Chiverton, Richard, 216 

Christy, Miller, ^n.,21 n., 27, 105 n. 

Chute, Anne, 289 ; Sir George, 
288 ; Dame Margaret, 288 

Chytraeus, 306 

Clarell, Thomas, 1 00 ; Thomas, 
Esq., 191 

Clark,ProfessorE. C, LL.D., F.S.A., 
85»., 86, 121, 123-6, i3i»., 

223«., 224, 230«. 

Clark, a. T., 193 «. 
Clark, Henry, 71 

Clarke, Humfrey, 287; John, 233; 

Margaret, 287 
Claughton, Bishop, 58«. 
Cleaybroke, William, Esq., 185 
Clephan, R. C, 1567;. 
Clere, Dame Alice, 259 ; Edmund, 

Esq., 176, 275 ; Elizabeth, 275 ; 

Sir Robert, 178, 259 
Clerk, Sir John, i8i 
Cleves, Elizabeth, Duchess, of, 59 ; 

John, Duke of, 59 
Clifford, Bishop Richard, i^Sn.; 

see Cumberland 
Clifton, Sir Adam de, 150W., 161?;.; 

George, Esq., 215 ; Sir Gervase, 

267, 296 ; Dame Isabel, 296 
Clippesby, John, Esq., 184, 289; 

Julian, 289 
Clitherow, Matilda, 266 
Clonvill, Isabel, 244, 247 
Clopton family, ladies of, 273, 

297-8; Francis, Esq., 184; 

Dame Joan, 265 ; Sir William, 


Cobham, Dame Elizabeth, 249 ; 
Dame Joan de, 20«., 240 ; Joan, 
Lady, l89«. ; Joan, Lady de, 
264, 297; Sir John de, 158, 
160; Sir John de, 160; John, 
Esq., 287 ; Dame Margarete de, 
250 ; Dame Margarete de, 251; 
Dame Maud, 250 ; Sir Reginald 
de, 163 ; Sir Reginald of Ster- 
borough, Lord, 249 ; Reginald 
de, 86, 95 ; Sir Thomas, 250; 
Sir Thomas de, 158; see Brooke 

Cobleigh, Isabella, 273 ; Johanna, 
273 ; John, 273 

Cod, Thomas, 40, 72 

Codyngtoun, Henry de, 91, 93 

Coggeshall, Thomas de Esq., 168 

Coke, Alice, 284 



Coke, Sir Edu^ard, 222 «. 

Coke, William, Esq., 229, 284, 


Cokyn, William, Esq., 179 

Colard, John, 234 

Cole, Arthur, 92, 135 

Cole, Rev. Thomas, i, 95«- 

Coles, Eleanor, 293 ; George, 293 ; 

Sarah, 293 
Colman, John, 2 1 1 
Colte, Joan, 191, 273; Thomas, 

Esq., 191, 273 
Coly, Thomas, 102, 137 
Compton family, member of, 1 78 

278 ; wife of, 278 
Conquest, Elizabeth, 278 ; Richard, 

Esq., 179, 278 _ 
Constable, John, 1 5 ; Katherme, 

15 ; Sir Marmaduke, 23 «. 
Constantine, Emperor, 76 
Cooke, Joan, 294 ; John, 218, 294 
Cookesey, Walter, Esq., 190 
Cooper, C. H., F.S.A., 247 w. 
Corbet family, man of, 282 ; wife 

of, 282 

Corbet, Jane, 286 ; John, Esq., 286 
Cornelius, St., 56 
Corner, G. R., F.S.A., 224«., 226«. 
Cornewaylle, Dame , Elizabeth de, 

Cornish, Bishop Thomas, 80 ». 
Cornwall, John of Eltham, Earl 

of, i^zn. 
Corp, Elyenore, 244 «., 254 ; John, 

201, 254 
Cortewille, Ludowic, 9«., 10, 56 
Coryton, Jane, 282; Peter, Esq., 

180, 282 
Cosowarthe, John, 183 
Cosyngton, John, Esq., 168, 262; 

Sarra, 262 
Cotman,J. S., i, 33»49»-» 53>64«., 

167, i87«., 235, 248 ». 
Cotrel, James, 24 ». 
Cottesmore, John, C.J., 227 
Couderborch, Asscheric van der, 7 
Coulthirst, Robert, 216 

Courtenay, Sir Edward, 208 ; Sir Pe«s° 
Peter, K.G., 186; Sir Philip, 
279 ; Archbishop William, 79 

Courthope, James, 87, 95 

Covell, Thomas, Esq., 216 

Covert, Elizabeth, 280; Henry, 
Esq., 178 ; Richard, Esq., 280 

Covesgrave, John, 202 

Cracherood, Agnes, 283; John, 

Cradock, Jane, 292 ; John, 292 
CrafFord, Arthur, Gent., 215 
Crane, Edward, 213 ; Sir Francis, 
i88«. ; Henry, 140W. ; Joan, 
269 ; Margaret, 269 ; William, 

Cranley, Archbishop Thomas, 78, 

Cranmer, Archbishop Thomas, 1 10 
Crauden (Crowden), John de, 96 
Crawford and Balcarres, Earl of, 
48 «. 

Creeny, Rev. W. F., i, 3» 7» i7> 
25»., 26, 43 w., 47, 58-9» 64«-» 
73,83, 126W., 129, i53«., 244«. 

Creke, Dame Alyne de, 13, 241, 
242 ; Sir John de, 152 

Cremer, John, 215 

Crespin, St., i89«. 

Crespinian, St., i89». 

Cressett, Richard, 1 5 

Cressy, Cristina, 262, 265 ; John, 

Crewaker, John, 71 
Creyghton, Bishop, 108 «. 
Crispe, Elizabeth, 290; Henry, 

Crofton, William, Gent., B.C.L., 

Croke, John, 218 

Cromwell, Ralph, Baron, K.G., 

67 »., 1 74, 1 86, 204 ; Humphrey 

Bourchier, Lord, 296 
Crosse, Ric, 1 5 
Croston, Edmund, 94 
Croyland, Abbot Godfrey de, 21 




Persons Crue, Silvanus, I 5 

Cruwe, Juliana de, 256; Thomas 

de, Esq., 167, 256 
Cullum, Sir John, Bart., i 
Culpeper, Sir Edward, 292 ; Eliza- 
beth, 273, zj-jn.; Elizabeth, 
278 ; Elizabeth, 292 ; Dame 
Elizabeth, 292 ; Dame Jane, 
292 ; Nicholas, Esq., 278 ; Sir 
William, 292 ; William, 273, 

Cumberland, Henry Clifford, ist 
Earl of, 188 ; Margaret Clifford, 
Countess of, 188 

Cuming, H.Syer, F.S.A.Scot., I99«., 
295 n. 

Cumpton, Sir Robert de, 150 

Cunynggam, Geo., 100 

Curson, Dame Joan, 274 ; Sir John, 

176, 274 
Curtes, William, 100 
Curteys, Albreda, 247 ; John, 201, 


Curzon, Isabell, 28 1 ; Walter, Esq., 

Cusanos, Cardinal, 64 «. 
Cuthbert, St., 68, 69 ». 
Cutis, Rev. E. L., 3 «., jn. 


D -, Canon John, 86 ». 

Dagworth, Sir Nicholas, 159, 162 
Dalison, 40 

Dalyngrugge, Sir — ,251 
Dalyson, Thomas, LL.B,, 88, 140 
Dansell, Dame Margaret, 286; Sir 

William, 286 
Danvers, Dame Ann, 279; Dame 

Ann, 281 ; Sir John, 279; Sir 

John, 281 
Darcel, Alfred, 5 n. 
Darcy, John, Lord, 260 ; John, 

S.L., 15, 230». 
Darell, William, 71 
D'Argenteine, Sir John, 159, 161, 


Darley, John, 134; John, Gent., 

Daston, Anthony, Esq., 183 
Daubeney, Sir Giles, 169, 260 ; 

Dame Joan, 260 ; Dame Mary, 


D'Aubernoun, Sir John, 8, 17, 20, 
145, 147-8; Sir John, II., 152, 

Daundelyon, John, 173 
Dauntesay, John, Esq., 56, 177, 

Davis, Cecil T., 104 i87»., 

232»., 3I2». 

Deane, Rev. John Bathurst, F.S.A., 

Dearmer, Rev. Percy, iim. 
Death, Ann, 289 ; Elizabeth, 289 ; 

William, 235, 289 
De la Hale, Edward, Esq., 191 
Delamere, Isabella, 259; Richard, 

Esq., 173, 259 ; Abbot Thomas, 

43, 46-8, 53, 95 
Dely, Margaret, 99 
Demoke, Sir Robert, 179 
Dencourt, Elizabeth, 268 ; Roger, 


Dene, Archbishop Henry, 80 
Denny, Edmunde, 1 1 ; Thomas, 

Denton, Henry, loi 
Denys, Morys, Esq., 178 
Derby, Earl of, 116; see Richmond 
Dermot, William, 139 
D'Ertham, Adam, 91 
Deryng, Julyen, 277 
Des Essarts, Pierre, i66«. 
Desford, John, 139 
Despencer family, 155 
Dethick family, 295 ». 
Devenish family, lady of, 259 
D'Evereux, see Salisbury 
Devon, Baldwin de Redvers, Earl 

of, 147 ». 
Devonshire, Duke of, 188 
D'Ewes, see Ewes 
Digby, see Bristol 



Dillon, Viscount, \^6n., 168 

Dirckz, Dirclc Alewyn, 289 ». 
D'Iseni, Sir William, 150 
Disney, Rev, Dr., t,6n.; Jane, 287 ; 

Margaret, 284W. ; Nele, 287; 

Richard, 287; William, Esq., 

56 ; i84». ; 284 
Dixon, Nicholas, 231 
Dixton, Richard, Esq., 173 
Dobree, H. C. P., iiSn., i^^n. 
Dod, Robert, 2 24«. 
Dodding, Margaret, 290; Myles, 

Esq., 290 
Dodschone, Hen., 70 
Donne, Dr., 23 

Doreward, Isabella, 261 ; John, 

Esq., 261 
Douce, Francis, 49 
Dowsing, Samuel, 3 1 «. 
Dowsing, William, 30, 31 
Drake, Mr., 32 

Drake, Francis, Esq., 299 ; John, 

Drax, Richard, 140 
Drayton, Sir John, 190 
Dreux, Robert, Count of, i^n. 
Drew, Edward, Esq., S.L., 230^. 
Drury family, lady of, 283 ; Dame 

Margery, 256 ; Sir Roger, 256 
Du Cange, Charles du Fresne Seigneur, 


Dudley, see Northumberland 
Dugdale, Sir William, ()n., 96, 223 «., 

225, 303 
Duke, Anne, 283 ; George, Esq., 

283 ; George, Gent., 215 
Dunch, Anne, 300 ; Anne, 300 ; 

Henry, 300 
Dunkin, E. H. W., 103 
Duyse, Mons. van, 7 
Dye, William, 1 16 
Dymoke, Dame Elizabeth, 261 «.; 

Sir Thomas, 261 n. 
Dynne, Henry, Esq., 234 
Dyson, Master Humphrey, 308 
Dyson Richard Randall, l85-6». 

Dyve, Sir John, 40, 263 
Dyxon, Adam, 40 ; " vycar," 40 


EcHYNGHAM, Elizabeth, 295 ;Danie 
Joan, 259; Thomas, 295; Sir 
William de, 161 ; Sir William, 
169, 259 

Edgcomb, Thomas, I37«. 

Edvarod, Joane, 287//. ; Valontyne, 

Edward I., 19, 145, 243 «. 
Edward II., 20, 150, 232 «. 
Edward III., 21, 38, 42, 52, 155, 

156, 161, 186, I98«., 243«., 

248, 253«., 254, 270 
Edward IV., 169, 229, 271, 277, 


Edward VI., 30, 102 k., 107, 193 

284, 307 
Edward the Black Prince, 6, i^jn. 
Edward the Confessor, i68w. 
Edward, John, 226, 232 
Elcok, Christopher, 212; Ralph, 


Eleanor, Queen, 58«. 
Eligius, St., 52 

Eliot, Barbara, 290 ; Roger, 290 
Elizabeth, Queen, 24, lozn., lojn., 
108, now., 114, 133, 177, 183, 
192, I93»., 213, 230W., 232»., 
284, 285, 287, 288, 307, 308-10 
Elizabeth Woodville, Queen, 277 
Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., M.A., F.S.A., 
87 ». 

Ellenbridge (Elyngbrigge) ,Thomas, 

Esq., 64^. 
Elliott, Rev. H. L., M.A., zy^n. 
Elmebrygge, Roger, Esq., 169 
Eltham, John of, see Cornwall 
Elys, William, 231 ; William, 231 
Empoli, Jacopo da, 67 «. 
Engliss', Beneit, 199 
Englissh, Sir Henry, 252 ; Dame 

Margaret, 252 
Eric Menved, King, 44, 58 



Ermyn, William, yzff., 90, 93 
Erpingham, Sir John de, 167 
Erton, John, 68 

Essex, Henry Bourchier, K.G., 
Earl of, 171, 176, 186, 187, 191, 
270; Isabel Plantagenet, Coun- 
tess of, 191, 192, 270 

Essex, John, Marbler, 303 

Estbury, John de, 202 

Estney, Abbot John, 95 

Etampes, Charles Comte d', I49». 

Ethelbald, King, 58». 

Ethelbert, King of Kent, 58». ; 
King, 58 w. ; St., 18, 63«., 81 

Ethelred, St., King of West Saxons, 
17, 58 

Evelyn, George, Esq., 299 ; Sir 
John, 299 

Everard, Henry, Esq., 279 ; Mar- 
garet, 279 

Evreux, Jeanne, Countess of, 57». ; 
Philippe, Comte d', 57». 

Evyngar, Andrew, 55, 212, 276 «., 
277 ; Ellyn, 55, 277 

Ewes, Adrian d', 286 «. ; Alice d', 
286 «. 

Eyer, John, Esq., 23l,"286; Mar- 
garet, 286 

Eynns, Elizabeth, z^n. 

Eyre, Philip, 70 ; William, Esq., 


Fairbank, F. R., M.D., F.S.A., Sn. 

Faireclough, Nathaniel, 28 

Fairfax, Robert, 142 

Fairholt, F. JV., \jon. 

Faith, St., 96, 203, 263 

Farrer, Rev. Edmund, 27, iSjn., 

i88«., 274W. 
Farrington, Thomas, 79 «. 
Fastolff, John, 1 1 ; Katherine, 1 1 
Faversham, Dame Joan |de, 246 ; 

John de, 200, 246 
Feasey, Henry Phillbert, O.S.B., 74/?. 
Felbrig, Alice de, 246 ; Elizabeth 

de, 251 ; Roger de, 251 ; Simon 
de, 201, 246 
Felbrigge, Dame Margaret, 257; 
Sir Simon, K.G., 165, 167, 186, 

Feld, John, 218, 271 ; John, Esq., 

Felthorp, Cecily, 268 ; Roger, 207, 

Fenner, Joan, 261 
Fenton, John, 1 16 
Fermer, Anne, 282 ; Richard, Esq., 

Fermoure, William, 234 
Ferne, Bishop Henry, 1 14 
Ferrers of Chartley, Margaret, Lady, 

256; Robert, Lord, 167, 256 
Ferrers of Groby, William, Lord, 


Field, Rev. H. E., 32W. 

Field, Rev. J. E., ()zn., 193 «. 

Filmer, Sir Edward, 14, 55, 185, 
186, 216, 291, 292; Dame 
Elizabeth, 291, 292 ; Sir Robert, 

Finiquerra, Mazo, i6». 

Fisher, Bishop, 1 10 

Fittz, Richard, 235 

Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony, 97, 228, 

240, 281: Jane, 56«, ; Dame 

Mawde, 240, 281 
Fitzherbert, Rev. R. H. C, 228/?. 
Fitzjames, Isabella, zj^n., ijSn.; 

John, 275 w.; Lady, zj6n. 
FitzLewes, Dame Alice, 279; Dame 

Elizabeth, 279; Dame Jane, 279; 

Sir Richard, i8o«., 279 
FitzLewis, John, 279 tz. 
FitzPatrick, see Salisbury 
Fitzralph, Sir — , 2 1 »., 151 
Fitzwilliam, Elizabeth, 266 ; Eliza- 
beth, 296 ; George, Esq., 296 ; 

William, Esq., 8«., 172, 266 
Fleming, Alan, 43, 46, 48-9, 197, 

198, 202 
Flemyng, Thomas, 140 
Fletcher, William, 218 



Folcard, Richard, 136 
Forde, Edmund, Esq., 207 
Forester, F"^. Martin', 97 w. 
Forster family, 3 5 ; a widow of, 

Fortescue, Henry, Esq., 289, 294«.; 
Sir John, C.J., 222, 223, 226 
Dame Mary, 289, 294«. 

Fortey, John, 208 ; Thomas, 207 

Fortibus, de, see Albemarle 

Foss, Edward, F.S.A., i89«. 

Fossebrok, John, Esq., 261 ; Ma- 
tilda, 261 

Fosset, Franfoise du, 56 

Foster, Joseph, 5 n. 

Fowler, James, F.S.A., io9«. 

Fowler, Rev. J. T., M.A., F.S.A., 

Fowler, Richard, Esq., 175 
Fox, Bishop, 1 10 

Foxley, Dame Joan de, 250; Sir 
John de, 250; Dame Matilda 
de, 250 

Foxwist, Richard, 235 

Framlingham, John, 263 ; Mar- 
garet, 263 

Frankelin, Frances, 289 ; Richard, 

Frankishe, Dorothy, 202 
Fransham, Geoffrey, Esq., 167 
Fraunces, Jane, 287; Michael, Esq., 

214, 287 
Frekylton, Henry, 100 
Freme, William, 211 
Freney, Archbishop William de, 4 
Frere, Rev. W. H., i37». 
Freshfield, Edzvin, LL.D., 37 
Freville, Claricia de, 255^. ; Mar- 
garet de, 265 ; Robert de, Esq., 
163, 255 «.; Thomas de, Esq., 
163, 265 
Frilende, Walter, 71, 83 
Frogenhall, John, Esq., 191 
Fromond, Elizabeth, 281, 298; 

Thomas, Esq., 82, 213, 281, 298 
Frowsetoure, Dean Edmund, 89, 
94, 126, 129 

Frye, John, loi, 138 

Fryth, William, 134 

Fulburne, William de, 89, 93 

Fulwode, Robert, 233 

Furnivall, Frederick J., 285 «. 

Fyche, Geoffrey, 95 

Fyn, Robert, 70 ». 

Fynderne, Elizabeth, 259; Wil- 
liam, Esq., 166, 167, 259 

Fyneux, Dame Elizabeth, 284/;. ; 
Sir John, 284??. 

Fynexs, John, 94 

Fysher, John, Esq., 179 


Gabriel, Archangel, 84«., 92 
Gadburye, Margaret, 290; Richard, 

215, 290 
Gage, Sir John, K.G., .i88». ; 

Dame Phillipa, 188??. 
Gaignihes,M. de, 7«., 2 8«., 27o«. 
Galychtly, Johanes de, 206 n. ; 

Mariota de, 206 «. 
Garbrand, John, D.D., 116 
Gardiner, Robert, 218; William, 


Gardner, J. Starkie, $n., 6n. 
Garet, Robert, 235 
Garland, Thomas, 2 1 5 
Gascoigne,Thomas, 1 2 6«., Thomas, 

Esq., 182K. ; Sir William, 181; 

Sir William, C.J., 227 n. 
Gaspar, Luke, 295 ; Ursula, 295 
Gaynesford, Margaret, 85, 274; 

Nicholas, Esq., 85, 191, 274 
Geddyng, William, 105 
Gee, Henry, 187 
George, St., 155 
Gerard, Piers, Esq., 181 
Gery, Roger, 139 
Geste, Bishop Edmund, 1 1 3 
Gibbes, Ann, 292; Henry, 216, 


Giffard, Sir John, 34, 154, 156, 
161 «. 

Gilbert, Sir John, z'j'jn. 



Persons Gildesburgh, Marjorle de, 249 ». 

Gironde, Jean d'Aragon, Due de, 
57»-; Jeanne, Duchesse de, 

Gladwin, John, 2 1 5 

Gloucester, Alianore de Bohun, 
Duchess of, 2 2»., 248 ; Thomas 
of Woodstock, Duke of, 22«., 
248, 270 

Glover, R., 311 

Glynne, William, 299 ; William, 

Goberd, William, 94, 141 

Goche, William, 132 

Goddard, Guybon, S.L., 231 ; 

Thomas, 2 1 1 
Godeale, Roger, 10 1 
Godfrey, Robert, 107 
Goldingham,Jane, 282; John, 282; 

Thomasine, 282 
Goldwell, Avice, 269 ; Nicholas, 

137; William, 210, 269 
Gondeby, Hugo de, 204 
Goodman, Ciselye, iizn., 282, 

298; Edward, 112;/., 217;/., 

282, 298 ; Dean Gabriel, Ii2«., 

2 17«. 

Goodryke, Bishop Thomas, 72, 74, 
75, 80, 83 

Goodwin, Anna, 1 1 4 «. ; Dean Wil- 
liam, 114;;. 

Goodzvin, Gordon, 1 1 4 ». 

Goodwyn, Robert, 212, 283; Sa- 
bina, 283 

Goolde, John, 136 

Gore, Maria, 98 ; Nichol de, 64 

Gorges, Sir Arthur, 185, 292 ; the 
Lady Elizabeth, 292 

Gorka, Bishop Vrielis de, 83 

Gorynge, Dame Elizabeth, 285 ; 
Sir William, 285 

Gough, Richard, i, 7, \\n., 29, 30, 

96»., i89»., 303s. 
Gower, John, 204 «. 
Graffton, Adam, 89, 94 
Grandisson, Bishop John, 3 1 1 

Grandmaison, Millin de, i66n,ijc,n. 

Gray, Andrew, Esq., 233; Arch- 
bishop Walter, 69 «. 

Green, J. R., ii^n. 

Greenwood, Benjamin, Esq., 26, 
2i7» 293 ; Philadelphia, 26, 293 

Gregory, St., 64^., 68, 75, loi 

Grene, Agnes, 275 ; Edmund, 275 ; 
Henry, Esq., 266; Margaret, 
266; Dame Matilda, 266; 
Richard, lOO; Sir Thomas, 171, 
173, 266; Walter, Esq., 174 

Grenefeld, Archbishop William, 64, 

7S,79f 83 «. 
Greve, Fr. Thomas, 97 «. 
Grevel, Marion, 253; William, 

201, 253 
Greville, Sir Edward, 179, 182; 

Sir John, 182; Thomas, 23; 

Sir William, 228 
Grey, Sir Anthony, 175, 191 ; 

Edmund, Esq., 232 «.; Dame 

Emma, 269 ; Sir Henry, 269 ; 

Elizabeth, de, i8o«. ; Grace de, 

276; Mary de, 276; Thomas 

de, Esq., 180W. ; William de, 

Esq., 276 
Grey de Ruthin, Roger Grey, Lord, 

I55» 316 

Grey de Wilton, Arthur, Lord, 

i88«. ; Richard, Lord, 180 
Grigs, Fr., 15, z^on. 
Grovehurst, John de, 57, 70 
Gueldres, Adolphus, Duke of, 59 ; 

Katharine, Duchess of, 59 
Guise, — , Esq., 191 
Gunner, Rev. William H., M.A., 

Gunter, John, 216 
Guyldeford, Sir Edward, K.G., 


Guyldeford (Guildford), see North- 
Gybbys, William, 210 
Gybon, Thomas, Gent., 176 
Gyffard, Roger, Esq., 166 n. 
Gyll, Richard, Esq., 180 




Hacombleyn, Robert, 95 
Haines, Rev. Herbert, i, 2, 3»., 5, 
6, 7, 14, i7«., 19, 24, 26, 27, 
29-307 39»'> 53> 64»., 96, 108 
123, 124, 129, 131, i34-4^> 
i6i«., i66»., 167, 185, i89»., 
201, 202, 205, 207, 2i4»., 217, 
279»., 285W. 
Haitfeld, Ada de, 256 ; Robert de, 

203, 256 
Hakebech, Sir Adam de, 150 
Hakebourne, Richard de, 63, 71, 83 
Halle, Elizabeth, 258 ; Peter, Esq., 
167, 168, 258; Thomas, Esq., 

Hallum, Bishop Robert, 57, i87». 

Halsham, Sir Hugh, 167, 259; 
John, 259; Dame Joice, 259; 
the Lady Philippa, 259 

Hampden, Sir John, 181 ; John, 
Esq., 179 

Hampton, Dame Alice, 99 ; Isa- 
bella, 272 »., 298; John, 99; 
Thomas, Esq., 176, 272 w., 298 

Hamsterley, Ralph, 25 

Hanensee, Eghardus de, 72 ; iz6n. 

Hansard family, knight of, l68«. 

Hansart, Anthony, Esq., 178K., 
279 ; Katherine, 279 

Hanson, Robert, 39 

Hardy, T. Duffus, 1 1 5 ». 

Hardyng, Robert, 193 

Hare, Nicholas, Esq., 232 

Harflet or Harflete, see Septvans 

Hargreve, Geoffrey, 138 

Harlakynden, Thomas, Esq., 181 

Harlestone, Alice, 279 

Harpedon, Sir John, 169, 264 

Harper, Dame Margaret, 287 ; Sir 
William, 183, 218, 287 

Harris, George, 1 5 

Harsick, Dame Catherine, 248 ; Sir 
John, 161, 248 

Harsnett, Archbishop Samuel, 30, 
55> 75» 76»-, 108, 113-14 

Hart, Boneface de, 2 1 «. 

Harte, Malyn, 284; Thomas, 284 

Hartshome, Albert, F.S.A., i89». 

Hartshorne, Rev. C. H., 8 

Harvey, W., 209/?. 

Harvye, Sir Jarrate, 184 

Harwedon, Margery, 265 ; Wil- 
liam, Esq., 265 

Hastings, Sir Hugh, 8, 43, 49-50, 
5i> 53> 154; Ralph, 204». ; see 

Hatche, Henry, 212, 276, 316; 
Joan, 276 

Hatton, Mary, 290 ; Richard, 290 

Hauley, Alice, 248 ; Joan, 248 ; 
John, Esq., 163, 248 

Haultoft, Gilbert, 231 ; Margaret, 


Hautryve, William, 125, 130 
Hawberk, John, 299 ; Sir Nicholas, 

264, 299 
Hawford, Edward, 129 
Hawkesworth, William, I27». 
Hawkins, Aphra, 290; Henry, 290; 

Thomas, Esq., 184 
Haydock, Dr. Richard, 14 
Hayton, Robert, Esq., \6\n. 
Hay ward, Richard, 126, 130 
Heere, Gerard de, 44, 5 1 ; John 

de, 44, 5 1 
Hefner- A Iteneck, J. H. von, I24»., 


Heies, Humphrey, 215; Hum- 
phrey, junr., 215 

Heigham, Dame Anne, 286 ; Dame 
Anne, 286; Sir Clement, 229, 

Hellard, Stephen, 139 
Hemenhale, Sir Robert, 264 
Henry II., 5 n. 

Henry IV., 22, 156, I57«., 164, 
i89«., 202, 2o6«., 2zjn. 

Henry IV. of France, 289 «. 

Henry V., 57, i<^6n., 164, 192, 

Henry VI., 164, i66»,, 169, 186, 
224, 231, 303, 304 



Persons Henry VII., 22, 1 7 1, 177, 189, 
247«., 275, 303 
Henry VIII., 29, 74«., I26«., 180, 
190, 192, 21 1, 230, 232«., 280, 

Henry, St., of Finland, Bishop, 
43-4 »• 

Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 
Earl of, 152 n. 

Heringen, John de, \26n. 

Hermanzone, Arnold, 54». ; Cor- 
nelius, 54 «. 

Heron, Alice, 286 ; Thomas, 142 ; 
William, Esq., 286 

Hert, James, 93, 134, 315 

Hertcombe, John, 210, 274; 
Katherine, 274 

Hertford, William, Earl of, 299 

Hervey, Abbess Elizabeth, 98 

Herward, Anne, 273 ; Robert, 273 

Hesilt, William, 266 

Heth, John, 93 

Hevenyngham, Anne, 275 ; Tho- 
mas, Esq., 181, 275, 316 

Hewett, William, 82 

Hewitt, John, 2427/. 

Hewke, Walter, 93, 130 

Heylesdone, Beatrice de, 200, 246 ; 
Richard de, 200, 246 

Heyward, William, 1 29 

Higate, Thomas, Esq., 184 

Higgins, Thomas, 15 

Hildesley, Mrs., 3 1 

Hobart, Frances, 290; Henry, Esq., 
184; James, Esq., 214, 290 

Hodges, George, 185 

Hogenbergh, Abraham, 14; Re- 
migius, 14 

Holbein, Hans, 280, 283 w. 

Holcot, Robert, 91 

Holden, Agnes, 283 ; William, 

Holes, Sir Hugh de, 227 
Holl, Thomas, 216; Thomas, Esq., 

Holland, see Kent 
Hollar, Wenceslaus, 291 

Hollis, Thomas and George, i89«., 

240 242 »., 280 
Holloway, Henry Richard, \n. 
Holte, Thomas, Esq., 228 
Honywode, Robert, 132 
Hop, Thomas de, 71 
Hope, W. H. St. John, M.A., 84»., 

96, 97»., i88«. 
Hopper, Thomas, 14 
Hord, Dame Frances, 292 ; Sir 

Thomas, 292 
Hornbie, Gabr., 15 
Hornby, Jane, 279 
Hornebolt, Gerard, I4«., 55 
Horsey, John, Esq., 180 
Horton, Thomas de, 43, 49-50, 

S3, 70, loi 
Hotham, John, 128 
Hoton, Joan, 263 ; Robert, 263 
Hotspur, see Percy 
Hovener, Albert, 44, 50-2 
Howard, Catherine, 281 ; Lady 

Katherine, 187W., 280; Lord 

William, 281 ; Norfolk 
Huddesfeld, Dame Katherine, 279 ; 

Sir William, 279 
Huddleston, Anthony, Esq., 287 ; 

Mary, 287 
Hudson, Franklin, 1 
Huggeford, Thomas, 303 
Hull, William, 84«. 
Humfray, Hugo, 135 
Humfre, Joan, 64/?. ; Thomas, 15, 

64 ». 

Huntington, John, 94, 139 
Hurry, Jamieson B., M.A., M.D., 

Hurst, Leonard, 1 1 5 
Hutton, — , 281 ; wife of, 28 1 
Hyde, Ann, 300; Barnard, Esq., 

300; Laurence, Esq., 214; 

William, 38 
Hyett, H., iz^n. 
Hyklott, Margaret, 99 w. ; William, 

99 «. 

Hyldesley, William, 215 
Hyll, Walter, 89, 138 



Hylle, Thomas, 128 

Ifield, Sir John de, 152 «. 
Ingeborg, Queen, of Denmark, 44, 

58, 244 ». 
Inglisshe, Alexander, 10 1 
Ingylton, Clemens, 269; Isabella, 

269; Margaret, 269; Robert, 

Esq., 175, 232, 269, 271, 317 
Isabella of Bavaria, Queen of France, 


Iwarby, Dame Jane, 279 ; Sir John, 


James I., 193 «., 214 

James, St., 84 

James^ Dr. M. R., 44 

James, Roger, 214 

Jarmon, Anna, z6zn.\ Henry, 

210«. ; 262». 

Jassy, George, 136 

Jay, Joan, 298 ; John, 298 

Jean of France, son of Louis VIII. 

16; son of St. Louis IX., 5«. ' 
Jeane, Queen of Navarre, 56». 
Jeans^ Rev. G. E., yn., 261 w. 
Je^i>, Rev. John^ M.A., \ \zn. 
Jemlae, Rice, 117 
Jenyns, Jane, 287; Raphe, Esq., 

183,287,316 ' ^' 

Jernemu... (Yarmouth), William 


Jerome, St., 63, 64 «. 
Jewitt^ Llezvellynn, F.S.A., 8o»., 
i98«., 295». 

Joan of Navarre, Queen, i89«., 

206 «. 
Jocelin, Bishop, 4 
John I. of Portugal, 262 
John Baptist, St., 104 
John, Sir Levies, 272 ; Margaret 

272 ' 

Johnson, Hugh, iijn.; Peter, loo 
Johnston, C. £., zzyn. 

Johnys, Sir Hugh, 180, 193 
Jombharte, William, 140, 315 
Jones, Rev. Canon W. H., ^n. 
Jones, William, Gent., 216 
Jordan, Agnes, 98 
Jugee, Archbishop Pierre de la, 
48 w. 

Juyn, Sir John, C.J., 227 

Katherine, St., 94 
Katherine of Aragon, Queen, 58«., 

Kegell, Richard, 134 
Kelke,Rev. W. Hastings.^ 106 n. 
Kelly, lohanna, 262 
Kendale, Richard, 100 
Kent, John, 141 -2, 316; John, 
2I4». ; John, Esq., 216, 291 ; 
Mary, 291 ; Thomas Holland, 
Earl of, 269 
Kenvs^ellmersh, Mrs. Ann, 292 
Kerdeston, Dame Cecilia de, 251, 
316; Sir William de, 161, 251 
Keriell, Jane, 269 
Keyt, Jerome, 140 
Kidw^elly, Geoffrey, Esq., 210 
KilligreviT, John, Esq., 184 
King, John, Gent., 216 
King, Thomas Wm.^ F.S.A., ii5«. 
Kirby, Thomas Frederick, M.A., 316 
Kite, Edward, 1 1 w., 17, 21 »., 103, 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 293 
Knevet, Elizabeth, 279; Sir Wil- 
liam, 279 

Knevynton, Ralph de, 43 , 1 5 7 i r o, 

Knight, Bishop, 3 1 1 

Kniveton, Joan, 296, 317; Nicho- 
las, Esq., 191, 296 

Knox, A., 115 n. 

Knox, John, 125 «. 

Knyghtley, Sir Edmund, 284^. ; 
Thomas, Esq., 181 ; Dame Ur- 
sula, 284W. 




Persons Knyvet, John, Esq., \6']n. 

Kyggesfolde, Agneys de, 200, 246, 

316; John de, 200, 246 
Kyllygrewe, Thomas, 210 
Kyllyngworth, John, 136 
Kyngdon, Johanna, 269 ; Roger, 

94, 208, 2I4«., 269, 298 
Kyngeston, John, 294 ; Dame 

Susan, 98, 294 
Kyngston, Dame Elizabeth, 187; 

Sir William, K.G., 187 
Kyrkeby, William, 88 
Kyrkeham, Robert, 104 


Lace'j^ Rev. T. A.^ 103 «., 109, 
1 2 1 »., 123 ;;. 

Lacon family, member of, 175, 
273 ; wife of, 273 

Lacroix, Paid, 52«., 103 «. 

Lacy, Peter de, 70 

Lake, Bishop Arthur, 114 

Laken, Sir William, 227 

Lambarde, Anne, 274; John,'94«., 
218, 274 

Lambespring, Bartholomew, 304-5 

Lancaster, Aveline, Countess of, 
239«., 243 «.; Edmund Crouch- 
back, Earl of, I56«. ; Henry 
Plantagenet, Earl of, 155; House 
of, 22, 188 

Langeland, William, 222 2 24». 

Langeton, Canon William, 88 

Langham, George, Esq., 266 ; Isa- 
bella, 266 

Langley, Prior Geoffrey, 96 ; Wil- 
liam, 102 

Langton, Dame Eufemia, 266 ; Sir 
John, 172, 266 ; Robert, 89, 93, 
132 ; Archbishop Stephen, 123 ; 
William, 100 

Latham, Grace, 296 

Laud, Archbishop William, 115, 
1 25 w. 

Launceleyn, John, Esq., 165,, 169 
263 ; Margaret, 263, 316 

Lawnder, William, 107 

Lawrence, St., 72«., 84 «. 

Lee, Rev. Frederick George, D.D., 

F.S.A., 75 Ill n. 
Leeds, Edward, 1 3 1 
Leek, Simon, 260W. 
Legg, J. Wickham, M.D., F.S.A., 

73«., 74W., 78«., 84«., !86ff., 

1 10, I29«. 
Legh, Elizabeth, 64W.; Dame Ellen, 

279; Sir Peter, 83, 180, 279; 

Roger, 64»., loi 
Leigh, Thomas, 54 «. 
Leland, John, 16 
Lely, Sir Peter, 293 
Leman, Thomas, 107 
Le Moigne family, member of, 2 5 5 ; 

Maria, his wife, 255 
Lence, Stephen, 1 1 5 w. 
Le Neve, John, 1 1 5 «. 
V Estrange, John, 2^2 n. 
L'Estrange, Sir Roger, 179, 18 1 
Le Straunge, Sir Thomas, 191 
Letarous, i/\.n. 
Lethenard, John, 208 
Leventhorp, Edward, Esq., 184; 

Edward, Esq., 288, 289 ; Eliza- 
beth, 289 ; (Leenthorp), John, 

Esq., 178 ; Mary, 288 
Leventhorpe, John, Esq., 169, 264, 

316; Katherine, 264 
Leverick, Sir John, i58«. 
Leveson, Nicholas, 218 
Lewenstein, Glorius Count of, 

Lewis, David, I32». 
Lewys, John, 104 
Lichefeld, William, 1 3 1 
Liddel, Duncan, 133 
Liddell, H.G., Dean, ^-J n. 
Lindewode, Bishop William, io8ff., 


Lippe, Bishop Bernard de, 57, 74»-> 

Lloyd, Griffin, 116; Hugh, 132 

Lloyde, David, 139 

Lockhart, Rev. William, 6^n., 88 «. 



Lodge^ Edmund^ F.S.A., z%on, 

Lodyngton, William, 227 

Loggan, David, izm. 

Loncin, Antone de, 3 

Lond, Robert, 101 

London, John, 138 

Longe, Anne, 288 ; GyfFord, 288 ; 

Henry, Esq., i66». ; Robert, 


Lorenzetti, Pietro, 48 ». 
Louis VIIL, 16 
Louis IX., St., 5». 
Louth, Nicholas de, 91 
Lovell, Anne, 286; Gregory, Esq., 

Lovelle, John, 88 

Loveney, William, Esq., 163 

Lowe, Sir John, 1 64 

Lowthe, John, 131, 132, 315 

Lucas, Abbot John, 95 ». ; William, 

95«. ; William, M.A., 116 
Ludsthorp, William, Esq., 171 
Luke, Nycholas, Esq., 229; Sir 

Walter, 228 
Lumbarde, John, 22 
Lupton, Roger, 92 
Luttrell, Sir Andrew, 161 
Lyndewode, Alice, 132, 265; John, 

132, 204, 265, 299 ; John, junr., 

205 ; William, see Lindewode 
Lyon, John, 215 

Lyons, Lieut.-Col. Croft, 312; 

Raphe, 141 n. 
Lyra, Nicholas de, 69 ». 
Lysle, Sir John, 168 
Lyte, H. C. Maxwell^ C.B., 23o«. 
Lyte, Thomas, 230». ; William, 

S.L., 23o». 
Lytkot, Christopher, Esq., 179, 

284, 316; Katherine, 284 


Macalhter, R. A. S., 32?/., 63 77 
Machlin, Rev. H. W., 1 9, 34^., 1 24«. 
Macnamara, F. N.y 1 63 n. 

Magnus, Archdeacon Thomas, 89, 

90, 94 
Maitland, William, 166 n. 
Malford, Richard, 89 
Mallet, Richard, 15 
Mallevorer, John, Esq., 185 
Malmaines, Richard, Esq., 169 
Malster, William, 134 
Maltoun, John, Esq., 174 
Malyns, Reginald de, 251 
Manchester, Earl of, 3 i 
Manfeld, Isabel, 295; Richard, 

208 ; Robert, 295 
Mann, J., 15 ; Thos., 15 
Manners family, member of, 191 
Manning, Percy, M.A., F.S.A., i4^n. 
Mannock, Dame Dorothy, 291; 

Sir Francis, Bart., 291 
Manston, Nicholas, Esq., 165, 191 
Mapilton, John, 90, 93 
March, Roger Mortimer, Earl lof, 


March eford, Simon, 92 w. 
Mareys, Thomas, 136; William, 
Esq., 174 

Marie de France, daughter of 
Charles IV., 56 «, 

Markenfield, Sir Thomas, 191 «. 

Markham, John, C.J., 229 

Marriott, Rev. W. 5., 75, 86, 108 n. 

Marshall, Edward, 14, 55s., 185*.; 
Richard, 100 

Marsham, Elizabeth, 283 ; John, 
64»., 212, 218, 283 

Martin, St., 94«. ; Henry, 71 

Martok, John, 133 

Martyn, Anna, 259 ; Prioress Eliza- 
beth, 98^.; John, 227, 259; 
Richard, 203, 263 ; wife of, 263 

Mary, Queen, lo-jn., 192, 229, 

Marzi, Bishop Angelo, 67 ». 
Masaccio, 105 ». 

Mason, Henry, 117 ; Thomas, 137 
Massingberd, Rev. W. O., 256 

Massyngberde, Dame Johanna, 190, 
256; Sir Thomas, 190, 256 



Persons Mauleverer, Elizabeth, 15 

Mauleverere, Dame Elianor, 252; 

Sir John, 162, 252 
Mauntell, Sir Walter, 178 
"Max," 13 

Maynwaryng, William, 210 
Mayo, Charles, M.D., lyw. 
Mayo, Rev. Canon C. H., 11, 987/. 
Mayo, John H., 189W. 
Mayo, Bishop Richard, 2«., 81-2 
Mede, Philip, Esq., 179 
Memling, Hans, 64 ». 
Mentmore, Abbot Michael de, 43, 

Mershden, John, 92 s. 
Merton, Bishop Walter de, 61 
Meryng, Dame Millicent, 257, 

261, 316; Sir William, 261 
Meyrick, Samuel Rush, 145 
Michael, St., 84«., 268 
Micklethzuaite, J. T., F.S.A., 11 1«. 
Middiltoun, William de, I27«. 
Mierevelt, zSgn. 
Milbourn, Thomas, 30«. 
Millar, A. H., F.S.A. Scot., 206;/. 
Millard, James Elwin, 54«. 
Mohun, Anne, 278 ; John, Esq., 

179, 278 ; Thomas de, Esq., 


Molyneux, Dame Elizabeth, 2847/.; 

Dame Jane, 284». ; Sir Richard, 

183 ; Sir William, 182, 284 «. 
Molyngton, Dame Agnes, 266 ; 

Sir Thomas, 266 
Molyns, Dame Margery, 265 ; Sir 

William, 168, 265 
Mond, William, 210 
Montacute, Elizabeth, Lady, 198s., 

245 n. ; see Salisbury 
Montagu, Sir Edward, 223 ». 
Montalt, Sir Robert de, zm. 
Montfaucon, Bom Bernard de, 16, 

28«., 56, 57«., 135, 242«. 
Montmorency, Charles de, 56;/. 
Moor, William, 134 
Moore, John, 95 
Moote, Abbot John de la, 40 

Mordon, Thomas, 90, 140 
Moreelse, Paul, 289 ». 
Morewood, Grace, 15, 293 ; John, 

15, 216, 293 
Morgan, Octavius, l^zn. 
Morrey, Thomas, 1 1 5 «. 
Mortimer, see March 
Morton, John, Cardinal, 64 w. 
Morys, John, 94 

Mostyn, Dame Mary, 15; Sir 

Roger, 15 
Mott, James, 233 
Mottesfont, John, 139 
Mountague, Thomas, 2I4«. 
Mountain, Archbishop George, 

1 15 «. 

Mountford, Agnes, 99, 105, 267 ; 
Cecily, 99; Henry, 105; Tho- 
mas, Esq., 99, 105, 267 
Mul, Bishop Johan de, 44, 52, 315 
Mullinger, James Bass, M.A., izm. 
Mulsho, Joan, 263 ; John, Esq., 

203, 263 
Mundeford, Francis, Esq., 282; 

Margaret, 282 
Murray, the Regent Earl of, 27 
Muscote, John, Gent., 234 
Musgrave, Dorcas, 290 ; Thomas, 
Esq., 290 


Naylor, Edward, 117 
Neele, William, 8o»., 315 
Nelond, Prior Thomas, 79, 96 
Neve, Francis, 290; Hester, 290 
Nevell, Sir Edward, 24?/.; Sir 

Thomas, 213 
Nevill, see Warwick 
Neville, Sir Thomas, 267 
Nevynson, Thomas, Esq., 183 
Newcome, Rev. Richard, ziyn. 
Newdegate, John, S.L., 231 
Newport, Wenefride, 296 
Newton, Sir Richard, C.J., 227 ». 
Nicholas, St., 52 
Nichols, J. B., 29, 35 



llichoh^ J. G., i88«. 

Noke, Thomas, Esq., 214, 286; 

his three wives, 286 
Norbury, Dame Anna, 266 ; Sir 

Henry, 266 
"Norden^ John, 9». 

Norfolk, Agnes, Duchess of, 187, 
278 Thomas Howard, ist 
Duke of, K.G., 280 ; Thomas 
Howard, 2nd Duke of, 187 ; see 

N orris, Hugh, 260 «. 

North, Richard, 72 

Northen, Robert, 100 

Northumberland, Henry Percy, 
Earl of, 1 88 ; Lady Jane Guylde- 
ford. Duchess of, i88«., 285; 
John Dudley, Duke of, 285 

Northwode, Dame Joan de, 56, 
242; Sir John de, 56, I50»., 
152, 153; John, 278; wife of, 
278 ; family, member of, 175 

Norton, Dame Alice, 215, 287; 
Sir John, 287; John, 91, 96; 
Richard, C.J., 227 
Norwiche, John, 262 «.; Maud, 

262 w.; William, 217 
Notingham, Herry, 2 3»., 203, 253 ; 
his wife, 253 


Oker, Humphrey, Esq., 39, 260 ; 

Isabell, 260 ; their children, 297 
Oldcastle, Sir John, 264 
Ord, Craven, i, 33 
Ormunde, Earl of, see Bullen 
Osborne family, member of, 294 s. ; 

Julian, his wife, 294». 
Oskens, Henry, 56 
Oswyn, St., 47 
Otho, Cardinal, I03». 
Oudeby, John, 90 «. 
Ouds, Thomas, 84 
Ouvry, Frederic, F.S.A., 224?/. 
Overbury, William, 202 

Oxenbrigg,Agnes, 295 ; Robert, 295 
Oxford, Elizabeth de Vere, Coun- 
tess of, 281, 312 ; John de Vere, 
Earl of, 281, 312 


Pabenham, Dame Elizabeth, 262 ; 

Sir Laurence, 262 
Page, Arthur, 290 ; Sessely, 290 
Page, William, F.S.A., 43«., 84»., 


Pagge, Margaret, 264, 297; Robert, 

207, 208, 264, 297 
Palmer, John, 141 ; Thomas, 233 
Palmer-Palmer, Rev. J. R., 26 
Parice, Henry, Esq., 171 
Paris, Alienora de, 246 ; Robert 

de, 198, 246 
Parker, John, 207 
Parker, John Henry, 18 
Parker, Archbishop Matthew, Sfw., 

1 10, 1 13 w. 
Parkers, Roger, 92 
Parsons, Ralph, 312 
Patesley, Thomas, 90 
Paul, St., 47, 84, 104 
Paulet family, 193 ». 
Paycock, Joan, 283 ; John, 283 ; 

family, member of, 274; two 

wives of, 274 
Payn, John, Esq., 179; William, 


Payton, Mary, 287; Richard, 214, 

Peck, Rev. Francis, 32 
Peckham, Amphillis, 38, 296; Sir 

Edmund, 296 ; James, Esq., 177 
Pecok, John, 201 
Peeche, Sir William, 178-9 
Pekham, Joyce, 279 ; Reynold, 279 
Peletoot, Sir Philip, 160 
Pembridge, Sir — , ic,zn. 
Pembroke, Aymer de Valence, 

Earl of, I56«. ; William dc 

Valence, Earl of, 6, 18, 57; 

Lawrence Hastings, Earl of, 155 



Persons Pgn, John, Esq., 292 ; Sarah, 292 
Penhallinyk, Warin, 94, 139, 315 
Pennebrygg, Sir Fulk, 254; Dame 

Margaret, 254 
Perch, John, 140 
Perchehay, Radulphus, 71 
Percy, Henry "Hotspur," 257 
Perdrier, Jean, 135 
Perepoynt, Elizabeth, 28 1 ; George, 

Esq., 281 
P^rry, 295 ». 

Peryent, Joan, 190, 261 ; John, 

Esq., 167, 190, 261, 316; John, 

junr., Esq., 167 
Pescod, Walter, 201 
Peter, St., 47, 6jn., 84, 104; 

Bishop, iz6n. 
Pettwode, — , 282 ; Margaret, 282 
Pever, Thomas, 296 
Peyton, John, 34; Margaret, 273 ; 

Margaret, 273 ; Thomas, Esq., 

175, 273 
Peytone, Sir John de, 150 

Phelip, Dame Christina, 269 ; Sir 
John, 165, 190, 261 ; Dame 
Matilda, 190, 257, 261 ; Mat- 
thew, 269 

Philip, Bishop, I4«. 

Philippa ofHainault, Queen, 253ff. 

Philippe le Bel, 56 w. 

Philippe, son of Louis VIII., 16 

Phillips^ Claude^ 289 ». 

Piatus, St., 3 

Pierson, John, 15 

Piggot, John, F.S.A., 151 ». 

Pisan, Christine de, 258ff. 

Plain, Guillaume de, i\n. 

Planche, J. R., S"-, 69, ijon., 
i89«., 192//., i98»., 203ff., 
2o6»., 209»., 226»., 24o»;, 
247»., 258».. 270W., 271, 272W., 
284«., 289»., 293 

Plantagenet, the Lady Anne, 270 ; 
see Anjou, Cambridge, Essex, 
Gloucester, Lancaster, Richmond 

Playters, Anna, 273 ; Christopher, 
Esq., 176; Thomas, Esq., 171, 

175, 273; Thomasine, 2S7; 

William, Esq., 287 
Plessi, Johane, 244s., 245, 295 
Plewme, William, 137 
Plumleigh, Barbara, 290 ; John, 


Pole, Dame Joan de la, 250; Sir 

John de la, 250 ; see Suftblk 
Pollard, Aly anora, 262 ; John, 262 
Polton, Edith, 263 ; Archdeacon 

Philip, 91, 138, 263; Thomas, 

204, 205, 263 
Poo/e, Rev. G. J., sSn. 
Popham, Sir John, 38 
Porte, Elizabeth, 294 ; Henry, 


Porieous, W. W.^ 2iw., 27, 105 s. 

Porter, John Alt, iS6». 

Porter, William, 135 

Portyngton, Thomas, 91 

Potter, Thomas, 212 

Pettier, Andre, igzn. 

Poulett, Margaret, 290 ; Nicholas, 

Esq., 185, 290 
Powis, Sir Edward Charlton, Lord, 

269; Eleanor, Lady, 269 
Pownder, Emma, 276 ; Thomas, 

54, 212, 276 
Powys, John ap Meredyth de, 1 1 


Poyle, Elizabeth, 262 ; John, Esq., 
168, 262 

Prelatte, William, Esq., 175 

Prestwyk, William, 90, 93 

Price, Abbot Hugo, 95 ». 

Prideaux, Agnes, ii^n.; John, 
114W. ; Bishop John, 114 

Procter, William, 117 

Prophete, John, 93 

Pugin, A. W., 43, 48 

Pulling, Alexander, S.L., 221-3, 
226»., 230^. 

Purdaunce, Margaret, 266 ; Rich- 
ard, 217, 266 

Pursglove, Bishop Robert, 74, 75//., 
81, 107W. 

Pury, Nicholas, Esq., 233 



Pygott, Thomas, S.L., 230 
Pyke, John, 38, 97 . 
Pyrton, Dame Catherine, 267 ; Sir 
William, 191, 209 «., 267 


QUARTREMAYN, Joan, 265, 3 17; 

Katherine, 261, 316; Thomas, 
261, 316; Thomas, Esq., 265, 


Quartremayns, Richard, Esq., 171, 

175, 268 ; Sybil, 268 
Quek, John, 207 ; Richard, 208 
Quentin, St., 72»., 84. 


Rabenstain, Eberard de, 87»., 

RadclifF, Richard, 133 
Raine, Rev. Jmnes, M.A., 1 5 «., 68 »., 

69 ». 

Raine, Rev. James, M.A., junr., 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 193 ». 

Rampston, Robert, zi\n. 

Randoll, Elizabeth, 232». ; Wil- 
liam, 232«. 

Randolph, William, 216 

Rashdall, Rev. Hastings.^ M.A., 121 ». 

Rashleigh, Alice, 289; John, 289 

Ratclifte, Dame Joan, 296 ; Sir 
Robert, 296 

Raynsford, Hercules, Esq., 183 

Rede, Ann, 285 ; George, 92, 105 ; 
John, S.L., 230; John, 135; 
Peter, Esq., 176, 285 

Redprn, W. B., 108 315 

Redford, Sir Henry, 251 ; Dame 

Redvers, de, see Devon 

Reves, Thomas, 116 

Reynes, Agnes, 266 ; Thomas, 

Esq., 174, 266 
Ribera, see Alcala 
Rice, Robert Garratvay^ 6\n. 

Richard II., 19, 156, 168, 203 »., 

206 »., 255 ». 
Richard III., 169, 274 
Richardson, Edmund, 82 
Richardson, Edzvard, 204^., 2o6«. 
Richers, William, 100 
Richmond and Derby, Margaret, 

Countess of, 247 «. 
Ridley, Bishop, 1 10 
Rickman, Thomas, 18 
Rikhill, Catherine, 262 ; William, 


Robertson, Professor J. C, 1 1 1 «. 
Robertson, Canon Scott, Z\n. 
Robinson, Bishop Henry, 14, 77, 

113, 1 1 7 ; Sir J. Charles, F.S.A., 


Robinson, Rev. N. F., 106 n., 109, 
no, 113, i2i«., 123-5, 209» 
223 «. 

Robinson, William, LL.D., F.S.A., 

Robroke, William, 82 
Robyns, John, 92 
Rock, Daniel, D.D., 78 
Rodye, Nich., 303 
Roger, Bishop, 3, 4». 
Rogers, W. H. H., ^jn., iizn, 
Rokeby, Archbishop William, 80 
Roli, Thomas, S.L., 103 224, 


Rolond, Nichol, 230, 265 ; Perncl, 
265 ; Walter, Esq., 167 

Roope, Nicholas, 141 

Roos, Bryan, 131; family, lady of, 

Rose, Jehan, and wife, 6, 7 
Rothewelle, Archdeacon William 

de, 51, 86, 87, 91, 93 
Rotton, Elizabeth, 292 ; Thomas, 


Rouclyff, Brian, 228 

Routh, Dame Agnes, 190, 257, 261 ; 

Sir John, 165, 190, 257 
Rowlat, Ralf, 2 1 1 
Rowley, Thomas, 218 
Rudhale, Richard, 130 



Persons Rudolphus, Bishop, 72 ». 

Rugge, Elizabeth, 283; Robert, 81, 

218, 283 
Rupez, Thiebauz, 7 
Rusche, John, 211 
Russel, Dame Isabel, 251 ; Sir 

Morys, 157, 251 
Russell, Elizabeth, 278 ; Bishop 

John, 82; Sir John, 182; Sir 

John, 184'; Robert, Esq., 278 
Rust, Mary, 289; Robert, 289 
Ruston, Joseph, 289 ». 
Rutland, Thomas, 96 
Rutter, Bishop Samuel, 27, 115 
Rye, Walter, 23 2 w. 
Rykeman, John, 97 
Ryther family, lady of, 24.2 «. 


Sackville, Mistress Ann, 287, 294«. 
St. Amand, Almeric, Lord, 155; 

Elizabeth, Lady, 275 ; William 

Beauchamp, Lord, 275 
St. John, see Zouch 
Saintmaur, Hon. Edward, 299 
St. Maur, Laurence de, 42/;., 70, 

72»., 84 

St. Quintin, Dame Agnes de, 257 ; 
Sir John de, 11, 157, 158, 254, 
255». ; Dame Lora de, 254, 
255 w.; Sir Thomas de, 165, 
168, 257; Thomas de, Esq., 
173, 191, 316 

St. Veraen, Jeanne de, 56ff., 242/7. 

Salaman family, a member of, 153 n. 

Sales, Helene, 311; Thomas, 3 1 1 

Salisbury, Countess of, 189 
William D'Evereux or Fitz- 
Patrick, Earl of, 5 n. ; Alice de 
Montacute, Countess of, 1 1 ». ; 
Alianore de Montacute, Coun- 
tess of, 1 1 «. ; Thomas de Mon- 
tacute, 4th Earl of, 1 1 ». ; Wil- 
liam de Montacute, Earl of, 192 

Salle, Thomas, Esq., 165, 168 

Salmon, Agnes, 262; Thomas, Esq. 

Sampson, Henry, 94 ; John, 1 1 

Samson, James, 4 

Samwaies, Peter, 1 5 

Sanderson^ Bishop Robert^ 32 

Sanderson, H. K.St. J., i6w., i89». 

Sandford, Francis, \%(^n. 

Sandys, Dame Margaret, 54 w. ; 
William, Lord, 54». ; Sir Wil- 
liam, 54W. 

San Gallo, Francesco di, 67/;. 

Saunder, Alice, 282; Nicholas, Esq., 
180, 282 

Saunders, Francis, 233 

Savage, Sir Arnald, 165, 190, 316; 
Sir Arnold, 265 ; Dame Johanna, 

Sawnders, Richard, 212 

Saxaye, William, 234 

Saxony, Albert, Duke of, 599. ; 
Barbara, Duchess of, 59«.;Ernst, 
Duke of, 59«. ; Frederick the 
Good, Duke of, 59W. ; Frederic, 
Duke of, 59». ; Frederic, Duke 
of, 59». ; John, Duke of, 59W. ; 
John Ernst, Duke of, 59». ; 
Sidonia, Duchess of, 59«. 

Say, Dame Elizabeth, 273 ; Sir 
John, 8, 172, 191, 273 

Sayer, John, 210 

Scarisbrick family, member of, 181 
Schelewaerts, Jacobus, 129 
Schorne, John, 105 lo6». 
Schraderus, 306 
Schurmans, Maria, 289 ». 
ScolfFyld, John, loi 
Scors, William, 207 
Scot, William, Esq., 165 ; Sir 

William, 177 
Scott, William, Esq., 296 
Scott, Dean Robert, 37». 
Scrope, Sir Richard, 312 
Sedley, John, 211 ; John, 234 
Seford (Sever), William, I26«. 
Segrym, Ralph, 218 
Seint-John, William la, 2l«. 



Selntlegier, Thomas, Esq., 163 
Selby, Isodia, 273 ; Thomas, 210, 


Selwyn, John, 24, 289 ; Susan, 289 
Selyard, John, 213 
Seman, Simon, 217 
Semys, John, 218, 280; Margaret, 

Sender, Roger, 205 
Senno, Archbishop Jacobus de, 77 
Septvans {alias Harflete), Christo- 
pher, 184, 289; Jane, 292-3; 
Mercy, 289 ; Walter, Esq., 216, 

293, 316 
Serken, Bishop Burchard de, 44, 

47, 52, 315 
Seroux d' Agincourt^ J.-B.L.G.,lo^n. 

Setvans, Sir Robert de, 145, 147, 


Sever, Henry, 93, 126, 128; see 

Sextus, St., Pope, 68 
Seymour, Sir John, 211; John, 

211; see Hertford 
Seyntaubyn, Alicia, 274, 275 w.; 

GeofFry, 274, 275 k. 
Seyntmaur, John, Esq., 176 
SAazv, Henry^ F.S.A., 86«., I49». 
Shawell, Richard, 192 
ShefFeld, Edward, 132 
ShefFelde, Robert, 94, 137 
Sheldon, Elizabeth, 279 
Shelley, Edward, Esq., 286 ; Eliza- 
beth, 279 ; Joan, 286 ; John, 

Esq., 181, 279 
Shelton, Dame Alice, 257; Sir 

Ralph, 167, 257 
Sherard, Geoffrey, 278 ; Joyce, 278 
Shernborne, Jamima, 268 ; Thomas, 

Esq., 172, 174, 268, 317 
Shiers, Robert, 233 
Shorland, John, 299 
Shrewsbury, John Talbot, Earl of, 

206 ». 
SImplicius, St., i89». 
Simpson^ Grace H. M., z'J'jn. 
Simpson^ Rev. W. Sparrow^ io6«. 

Singer, E. R., 26 

Skelton, William, 140 

Skerne, Joan, 259; Robert, 207, 

232, 259 
Sleford, John de, 93 
S/W///5, E. Bertram^ \n. 
Smith, Tom C, 13W. 
Smith, Walter, I37». 
Smyght, William, 106 
Smyth, Anne, 274K. ; Jenkyn, 192, 

2o8,_ 274, 316; John, 274«. ; 

Marion, 274; William, Esq., 


Snayth, Alicia, 256 ; William, 256 
Snell, William, 136 
Soden-Smith, R. H., M.A., F.S.A., 

Solms-Braunfels, Prince, 311 

Somer, Thomas, 202 

Sondes, Thomas, 138 

Songar, — , 105 

Sothill, Gerard, Esq., 4 

Southwell, Robert, Esq., 232 

Sowthe, John, see Lowthe 

Spekynton, Richard, 140 

Spelman, Ela, 278 ; Dame Eliza- 
beth, 282; Henry, Esq., 218, 
278; Sir John, 193, 229, 282 

Spence, John, 135, 137W. 

Sperehawke, John, 129 

Spetyll, Hugo atte, 205 

Spicer, John, 70 w. 

Spycer, Joan, 263 ; Margaret, 263 ; 
Margaret, 264; Reginald, 263, 

Stafford, Archbishop John, 80 ; 

Ralph, Lord, 155, 249; see 

Sia/ey, Rev. Femon, J\n. 
Stanberry, Bishop John, 8 1 
Standon, see Stondon 
Stanley, Henry, Esq., 178, 179; 

Sir Humphrey, 178; Bishop 

James, 74, 75«., 80 
Stapel, Thomas, 192 
Stapilton, Brian de, 169, 258 ».; 

Cecilia de, 2 58«. 




Pkksons Stapleton, Dame Ela, 265 «. ; Dame 

Elizabeth, 274; Dame Joan de, 

249 ; Dame Katherine, 274; Sir 

Miles de, 33, 161 «., 249, 316 ; 

Sir Miles, 265 n. ; Sir Milo, 274 ; 

William, Esq., 172 
Starky, Hugh, Esq., 181 
Stathum, Thomas, Esq., 174 
Staunton, Dame Agnes, 268 ; Sir 

Robert, 174, 268; William, 

204 ». 
Staverton, John, 227 
Stephanus, Bishop of Tournay, 86 
Stephen, St., 84 ». 
Stephenson, Mill^ F.S.A., i5«., 37^., 

42«., 43»., 45«., 56»., 81//., 

96n., i92»., i97». 
Stevyn, William, 134 
Stevyns, Thomas, 303 
Steyne, Paesschine van den, 56 
Stigand, Archbishop, 68 
Stodeley, John, 97 
Stoke, Abbot John, 97 «. 
Stokes, Elena, 263, 297; Thomas, 

Esq., 204, 263, 297, 299 
Stoket, Katherine, 263/;. 
Stokys, Elizabeth, 284 ; John, 102 ; 

John, 211 ; Robert, 284 
Stondon, Richard, 84/7., 315 
Stone, John, 4 ; Peter, 207 
Stones, Thomas, 117 
Stonor, John, 142 
Storke, Alice, 275 n. 
Siothard^ C. A., $n., 6n,, 239;/., 

242 n. 

Stoughton, Thomas, Gent., 184 
Stow, John, i66w. ; 226«. 
Strabolgie, see Athole 
Strange of Knokyn,Jacquetta, Lady, 

277 ; John le Strange, Lord, 

180, 277 
Strangways, Sir Gyles, 184 
Strelley, Dame Issabella, 273 ; Sir 

Robert, 273 
Strensall, John, 93 
Strete, John, 104, 128 
Strode, Arthur, 234 

Strutt, Joseph, 246 n. 
Stuart, House of, 24, 183, 185 
Stubbes, Phillip, 285 288 ». 
Style, Dame Brydgett, 285 ; Dame 

Elizabeth, 285; Sir Humfrey, 

182, 285 
Suckling, Alfred, 1 1 
Suckling, Sir Robert, 167, 190 
Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, Earl 

of, 168 w. 
Sulyard, Edward, 209 r,., 278, 

298 «. ; Myrabyll, 278 
Surrey Archasological Society, 

178//., 278 
Surrey, Earl of, see Arundel 
Sussex, Robert, Earl of, 29 
Suttherton, Nicholas, 99 
Sutton, Fayth, 30; Abbot John, 

96 ; John, 30 ; Robert, 95 ; 

Thomas, 30 
Svanders, Margaret, 14, 55 
Swan, Joan, 267 ; John, 267 
Swayn, Thomas, 135 
Swertius, 306 

Swetenham, Matthew, Esq., 190 

Swift, Robert, 213 

Swynborne, Sir Robert, l64». ; 

Sir Thomas, 164, 190 
Swynstede, John de, 70 
Sylvester, Pope, 68 
Symonds, Richard, Esq., 235 


Taberam, William, 137 

Tacham, Edward, 72 

Takeley, Abbot Thomas of, 96 

Taknell, John, 71 

Talbot, Roger, 15; see Shrewsbury 

Tame, Alice, 278 ; Sir Edmond, 

181 ; John, Esq., 177, 178, 278 
Tannere, William, 87^., 94 
Taylard, William, 133 
Taylare, Dame Dorothe, 287 ; Sir 

Lawrence, 287 
Taylor, William, 30 
Tendring, Sir William, 159 



Tendryng, Tomesina, 295//. ; Wil- 
liam, Esq., 295 ». 
Terri, John, 212, 2 1 8, 283 ; Lettys, 

Teylar, Thomas, 94 
Thaseburgh, Richard, yon. 
Theel, John, Esq., 191 
Thinne, William, Esq., 180 
Thomas, St., of Canterbury, 69«., 


Thomas, Wiliiam^ D.D., 303 
Thompson, -Sir Edward Maunde, 

K.C.B., i27«., 2o6». 
Thornely, Ja?nes L., I3». 
Thorneton, Abbot Robert, 3 1 1 
Thornhlll, Richard, 214 
Thornton, Agnes, 54, 260 »., 297; 

Roger, 27, 51,54, 72 »., 91,205, 

26o»., 297, 299; Thomas, 1 1 5 «. 
Throckmorton, Alianora, 266 ; 

John, Esq., 170, 173, 266, 316 
Thurbern, Robert, 89, 93 
Tibarde, William, 134 
Timmins^ H. Thovnhill, F.R.G.S., 


Tiptoft and Powis, Sir John Tiptoft, 
Lord, 269 ; Joice, Lady, 269 ; 
see Powis 

Todenham, John, 207 

Toke, John, Esq., 178 ; John, Esq., 
182; Nicholas, Esq., 185; family, 
ladies ot, 293 

Tonge, Thomas, 71, 89 

Tooke, William, Esq., 234 

Topclyff, Mabel de, 43, 245, 247, 
315, 316; Thomas de, 43, 48, 
52, 53, 201, 247, 315 

Torksay, John, 117 

Tornay, James, 2I4». 

Torrell, Thomas, Esq., 174 

Torrington, Margaret, ^50; Rich- 
ard, 202, 250 

Towne, William, 128 

Tregonwell, Sir John, 184, 231 

Trembras, John, 136 

Trencreeke, Robert, 233 

Trenowyth, John, Esq., 180 

Trevnwyth, Agnes, 268 ; Oto, 268 Persons 
Trilleck, Bishop John, 73, 80, 83 
Trond, St., 84 

Trumpington, Sir Roger de, 17, 

20, 145, 148, 149 
Tucker, Stephen, Somerset Herald, 


Tudor, House of, 24 
Turner, Dorothy, 300; John, 300 
Tumour, Joan, 276-7; William, 

T'jack, Rev. George Smith, won. 

Tyard, Thomas, 135 

Tylbert, John, 71 

Tylson, Thomas, 140 

Tyndall, Avice, 287 ; Dean Hum- 

frey, 116; Thomas, 287 
Tyrell, Dame Alice, 260?;. ; Dame 

Anne, 267; Sir John, 260 

Sir Thomas, 267 
Tyrrell, Anne, 24 «. 


Ulger, Bishop of Angers, 6 n. 
Underhill, Anne, 283 ; Thomas, 

283 ; Bishop John, 81 
Unton, Henry, Esq., 175, 234 
Urban, Johanna, 256; John, 204, 


Urswick, Christopher, 130 
Urswyk, Dame — , 271, 272 ; Sir 
Thomas, 99, 228, 271, 272, 3 16 


Valence (or Varleance), John de, 

17, 18 ; see Pembroke 
Vandyke, 291 
Vaughan, Guil. 15 
Vawdrey, Ralph, 138 
Verdun, Dame Matilda dc, 240 ; 

Sir Theobald de, 240 
Vere, de, see Oxford 
Verieu, John, 71 



Peksons Verney, Dame Elizabeth, 285 ; Sir 

Ralph, 182, 285 
Vernon, Arthur, 100, 136; Dame 

Margaret, 266, 27 : ; Sir William, 

171, 172, 175, 266, 271 
Verzelini, Elizabeth, 290 ; Jacob, 

Esq., 214, 290 
Vincent, Miss E. M., 18 ft. 
Viollet le Due, E. E., 48 «. 
Vir, Bishop Barthelemy de, 3 
Vynter, William, 205 


Wadham, Dorothie, 290 ; Nicholas, 
Esq., 185, 290; Sir William, 
173, 266; his wife, 266 

Wake, Walter, 138; Archbishop 
William, 1 1 5 «. 

Wakeherst, Elizabeth, 276 ; Rich- 
ard, Esq., 211, 276 

Walcott, Rev. Mackenzie E.C.^i 09 ». 

Waldeby, Archbishop Robert de, 

Walden, John de, 199 
Waleis, Robert, 136W. 
Wales, Arthur, Prince of, 128, 133; 

Prince Edward of, ^8n. 
Waller^]. G., 15W., 647/., 241,248, 

260 ». 

Waller^ J. G. andL. A. B., i, 9, 10, 
H»-, 37, 44, 45. 55, "4«m 

Waller, William, 14 

Walsh, Dame Katherine, 252 ; Sir 
Thomas, 252 

Walshe, Joan, 198, 246; Simon, 
198, 246 

Walsokne, Adam de, 28, 43, 48, 
50, 52, 197, 198, 202; Mar- 
garet de, 43, 48, 197, 243 

Walter, Archbishop Hubert, 84 «. 

Walter the Mason, 1 3 

Waltham, Joan, 297 ; Bishop John 
de, 75, 80, 83, 84 

Walysch, Thomas, Esq., i64»., 168 

Wantele, John, 166, 167 

Wantyng (Wantone), Dame Ellen, 
243 ; Sir John de, 154 ' 
Warde, Robert, 71 

Wardeboys, Abbot John Laurence 

de, 41, 95 
Warham, Elizabeth, 106; Robert, 

106; Archbishop William, 106, 

1 10 

Warner, Sir Edward, 182 
Warthim, Philip, 100, 105, 138 
Warwick, Cecily {ne'e Ncvill), 
Duchess of, 312; Henry Beau- 
champ, Duke of, 311-12 ; Mar- 
garet de Beauchamp, Countess 
of, 252; Richard Beauchamp, 
Earl of, 9«., II, 9o»., 303-6; 
Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of, 
36, 162, 252; Thomas Beau- 
champ, Earl of, 155; Richard 
Nevill, Earl of (King-Maker), 

Washington family, 34 
Waterton, Edmund.^ F.S.A., 74 «, 
Watton, Alicia, 269 ; Robert, Esq., 

170, 269 
Wattys, John, 235 
Way^ Albert^ 37 
Wayte, Thomas, Esq., 176 
Weather ley ^ W. S., i^Sn. 
Webbe, Anne, 286; John, 214, 


Weever^Jokn, 30, 48»., 286«., 306- 


Weld, Sir Humphrey, 290 ; Miss, 

of Leagram, 312 
Welley, William, 207 
Wells^ Edtcard, D.D., 3 1 n. 
Welysham, Roger, 1 1 
Wenemaer, Willem, I53». 
Wenslagh, Simon de, 43, 46, 53, 

70, lOI 

West, Edmund, S.L., 231 ; John, 
68, 71, 205 ; Maria, 264; Rev. 
Richard Temple, 26 ; William, 
205, 264 

Westeley, Thomas, lOI 

Westlake, John, 136 



Weston, Richard, 229 
Weststow, William, 100 
Whalley, Robert, 214 
Whappelode, William, 6^n. 
Wharton, Arthur, 299; Philip, 

Lord, 299 
Wheathamstead, Abbot John of, 

46, 207 
Whelpdall, John, 132 
White, Bishop John, 88-90, 114. 

264; John, Esq., 181 ; William, 


Whltelocke^ Sir J antes ^ 225 », 
Whittingham, Dean, 30, 32 
Whychurch, Abbot William, 312 
Whyte, Edward, Esq., 283 ; Eliza- 
beth, 283 
Whytton, John, 85, 104 
Wiclif, Ralph, 300 ; William, 300 
Wideville, Alice, 262 ; Elizabeth, 
262 ; Thomas, Esq., 40, 191, 
262, 315 
Wilkins^David^ D.D., 69»., 103 

II2»., I23». 

Wilkynson, Thomas, 138 
Willement, Thomas, F.S.A., 224». 
Willemin, N. X, 5»., 192 k. 
Willesden, Bartholomew, 234 
William of Hatfield, Prince, 198 «.; 

of Windsor, Prince, I98«. 
WilHams^ Charles, 14 ». 
Williams, Erasmus, 14, 116 ; John, 

Lord, 182 
Williams^ Rev. J. F., M.A., I30», 
Williams, Stephen fF., F.R.LB.A., 


Willis, Browne, 32, 232 
Willoughby de Broke, Lord, 

Willoughby d'Eresby, Lucy, Lady, 
260; Margaret, Lady, 252; 
Matilda, Lady, 267 ; Robert, 
Lord, 252; Robert, 6th Lord, 
K.G., 267 ; William, 4th Lord, 
163, 260 

Wilson, John, 1 5 ; Mr., 127a. 

Wiltshire, Earl of, see Bullen 

Winder, Peter, 1 16 
Windham, Thomas, Esq., 184 
Wingfeld, Dame RadclifF, 288 ; Sir 

Thomas, 288 
Wingfield, John, Esq., 183 
Wiot, Edward, Esq., 215 
Woddomes, Richard, 1 16 
Wodehowse, Robert, 1 00 
Wolsey, Cardinal Thomas, 1 10, 

182, 277«. 
Wolstonton, William, 45. 199 
Wood, Jnthony.^ izzn., izSn. 
Wood, J. G., 26 ». 
Wood, Nicholas, 233 
Woodstock, see Gloucester 
Woodville, see Elizabeth 
Worsley, Thomas, 1 40 
Wotton, Nicholas, 139; Richard 

de, 104 ». 
Wren, Bishop Matthew, 108 «. 
Wright, Thomas, zS». 
Wrioihesley, 109 w. 
Wryght, John, 1 39 
Wyard, Richard, 139 
Wybarne, 40 

Wygornia, Hawisia de, 14 

Wykys, Henry, 88 

Wylcotes, Dame Alicia, 253 ; Sir 

John, 163, 191, 253 
Wylde, Cecilia, 265 ; Edith, 296; 

Elizabeth, 296 ; John, Esq., 296; 

William, Esq., 265 
Wylleys, Richard, 93 
Wylloughby, Margaret, 274 ; Rauf, 

Esq., 274 
Wyllynghale, John, 71 
Wymbyll, Robert, 211 
Wynne, Sir Richard, 1 5 ; Dame 

Sarah, 15 
Wynston, Ismayne de, 249 
Wynter, John, 208 
Wyntryngham, Robert, 93 
Wyntworth, Thomas, 139 
Wythe, Robert, 100 
Wythines, John, D.D., 117 
Wyvill, Bishop Robert, 7, 80, 192, 




Persons Yden, Pawle, 2I2 

Yelverton, Dame Agnes, 272 ; Sir 

William, 191, 229, 272 
Yerd, John, 28 

Yong, Bishop John, 70, 74, 80, 82 
Yonge, Anne, 281; Francis, Esq., 

York, House of, 22, 188, 269 
Younge, John, 207 
Yslyngton, John, 102, 106, 129, 

Ysowilpe, Bishop of Verden, 16, 
63, 69, 78 


Zeigeler, Eobanus, iz6n. 

Zenobio, San, 67 ». 

Zoest, Johan von, 44, 49. 51, 52, 
244 ». ; his wife, 44, 244?/. 

Zouch, Alice, Lady, 39, 260 ; 
Elizabeth {ne'e St. John), Lady 
39, 296; William. Lord, 39' 
260, 296 ; Eudo de la, 131 

, Elizabeth, 252 

, Elizabeth, 268 

, Nicholas, 192 



Aberdeen, 27, 133 
Abergavenny, I32». 
Abingdon, Berks., St. Helen's, 129, 

Abingdon Pigotts, Cambs., 208, 

Acle, Norfollc, 117 
Acton, SufFolk, 145, 146, 147, 180, 

Acton Burnell, Salop, 159, 161 
Adderbury, Oxon., 174, 191 
Adderley, Salop, 81 
Addington, Kent, 170, 256, 269 
Aire in Artoise, 54», 
Aldborough, Norfolk, 273 
Aldborough, Yorks., 36, 157, 159, 

Aldbourne, Wilts., 4, 1 00 
Aldbury, Herts., 182, 285 
Aldermaston, Berks., 35 
Allerton Mauleverer, W. Yorks., 

162, 252 
Althorne, Essex, 99 
Amberley, Sussex, 166, 167 
Amersham, Bucks., 299 
Amiens, z6n. 
Amsterdam, 54«. 
Angers, St. Maurice, 6«. 
Anthony, East, Cornwall, 257, 


Antwerp, 54«. 
Aosta, 2i«. 

Apuldrefield, Kent, zt^on. 
Ardingley, Sussex, 211, 276, 278, 

292, 317 
Arundel, Sussex, 71, 83, 91, 94, 

191, 258 

Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent, 1 5 1 w., 
I58«., 184, 216, 266, 269, 289, 
292, 293 
Ashbourn, Derbyshire, 17 
Ashbury, Berks., 140, 199 
Ashby de-la-Zouch, Leics., 204 «. 
Ashby Puerorum, Lines., 7 
Ashby St. Legers, Northants, 106, 

204, 263, 278, 297, 299 
Ashford, Kent, 250, 259 
Ashover, Derbyshire, 70, 294 ». 
Ashringe House, Bucks., 70 
Aspley Guise, Beds., 104, 191 
Assington, SufFolk, 176, 282 
Assisi, 67;/. 

Astley Abbots, Salop, 295 «. 
Aston, Herts, 214^. 
Aston, Warwickshire, 228, 280 
Aston-le-Walls, Northants, 290 
Aston Rowant, Oxon., 150 
Attenborough, Notts., 77/. 
Attleborough, Norfolk, 29 
Attlebridge, Norfolk, 100, 231 
Auckland, St. Andrew's, Durham, 

IS, 91 

Aughton, East Yorks., 172, 266 
Autun, 77 «. 

Aveley, Essex, 43, 45, 50, 1 57, 1 59, 

Avenbury, Herefordshire, 4 
Aylesford, Kent, 45, 168, 262 
Aylsham, Norfolk, 140 


Badlesmere, Kent, 1 1 1 315 
Baginton, Warwickshire, 162,190, 

Sainton, E. Yorks., loi 
Baldock, Herts., 205, 269 

I See also List of Illustrations. 



Pj-aces Balsham, Cambs., 89, 90, 93 

Bamberg, 75«., 77, 87 w., izGn. 
Bampton, Oxon., 91, 292 
Banwell, Somerset, 133 
Barcheston, Warwickshire, 135 
Bardfield, Great, Essex, 231 
Barham, Suffolk, 232 
Barking, Essex, 102, 136s. 
Barneck, Northants, 67 
Barnes, Surrey, 296 
Barningham, Suffolk, 132 
Barrow, Suffolk, 229, 286 
Barsham, Suffolk, 167, 190 
Barton-on-Humber, Lines., 217 
Barwell, Leics., 117 
Basingstoke, Hants., Holy Ghost 

Chapel, 54», 
Bath, 114; Downside Abbey, 


Battle, Sussex, 117, 165 
Bawburgh, Norfolk, 100, 135 
Bayeux, 68 
Bayford, Herts., 84 
Beachamwell, Norfolk, 70 
Beauchampton, Bucks., zzn. 
Beaumaris, Anglesea, 94 n. 
Beckenham, Kent, 182, 285, 286 
Beckington, Somerset, 176, 273 
Bedale, Yorks., 15 
Beddington, Surrey, 169, 204, 207, 

262, 297 
Bedford, St. Paul's, 14,116, 183, 

218, 287 
Bedwyn, Great, Wilts., 2 1 1 
Beeford, Yorks., 71, 89 
Belaugh, Norfolk, 176, 274 
Belgium, 3, 26 ». 
Belstead, Sufi'olk, 282 
Bennington, Herts., 92»., 233 
Bentley, Little, Essex, 191, 209/;., 


Bergholt, East, Suffolk, 216 
Berkeley, Gloucs., 211 
Berkhampstead, Great, Herts., 15, 

64«., 202, 244, 250, 254 
Berwick, 21 

Berwick Basset, Wilts., 205 

Bettws-Cedcwain, near Newtown, 
Montgomery, loi ' 

Biddenden, Kent, 216 
Biddlesden, Bucks., 228 
Blgbury, Devon, 263, 268 
Bigby, Lines., 1 1 7 
Billingham, Durham, 94 
Bircham, Great, Norfolk, 235 
Birchington, Kent, 207, 208 
Birmingham, Municipal Art Gal- 
lery, 277 w.; Oscott College, 
2 24«. ; St. Martin's, no 
Bisham Priory, Berks., ii»,, 21 

Bishop Burton, E. Yorks., 100 
Bitton, Gloucs., 4, 86«., 87s. 
Blakesley, Northants, 190 
Bletchingley, Surrey, 295 
Blickling, Norfolk, 22, 159, 162, 

199' 207, 268, 273, 276, 295 
Blisland, Cornwall, 82 
Blockley, Worcs., 8ow., 100, 105, 

138, 140 
Bobbing, Kent, 165, 190, 265 
Bocking, Essex, 261 
Boddington, Upper, Northants, 


Bodiam, Sussex, 160 
Bookham, Great, Surrey, 233 
Boroughbridge, Yorks., 36, 160 
Bosbury, Herefordshire, 4 
Boston, Lines., 7, 93, 201 
Bottesford, Leics., 90, 91, 93 
Boughton-under-Blcan, Kent, 184 
Bowden, Great, Leics., 45, 199 
Bowers Giffbrd, Essex, 34, 154, 

Boxgrove, Sussex, 97//. 
Boxley, Kent, 136, 183 
Brabant, 44 

Brabourne, Kent, 165, 177, 296 
Bradfield, W. Yorks., 15, 216, 293 
Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts., 288 
Brading, Isle of Wight, 4 
Brampton, Norfolk, 231 
Brampton-by-Dingley, Northants, 



Brancepeth, Durham, 140 
Brandsburton, Yorks., ii, 71, I57> 

158, 254, 255». 
Braunton, Devon, 282 
Bray, Berks., 192, 227, 250, 290 
Bredgar, Kent, 102, 1 37 
Bredon, Worcs., 114 
Breslau, 72»., 126//. 
Brightlingsea, Essex, 210, 275, 294, 


Brightwell, Berks., 10 1 
Brightwell Baldwin, Oxon., 227 
Brington, Great, Northants, 71 
Brisley, Norfolk, 10 1, 102 
Bristol, Cathedral, 26; St. James', 
216, 292; St. John, 218; St. 
Mary Redcliffe, 179, 227, 230, 
298, 316 ; St. Peter's, loi ; 
Temple Church, 40, 88, 202, 
264 ; Trinity Almshouses, 204 
Broadclyst, Devon, 2 30«. 
Broadwater, Sussex, 90, 93 
Broadway, Worcs,, 183 
Bromham, Beds., 40, 191, 262 
Bromham, Wilts., 184, 215, 275, 

Bromley, Kent, 214 
Bromley, Great, Essex, 70 
Broughton, Lines., 251 
Broughton, Oxon., 257 
Broughton GifFord, Wilts., l66». 
Brown Candover, Haets, 212 
Broxbourne, Herts., 8, 35, 101, 

137, 172, 179, 191, 192, 273 
Bruges Cathedral, 129, 199 
Brundish, Suffolk, 70 
Brussels, 44 
Buckland, Herts., 102 
Buckland Broadway, 312 
Budock, Cornwall, 184 
Burford, Salop, 245 
Burgate, Suffolk, 256 
Burgh, Norfolk, 1 1 6 
Burgh Wallis, Yorks., 182 k, 
Burlingham, South, Norfolk, 100 
Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, 168, 


Burton, Sussex, 285-6 
Burton, Long, Dorset, 28 
Burwell, Cambs., 41, 72, 76, 95 
Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, Abbey, 
38; St. Mary, 94, 192, 208, 

Buslingthorpe, Lines., 140 
Buxton, Norfolk, 100 
Byfleet, Surrey, 94 
Byland Abbey, 96 «. 


Callington, Cornwall, 227, 269 
Callipolis, 80 

Camberwell, Surrey, see London 

Cambridge, 13, 65, 122, 283 ; 
University, 121 ». ; Christ's Col- 
lege, 129, 247 Clare Hall, 
131; Corpus Chrlsti College, 
127, I36«. ; Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum, 155 ; Gonville and Caius 
College, 116; King's College, 
95, 128, 129, 133; Pembroke 
College, lo8». ; Queens' Col- 
lege, 116, 134,214; St. Benet's, 
125, 127; St. John's College, 
34, 12IW., 131, 247«. ; St. 
Mary the Less, 128; Trinity 
College, 115; Trinity Hall, 93, 
130, 132, 139 

Cambridgeshire, 1 3 

Campese, 263 

Campsey Ash, Suffolk, 10 1, 102 
Canterbury, See of, 78, 90©., 106, 
II3»., 115, 123; Cathedral, 6, 
64»., 79, 84?/., I57«., l89». ; 
Hackington, i89«.; St. George's, 
88; St. Margaret's, 208; St. 
Martin's, 58^., 184, 214, 287; 
St. Mary Magdalene, Burgate, 
34, 212; St. Stephen's, i89«. 
Cardington, Beds., 181, 184 
Cardynham, Cornwall, 103 
Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight, 3 
Carlisle Cathedral, 77, 80, 8i«., 



Places Carshalton, Surrey, 6^n., 85, 191 
Cartmel, 97 «. 

Casterton, Little, Rutland, 162, 
190, 253 

Castle Ashby, Northants, 72 «,, 90, 

Castle Donnington, Leics., 174, 


Cawood, Yorks., li^n. 
Cawston, Norfolk, 105 ». 
Chalcedon, 81 

Chalfont St, Peter, Bucks., 39, 64 h. 
Chalgrove, Oxon., 173 
Chalons-sur-Marne, 7 
Channel Islands, 27 
Charlton Makerel, 2 30«. 
Charlwood, Surrey, 180, 282 
Chart, Great, Kent, 178, 182, 185, 

210, 269, 293 
Chartham, Kent,93,94, 137, 145-7 
Charwelton, Northants, 281 
Cheam, Surrey, 28, 82, 200, 201, 

'213, 281, 298 
Checkcndon, Oxon., 230 
Cheddar, Somerset, 165, 169 
Chedzoy, Somerset, 1 78/;, 
Chelsea, see London 
Chelsfield, Ken4 82, 271 
Cheltenham, Gloucs,, 228 
Cherlton, Kent, 36, 104 
Chesham Bois, Bucks., 182 
Cheshunt, Herts,, 11, 12, 231 
Chester, See of, 114; Holy Trinity, 

187 ; St. Peter, 232 
Chesterford, Great, Essex, 283 
Chesterford, Little, Essex, 266 
Chevening, Kent, 116 
Chichester Cathedral, 14s., 79»., 


Chigwell, Essex, 30,^55, 75, 108, 

Childrey, Berks., 131, 166, 167, 

259, 294 
Chingford, Essex, 2I4». 
Chinnor, Oxon., 64, 128, 244, 251 
Chipping Campden, Gloucs., 201, 

207, 208, 210, 253 

Chipping Norton, Oxon,, 34, 207 
Chiselhurst, Kent, 235 
Chittlehampton, Devon, 273 
Cholsey, Berks., 21 
Chrishall, Essex, lo^n., 208, 250, 

274» 315-16 
Christchurch, Hants, 31, 33, iO()n., 

127/;., i63». 
Church Oakley, Hants, 106 
Churchill, Somerset, 183, 287 
Cirencester, Gloucs., 85, io.\.n., 

173, I75» 203, 207, 2i6, 263, 

264, 297» 312 
Clapham, Sussex, 181, 279 
Clavering, Essex, 104 
Claydon, Middle, Bucks., 166 n. 
Cleh ongre, Herefordshire, 1 5 1 w., 

I52»., 175, 272 
Clerkenwell, see London 
Cleves, 59 

Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, 102, 

106, 129 
Clifford Chambers, Gloucs., 183 
Clifton, Pro - Cathedral of the 

Apostles, I23«. 
Clifton, Beds., 179 
Clifton, Notts., 215 
Clifton Campville, Staffs., 145 «., 


Clippesby, Norfolk, 184, 289 
Clothall, Herts., 88, 116, 139, 140, 

Clynnog, Carnarvonshire, 299 
Clyst St. George, Devon, 294^. 
Coates, Great, Lines., see Cotes 
Cobham, Kent, 20w., 86, 87»., 93, 
94, 158, 160, 180, 240, 245, 
250, 251, 264, 278, 297, 299 
Coburg, 5977. 

Coggcshall, Great, Essex, 274, 283 
Colan, Cornwall, 183 
Colchester, ii^n. 
Coleshill, Warwickshire, 13, 82, 

102, 1 16 
Collingbourne Ducis, Wilts., 299 
Cologne, 9, 56 

Constance Cathedral, 57, l87». 



Constantine, Cornwall, 45 

Conway, 95 «. 

Cookham, Berks., 45 

Cople, Beds., 165, 167, 169, 228- 

30, 263, 265 
Corfe Castle, Dorset, 305 
Corringham, Essex, 71, 82 
Cortville, near Li(^ge, 56 
Cotes, Great, Lines., 99, 106, 193, 


Cottingham, Yorks., 91, 93 
Cowfold, Sussex, 79, 97 
Cowthorpe, W. Yorks., 228 
Cracow, 64;;. 

Cranford St. Andrew, Northants, 

Cranley, Surrey, 193 
Crawley, Bucks., 116 
Cray, St. Mary, Kent, 26, 217, 

Creak, North, Norfolk, 105 
Creak, South, Norfolk, 9 1 , 96, 97 «. 
Cressing, Essex, 290 
Cressingham, Great, Norfolk, 139, 

Crishall, Essex, see Chrishall 

Croft, Lines., 145, 146, 150 

Crondall, Hants, 70 

Crowan, Cornwall, 272, 274, 275». 

Crowmarsh Giffard, Oxon., 215 

Croxden Abbey, 240 

Croxton, Cambs., 1 3 i 

Croydon, Surrey, ii5«., 216, 286 

Cuckfield, Sussex, I27». 

Cues, 64 «. 

Cuypgat, near Ghent, 7 

Dagenham, Essex, 98, 228, 271, 

Darley, Staffs., 29 

Darsham, Suffolk, 292 

Dartford, Kent, 203, 235, 263, 

266, 289 
Dartmouth, Devon, 163, 248 ; St. 

Petrock, 290 

Dauntsay, Wilts., 279, 281, 317 
Daylesford, Worcs., 216 
Deane, West, Wilts., 299 
Debenham, Suffolk, 263 
Deddington, Oxon., 15, 200 
Deerhurst, Gloucs., 226, 252 
Denchworth, Berks., 21, 38 
Dengie, Essex, 277 
Denham, Bucks., 38, 97, 115,296 
Denmark, 26»., 44, 58 
Denstone, Suffolk, 279, 283 
Dethick, Derbyshire, 294 «. 
Devizes, Wilts., St. John's, 216, 

Digswell, Herts., 167, 190, 261 
Ditchingham, Norfolk, 274 
Ditton, Long, Surrey, 290 
Dodford, Northants, 262, 265 
Dol, 77 ». 
Doncaster, 8». 

Dorchester, Oxon., 89, 91, 95, 96, 

97»., 190 
Douay, 26;/. 
Dover, St. Mary's, 216 
Dowdeswell, Gloucs., 89, 91 
Downe, Kent, 214, 290 
Downside Abbey, Bath, 3 1 1 
Draycot Cerne, Wilts., 248, 249/7. 
Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks., 150^., 

158, 161 
Dry Drayton, Cambs., 281 
Dublin, See of, 79, 80; Castle, 

i88k. ; Christchurch Cathedral, 

27, i88». ; St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, 27, 95 

Durham, See of, I26«. ; Cathedral, 

28, 30, 32, 427;., 68, 69«., 81, 
83 ; Greatham Hospital Chapel, 

Duxford, Cambs., 139 
Dyrham, Gloucs., 157, 251 


Earls Barton, Northants, 234 
Eastington, Gloucs., 279 
Easton, Suffolk, 183, 288 

2 A 



Places Easton, Little, Essex, 70«., 172, 
176, 186, 187, 191, 192, 270 
Easton Neston, Northants, 282 
Eastry, Kent, 183 
Eaton Socon, Beds., 202 
Edenbridge, Kent, 213 
Edenhall, Cumberland, 172 
Edenham, Lines., 79 
Edgmond, Salop, 281 
Edinburgh, St. Giles', 27 
Elford, Staffs., 204 «., 206 «. 
Ellough, Suffolk, 290 
Elmdon, Essex, 283 
Elsing, Norfolk, 8, 43, 49-50, 51, 

Elstow, Beds., 98, 265 

Ely, See of, 80, io8ff. ; Cathedral, 

72, 75, 80, 83, 96, 116 
Emneth, Norfolk, 150 
Enfield, Middlesex, 269 
England, 42, 255 ». 
Epping, Essex, 233 
Erfurt, 126 n. 

Erith, Kent, 205, 207, 263 
Erpingham, Norfolk, 167 
Essendon, Herts., 234 
Essex, 13, 27, 93, 283 
Etchingham, Sussex, 161, 169,259, 

Eton College, 92, 115, 128, 137//., 

142, 180, 284 
Etwall, Derbyshire, 294 
Europe, 42 
Euston, Suffolk, 212 
Evesham, Worcs., 203 ». 
Evreux, i^n. 
Ewell, Surrey, 279 
Ewelme, Oxon., 45,71, 135, 137«., 

165, 169, 192, 266 
Exeter, See of, 57, 80; Cathedral, 

88, 186 
Eyke, Suffolk, 117, 227 
Eyworth, Beds,, 215, 290 


Fairford, Gloucs., 177, 178, 181, 


Faulkbourne, Essex, 289, 294/7. 
Faversham, Kent, 165, 174, 212, 

224//., 276 
Fawsley, Northants, 181, 284/7. 
Felbrigg, Norfolk, 165, 184, 186, 

201, 246, 251, 257, 295 
Felstead, Essex, 262 
Feltwell, Norfolk, 282 
Finchampstead, Berks., 292 
Finland, 43 «., 44«. 
Firle, West, Sussex, i88«. 
Fishlake, West Yorks., 100 
Fladbury, Worcs., 90, 137, 140, 

170, 173, 266 
Flamborough, Yorks., 23 ». 
Flamstead, Herts., 907/. 
Flanders, 9, 27, 44, 53 
Fletching, Sussex, 251 
Florence, l6n.; Certosa, 15877.; 

Church of the Annunziata, 67 n. ; 

San Lorenzo, 57; Santa Croce, 


Fordham, Cambs., 212, 283 
Fordwich, Kent, 290 
Fountains Abbey, Yorks., 96 
Fovant, Wilts., 92, 105 
Fowey, Cornwall, 289 
France, 2677., 25577., 306 
Fransham, Great, Norfolk, 167 
Frenze, Norfolk, 98, 176, 283, 294 
Fryerning, Essex, 38 
Fulbourn, Cambs., 70, 89, 93 
Fulham, see London 
Furneaux Pelham, Herts., 205, 
265, 317 


Gateley, Norfolk, 10577, 
Geddington, Northants, 2 ion., 

262 77. 
Gedney, Lines,, 25 i 
Germany, 2677., 306; North, 9 
Ghent, I53«. ; Museum, 7,72;/., 

8377., 84 
Girton, Cambs., 134 
Glasgow, 27 
Glastonbury Abbey, 231 



Gloucester, See of, 138; Cathedral, 
26; St. John Baptist, 218, 280; 
St. Mary de Crypt, 218, 294 

Gloucestershire, 9«., 79 ». 

Gnesen, 64^., 77 

Gonalston, Notts., 2 39«. 

Goodnestone, Kent, 286 

Goring, Oxon., 252 

Gorleston, Suffolk, 151 

Gosfield, Essex, 103 w., 224, 230 

Graveney, Kent, 200, 227, 246, 

Gratham Hospital, Durham, 127 w. 
Greens Norton, Northants, 171, 

173, 266 
Grendon, Northants, 267 
Greystoke, Cumberland, 132, 296 
Grinstead, West, Sussex, 167, 259 
Guildford, Surrey, Abbot Hospital, 

1 1 5 «. ; Holy Trinity, 115; St. 

Nicholas, Losely Chapel, 316 
Gunby, Lines., 190, 227, 256 


Haccombe, Devon, 290 
Hackney, see London 
Hadleigh, Suffolk, 45 
Hadley, Middx., 276 
Hainault, 44 
Hailing, Kent, 234 
Halstead, Essex, 256, 265 
Halton, Bucks., 229 
Halvergate, Norfolk, 97 
Ham, Essex, 290 

Hampden, Great, Bucks., 179, 181 
Hampsthwaite, Yorks., 40, 197?;., 

Hampton Poyle, Oxon., 168, 262 
Hanningfield, West, Essex, 244, 

Hardrcs, Upper, Kent, 22, 104, 

Hardwick Hall, 209 
Harefield, Middx., 231 
Harewood, Yorks., 227 

Harford, Devon., 114;/., Places 
Harley, Salop, 175, 272, 273 
Harling, West, Norfolk, lyon., 

Harlington, Middx., 286 
Harlow, Essex, 215, 262, 292 
Harpham, Yorks., 165, 168, 173, 

191, 257 
Harpsden, Oxon., 266 
Harpswell, Lines., 136;;. 
Harrow, Middx., 45, 72 w., 90, 

92ff., 93, 104, 202, 215 
Harrowden Magna, Northants, 265 
Hartly Wintney, Hants, 98 ». 
Haseley, Great, Oxon., 87, 94, 


Hatley Cockayne, Beds., 179 

Haughmond Abbey, 198 «. 

Havant, Hants., 90, 93 

Hawton, Notts., 150 

Hayes, Kent, 235 

Hayes, Middx., 174, 184 

Hayles Abbey, 3 1 2 

Headbourne Worthy, Hants, 141-2 

Hedenham, Norfolk, 100 

Hedgerley, Bucks., 38, 81, 193 

Heigham, Norfolk, 216 

Hellesdon, Norfolk, 70 w., 200, 
244, 246, 316 

Hellingly, Sussex, 259 

Helmsley, Yorks., 191 

Hemel Hempstead, Herts., 160 

Hempstead, Essex, 209, 283 

Henfield, Sussex, 292 

Hereford, See of, 108 Cathed- 
ral, 2«, 18, 32, 63«., 73, 80, 
81, 83, 89, 94, 126, 129, 130, 
i35> 139. i52«-, i73» 202, 259 

Heme, Kent, 134, 167, 168, 258, 
269, 28477. 

Heston, Middx., 24 

Hever, Kent, 5 i 180, 187, 209, 

Hexham, 97», 
Heydon, Norfolk, 234 
Heyford, Nether, Northants, 1 78 
Hickling, Notts., loi 


Places Higham Ferrers, Northants, lo, 
42ff, 70, 72W., 84, 93, lOI, 
102, 205, 264 
Hildersham, Cambs,, 171, 198, 

Hildesheim, 17, 63, 73, iz6n. 
Hillingdon, Middx., 178-80, 277 
Hillmorton, Warwickshire, 256 
Hinxworth, Herts., 94»., 218, 233, 

Hitchin, Herts., 93, 129, 134 
Holm-by-the-Sea, Norfolk, 23 w., 

203, 253 
Holme Hale, Norfolk, 235 
Holton, Oxon., 175, 300 
Holwell, Beds., 100, lozn. 
Honington, Suffolk, 215 
Horkesley, Little, Essex, 164, 190 
Horley, Surrey, I53»., 261 
Hornby, N. Yorks., 99, 105, 267 
Hornchurch, Essex, 2 1 n. 
Horndon, East, Essex, iSon., 267 
Horndon, West, Essex, 279W. 
Horseheath, Cambs., 159, 161 
Horsham, near Norwich, 96 
Horsham, Sussex, 66, 68, 71 
Horshill, Surrey, 30 
Horsley, East, Surrey, 80, 202 
Horsmonden, Kent, 57, 70, 315 
Horton Kirby, Kent, 268 
Houghton Conquest, Beds., 179, 


Houghton -le- Spring, Durham, 

294 w. 
Howden, Yorks., 175 
Hull, 81 

Hunstanton, Norfolk, 179, 181, 

Husbands Bosworth, Leics., 117 
Hutton, Somerset, 179 


ICKLEFORD, HcrtS., 202 

Ifield, Sussex, 152W. 
Ightfield, Salop, 210, 278 
Ightham, Kent, 292 

Ilford, Little, Essex, 142, 300 
Ilminster, Somerset, 173, 185,266, 

Impington, Cambs., 278 
Ingham, Norfolk, 33, 161 «., 169, 

249, 258 w., 265 K., 274 
Ingleby Arncliffe, Yorks., 15 
Ingrave, Essex, 272, 279 
Ipswich, St. Mary Quay, 54, 212, 

276 ; St. Mary Tower, 209, 21 1 
Ireland, 27 
Irnham, Lines., 161 
Isleham, Cambs., 175, 191, 214, 

233, 268, 273, 287 
Isleworth (Thistleworth or Istle- 

worth), Middx., 9, 45, 99, 171, 

Italy, 306 

Ivybridge, Devon., II4«. 


Jervaulx Abbey, 311 

Kelsey, South, Lines., i68»., 261 
Kemsing, Kent, 71 
Kent, 27, 293 

Ketteringham, Norfolk, 181, 269, 

275 ; Park, 84;/. 
Kidderminster, Worcs., 165, 190, 

257, 261 
Kilburn, see London 
Kingsclere, Hants, 235 
King's Lynn, Norfolk, 10, 28, 32, 

42«., 43, 48-53, 197, 198, 

201 243 
Kingsnorth, Kent, 287 
King's Sombourne, Hants, 200, 


Kingston -upon -Thames, Surrey, 

207, 210, 232, 259, 274 
Kinnersley, Herefordshire, 139 
Kirkheaton, W. Yorks., 186, 293 
Kirkleatham, Yorks., 216, 300 
Knebworth, Herts., 79, 89, 90, 

91, 93 




Lacock, Wilts., 1 06, 181, 232, 

276, 315-17 
Lakenheath, Suffolk, 283 
Lambeth, see London 
Lambourn, Berks., 202 
Lambourne, Essex, 213, 282 
Lancaster, St. Mary, 216 
Lan teglos-j uxta- Fowey, Cornwall, 

I73» 179, 278 
Laon, 3 

Latton, Essex, 227, 268, 289 
Laughton, Lines., 40, 157, 159, 

Laughton -en - le - Morthen, W. 

Yorks., 185 
Laver, High, Essex, 209 278, 


Lavington, West, Wilts., 56, 177, 

Laycock, see Lacock 
Lechlade, Gloucs., 207, 316 
Ledbury, Herefordshire, 104 
Leeds, St. Peter, 100, 172. 266 
Leicester, St. Martin, 29 
Leigh, Surrey, 217, 297 
Le Mans, 5 
Le Puy, 77 «. 
Letchworth, Herts., 202 
Letheringsett, Norfolk, 235 
Lewes, Sussex, 79, 96 
Lewknor, Oxon., 71 
Leyton, Low, Essex, 295 
Lichfield Cathedral, 1 32 
Liege, 3, 56 

Lillingstone Lovell, Oxon., 191 
Lincoln, See of, 114; Cathedral, 
32, 58»., 82, 134; St. Andrew, 
30 ; Monks Manor, near, 289 ». 
Lincolnshire, 13 

Lingfield, Surrey, 163, 249, 263, 

Linwood, Lines., 132, 150, 204, 

205, 265, 299 
Littlebury, Essex, loi, 102, 209, 


Llanbeblig, Carnarvonshire, 235 
Llanrwst, Denbigh,Gwydir Chapel, 

Loddon, Norfolk, 184, 214, 290 
London, 12, 64«., 201, 205, 304; 
All Hallows' Barking, 55,115 ».,. 
180, 193, 207, 211, 212, 214, 
218, 263, 276«., 277 ; Augmen- 
tation Office, 29 ; Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, 48»., 123;/., 
224«., 311-12; Camberwell, 
Surrey, 45 ; Chelsea, St. Luke's, 
185, i88«., 285, 292; Clerken- 
well, St. James', 35, 80; Ful- 
ham, Middlesex, 14, 55 ; Gray's 
Inn, 233, 234; Hackney, Middle- 
sex, 1 1 7?/., 130 ; Kilburn Priory, 
99 ; Kilburn, St. Mary's, 99 ; 
Lambeth, Surrey, St. Mary's, 
187, 278 «., 281 ; Lincoln's Inn, 
233 ; Museum, British, i, 4, 5 
I3«., 2IW., 33, 43, 48, 49, 51, 
56, 75, 95, 109, I26«., I27»., 
i^6n., 178, 210, 239«., 258?/.; 
Museum, Jermyn Street, 56; 
Museum, Victoria and Albert 
(South Kensington), 9«., 56, 191, 
311; National Gallery, Sjn., 
3il«. ; Paddington, St. Mary 
Magdalene, 26 ; St. Andrew 
Undershaft, 218; St. Helens, 
Great, Bishopsgate, 104, 128, 
139, i66w., 178; St, Martin 
Outwich, 128, 140; St. Michael 
Bassishaw, 286 ; St. Olave, Hart 
Street, i66«. ; St, Paul's Cathe- 
dral, 74W., I09»., 13 I; Serjeants' 
Inn, Fleet Street, 225 «, ; South- 
wark, St. George's Cathedral, 
3 1 1 ; Southwark, St. Saviour's, 
204«,; Staple Inn, 235 ; Temple, 
Inner, 233 ; Temple, Middle, 
225 »., 234 ; Westminster Abbey, 
6, 17, i8w., 22«., 26, 57, 73«., 
74, 75, 79, 80, 83, 84, 91, 95, 
ii2«., 114, 115, 152;/., i56«., 
169, 178, i98«., 2i7«,, 239//., 



243W., 248, 253W., 254, 264, 

303 ; Westminster. Courts at, 
223 w., 224W., 309, 310; West- 
minster Hall, 222, 277 ». ; West- 
minster, St. Margaret's, 31 

Longforgan, Perthshire, 206 w. 

Louvain, University of, 129 

Lowick, Northants, 264, 266 

Lowthorp, Yorks., 15 

Lubeck, 44, 47, 52 

Lucca, 77 ». 

Ludlow, Salop, 258». 

Lullingstone, Kent, 179 

Luton, Beds., 33, 132,205, 267 

Lydd, Kent, 139, 284 

Lytescary, 2307/. 


Mablethorpe, Lines., 296 
Macclesfield, Cheshire, 64^., 10 1 
Magdeburg, 79 
Maids' Moreton, Bucks., 296 
Maidstone, All Saints', 79 
Mailing, East, Kent, 95, 102, 210, 

Mailing, West, Kent, 102 w., 281 
Malmesbury, Wilts., 58». 
Malvern, Great, Worcs,, 192 w. 
ManchesterCathedral, 80, 94, 139, 

March, Cambs., lySn., 279 
Marden, Herefordshire, 288 
Margate, Kent, 45, 173, 185, 205, 

Markham, East, Notts., 257, 261 
Marston Morteyne, Beds., 174,266 
Marsworth, Bucks., 231 
Mattishall, Norfolk, 233 
Mawgan-in-Pydar, Cornwall, 45, 

88, 214, 285 
Mayence, 77, 79 
Meaux Cathedral, 7 
Mecklinburg, 44 
Meissen, 59 

Melbury Sampford, Dorset, 184 
Melford, Long, Suffolk, 184, 272, 
273, 297 

Melton, Suffolk, 104, 206, 264 
Melverley, 97 w. 
Mendlesham, Suffolk, i67«. 
Meopham, Kent, 33 
Mepshall, Beds., 263 
Merevale, Warwickshire, 167, 256 
Mereworth, Kent, 213 
Meriden, Warwickshire, 292 
Merstham, Surrey, 299 
Merton, Norfolk, i8o»., 276 
Messing, Essex, 281 
Methley, Yorks., logn. 
Methwold, Norfolk, I50»,, 16 in. 
Middleburgh in Walcheren, 56 
Middleton, Essex, 4 
Middleton, Lanes., Jon., 82, 102, 
186, 293 

Middleton, Warwickshire, 228, 

Milan, 87W. 

Mildenhall, Suffolk, 189W. 
Milton, Cambs., 229, 284 
Milton Abbas, Dorset, 96^., 184, 

Milton-next-Sittingbourne, Kent, 

175, 278 
Mimms, North, Herts., 7, 43, 49, 

5o> 52, 53» 7°y 178, 286 
Minchinhampton, Gloucs., 99 
Minehead, Somerset, 268 
Minety, Wilts., 185, 290 
Minster,|Kent, 56, 1 50»., 152, 242 
Minsterley, Salop, 294^. 
Mirival, Warwickshire, 29 
Missenden, Little, Bucks., 39 
Monewden, Suffolk, n6 
Monkton, Kent, 70W. 
Morland, Westmorland, zjn. 
Morley, Derbyshire, 174 
Mugginton, Derbyshire, 191, 296 
Musgrave, Great, Westmorland, 84 


Narbonne Cathedral, 48 «. 
Narburgh, Norfolk, 193, 218,229, 

231, 278, 282, 286 
Naudhausen, 68 



Necton, Norfolk, 212, 247, 249, 
283, 289 

Netley Abbey, Hants, 278 

Newark, Notts., 43, 46, 49, 50-53, 
Ii6w., 1277/., 197, 198 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, AH Saints', 27, 
51, 54, jzn., 91, 205, 26o», 
297,299; St. Nicholas, 151 » 

Newington, Kent, 210, 215, 287 

Newnton, Wilts., 68 

Newton Bromshold, Northants, 82 

Newton-by-Geddington, North- 
ants, 203, 263 

Newton, Flotman, Norfolk, 183 

Nippes near Cologne, 56 

Noke, Oxon, 229 

Norbury, Derbyshire, 97, 228, 
240, 281 

Norfolk, I, 13, 23, 27, 53, 100, 
176, 274, 282 

Normanton, Yorks., 1 5 

Northampton, St. Sepulchre, 293 

Northamptonshire, I 

Northfleet, Kent, 70, 262, 266 

Northleach, Gloucs., 107, 201, 
207, 208, 253 

Northolt, Middx., 116 

Northumberland, 27 

Northumbria, 47 

Northwood, Kent, 287 

Norton Disney, Lines., 56, 150, 
i84»., 2847?., 287 

Norton St. Philip, Somerset, 232«. 

Norwich, 12, 13, 108 176, 
232«; St. Andrew, 81, 218; 
St. Clement, 282 ; St. George 
Colegate, 217; St. Giles, 217, 
265, 266 ; St. John de Sepul- 
chre, 184; St. John Madder- 
market, 64^., 81, 99, 207, 2 12, 

218, 283; St. Laurence, 96, 

217; St. Margaret, 285; St. 

Michael at Thorn, 26 ; St. 

Peter Mancroft, 45, 176; St. 

Stephen, 130, 218, 263 
Nousis, S. Finland, 43 ». 
Noyon, 86». 

Nuffield, Oxon., 199 
Nunkeeling, Yorks., 1 5 
Nymwegen, 59 


Oakwood, Surrey, 191 

Ockenden, North, Essex, 2l«. 

Ockham, Surrey, 71, 83 

Oddington, Oxon., 25 

OfFord Darcy, Hunts., 133, 262 

Ogbourne St. George, Wilts., 211 

Okeover, Staffs., 39, 260, 296-7 

Olveston, Gloucs., 178 

Ore, Sussex, 202, 244, 251 

Orford, Suffolk, 3 1 

Ormesby, Great, Norfolk, 178, 259 

Ormskirk, Lanes., 181 

Orpington, Kent, 138 

Oscott Coll., see Birmingham 

Ostia, 77 «. 

Otterden, Kent, 35, 163 

Oulton, Suffolk, II, 34, 647/. 

Outwell, Norfolk, 231 

Over, Cheshire, 181 

Over Winchendon, Bucks., 97 

Owston, Yorks., 203, 256 

Oxford, 26, 65, 122; All ^Souls' 
College, 89, 91, 104, 138-41; 
Bodleian Library, 7, I4»., 28»., 
126/?. ; Brazenose College, 141 ; 
Broadgates Hall, 141, 234; 
Christ Church, 87, 95, II4»., 
1 15«., 198;/., 208, 243 245 «.; 
(St. Frideswide's), 97 ; Exeter 
College, II4». ; Magdalen Col- 
lege, 82, 92, 94, 134-8, 141 ; 
Merton College, 22, 25, 64, 71, 
83^ 85, 90, 93, 102-4, 126, 128, 
134, 136, 137; New College, 
14, 70, 74, 78-80, 82, 89, 101, 
124, iiSn., 128, 130-5, 138-41, 
211 ; -Oriel College, 127^. ; 
Queen's College, 14, 77, 89, 93, 
113, 117, 128, 132; St. Aldate, 
141, 234; St. John's College, 
115; St. Mary the Virgin, 94, 



I27»., 141 ; St. Mary.Magdalen, 
56//. St. Michael, II4«. ; St. 
Peter in the East, 45,56^., 133, 
218,287; Wadham College, 185 


Paderborn, 57, 74«., 83 

Painswick, Gloucs., 187 

Pakefield, Suffolk, 136 

Paris, 127; Bibliotheque Nation- 
ale, 7»., 52 «; Eglise des Math- 
urins, i66«. ; Louvre, 5?/.; 
Musee des Monuments fran9ais, 
192 ».; Saint Antoine, 192 
Sainte Catherine du Val des 
Ecoliers, 192//. 

Paston, Norfolk, 45 

Pavia, 77 «. 

Pays de Caux, Normandy, 272 ». 
Pebmarsh Essex, 21//,, 151 
Peckham, West, Kent, 273, 277 
Peel, Isle of Man, Castle, II5«. ; 

St. Germain's Cathedral, 27, 1 1 5 
Pelham, Furneaux, Herts., 205, 265 
Pembridge, Herefordshire, 230 
Penn, Bucks., 292 
Penshurst, Kent, 212 
Pepper Harrow, Surrey, 267 
Peterborough, 2 1 ff., 5 8//., 96, 126;/. 
Petherton, South, Somerset, 169, 


Pinner, Middx., 45 
Pleshey, Essex, 187 
Pluckley, Kent, 169, 277 
Plumstead, Little, Norfolk, 182 
Poissi, Notre Dame, i6«. 
Poitiers, 86 n. 
Poland, Prussian, 44, 52 
Pool, South, Devon, 1 1 1 
Posen, 83 

Pottesgrove, Beds., 45, 212 
Powderham, Devon, 279 
Preston Bagot, Warwickshire, 23 2 n. 
Preston in Amounderness, Lanes., 

Preston near Faversham, Kent, 
165, 174 


QUAINTON, Bucks., 104, 244«. 

Quethiock, Cornwall, 94, 108 

214W., 216, 269, 298 
Quinton, Gloucs., 265 
Quy, Cambs., 175, 270 


Rainham, Essex, 177/7., 271 

Rainham, Kent, 2 1 1 

Rainham, East, Norfolk, 107 

Ramsey, Hunts., 41, 95, 126ft. 

Reveningham, Norfolk, 274 

Ravenna, 68, 78 

Rawmarsh, Yorks., 214, 316 

Reading Abbey, i26«. ; St. Law- 
rence, 38 

Redbourne, Lines., 4 

Redgrave, Suffolk, 151 «. 

Redlynch, Somerset, 275 

Reepham, Norfolk, 161, 244, 251 

Rhuddlan, N. Wales, 4 

Ringstead, Great, Norfolk, 134 

Ringstead in Zealand, 44, 58, 244 ». 

Ringwood, Hants, 90, 93 

Ripley, W. Yorks., 40, 100 

Ripon Cathedral, 191 

Rochester, Cathedral, 6 ; St, Mar- 
garet, 40, 72 

Roding, Essex, 35 

Rodmarton, Gloucs., 226, 232 

Romaldkirk, N. Yorks., 71 

Rome, 68, 88 

Rotherham, Yorks., 213 
Rothwell, Northants, 51, 87, 91, 

Rougham, Norfolk, 191, 229, 256, 

Routh, E. Yorks., 165, 190, 257, 

Roxby Chapel, Yorkshire, 180 
Roydon, Essex, 191, 273 
Royston, Herts., 33, 97K., 137 
Rudstone, Yorks., 15 



Rusper Sussex, 200, 246 

Ruthin, Denbighshire, II2»., 217, 

298, 3i5» 317 
Ryther, Yorks., 242 ». 


Saffron Walden, Essex, 70, g$n., 

273, 283 
St. Alban's, Herts., 40, 43, 46-8, 

49«., 50-2, 84;/., 95, 96, 97«., 

142, 175, 191, 207, 211; St. 

Michael, 201, 203 
St. Asaph, 139 
St. Breock, Cornwall, 211 
St. Bride's, Glamorgan, 4 
St. Columb Major, Cornwall, 182, 

185, 216, 281, 292 
St. David's, 133 

St. Denis, France, 5, 149 »., 192;;. 
St. Erme, Cornwall, 233 
St. Giles-in-the-Wood, Devon, 262 
St. Gluvias, Cornwall, 210 
St. Ives, Cornwall, 268 
St. Just-in- Roseland, Cornwall, 85, 
88, 91 

St. Lawrence, Thanet, 165, 191, 

St. Mellion, Cornwall, 180, 282 
St. Memmie, near Chalons-sur- 

Marne, 7 
St. Michael Penkivel, Cornwall, 

136, 180, 185 
St. Nicholas, Thanet, 287;/. 
St. Osyth, Essex, 15, 230 «. 
St. Trond, 84 

St. Yved de Braine, France, 147/. 
Salisbury, See of, 17, 57, 75, 83, 

l87«. ; Cathedral, 3, 4, 7, 80, 

113, 115, 192; St. Thomas the 

Martyr, 30«., 214, 286 
Sail, Norfolk, 45, 235 
Saltwood, Kent, 71, 169 
Sandal Parva, W. Yorks., 80 
Sanderstead, Surrey, 233 
Sandwich, Kent, St. Peter, 152 


Sarum, Old, 4«. 

Sawbridgeworth, Herts., 169, 184, 

264, 288, 289 
Sawley, Derbyshire, 191 
Sawston, Cambs., 82 
Sawtry, All Saints, Hunts., 25 J 
Saxony, 59 
Schwerin, 27, 44, 83 
Scotland, 27, 307 
Scrivelsby, Lines., 179, 261;;. 
Sculthorpe, Norfolk, 175, 234 
Seclin, near Lille, 3 
Sedgebrook, Lines., 229 
Sedgefield, Durham, 241 
Seend, Wilts., 21 1 
Sefton, Lanes., 182, 183, 279, 

Sens, 69?;. 

Sessay, Yorks., 89, 90, 94 
Sevenhampton, Gloucs., 210 
Seville, 25 

Shalston, Bucks., 98, 294 
Sheepy Magna, Leics., 33 
Sheldwich, Kent, 252 
Shelford, Great, Cambs., 90 
Shelford, Little, Cambs., 163, 255;/., 

Sherborne, Dorset., 58^.; Castle, 

Dorset, 192, 193 w. 
Sherborne St. John, Hants, 199, 

H5, 295 
Shernbourne, Norfolk, 172, 174, 

Shillingford, Devon, 279 

Shillington, Beds., 91 

Shopland, Essex, 192 

Shorwell, Isle of Wight, 106 

Shotesham St. Mary, Norfolk, 283 

Shottesbrooke, Berks., 70, 1 80, 200, 
201, 214, 254, 286, 315 

Shrawardine, Salop, 295?/. 

Shrewsbury, Abbey, 198;;.; Bat- 
tlefield Church, I57«. ; St. 
Alkmund, 198, 201 »., 246 

Sibson, Leics., 95 

Siena, 48 «. 

Skipton-in-Craven, Yorks., 188 



Places Slapton, Bucks., 214W. 

Slaugham, Sussex, 193, 280 
Snettesham, Norfolk, 215 
Snoring, Great, Norfolk, 167, 257 
Sodor and Man, See of, 115 
Somerton, Oxon., 234 
Sotterley, Suffolk, 171, 175, 176, 

273, 287 
Soutliacre, Norfolk, 107, 159, 161. 

Southfleet, Kent, 204, 211, 234, 

Southminster, Essex, 213, 216 
Southwark, see London 
Southwick, Hants., 181 
Spain, 6;;., 26/7., 255 w. 
Spilsby, Lines., 163, 245, 252, 260 
Springfield, Essex, 168 
Sprotborough, Yorks., 8»., 172, 

Sprowston, Norfolk, 286 
Stalbridge, 28 

Stamford, Lines., All Saints', 88, 

217, 218, 268 
Standon, Herts., 172, 218, 271 
Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berks., 71 
Stanford-on-Soar, Notts., 70, 10 1 
Stanford Rivers, Essex, 23, 180 
Stanstead Abbotts, Herts., 234 
Stanstead Montfitchet, Essex, z\n. 
Stanton Harcourt. Oxon., 70 
Stapleford, Leics., 278 
Stebbing, Essex, 247 
Steeple Langford, Wilts., 4 
Stevenage, Herts., 92^., 139 
Stevington, Beds., 165, 168 
Stifford, Essex, 71 
Stockton, Wilts., 295 «. 
Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk, 150, 

160, i87»., 280, 291, 292, 316 
Stoke Charity, Hants, 64^., 176, 

272/;., 298 
Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey, 17, 20, 

H5, 146^ 152, 266 
Stoke Fleming, Devon, 201, 244/;., 

Stoke-in-Teignhead, Devon, 70 

Stoke, North, Oxon., 92 
Stoke Poges, Bucks., 168, 265 
Stokerston, Leics., 171 
Stokesby, Norfolk, 176, 275 
Stondon Massey, Essex, 45 
Stone, Kent, 22 
Stopham, Sussex, 269, 291 
Stourmouth, Kent, 136 
Stralsund, St. Nicholas, 44, 45, 50 

Strata Florida Abbey, \c)%n. 
Strata Marcella Abbey, 198 w. 
Stratford, 31 

Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk, 2 1 3 
Stratton, Cornwall, 182, 286 
Streatley, Berks., 289 
Strelley, Notts., 273 
Strensham, Worcs., 182, 184, 27^ 
Strethall, Essex, 104 
Stretham, Cambs., 264, 267 
Sudborough, Northants, 68, 71 

205, 264 
Sudbury, Suffolk, 31, 94 
Suffolk, 13, 27, 31, 176 
Sulgrave, Northants, 34 
Surlingham, Norfolk, 136 
Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire 


Sutton, East, Kent, 14, 55, 185 

216, 291, 292 
Swainswick, Somerset, 207 
Swallowfield, Berks., 179, 285 
Swanscombe, Kent, 295 w. 
Swansea, Glam., 180, 193 
Syon, Bridgetine Convent of, 98, 



Tamworth, Warwickshire, 14,233 
Taplow. Bucks., 103?/., 197, 208, 

Tattershall, Lines., 67»., 91, 93, 
130, 134, I74r 186, 204, 267, 

Tattisfylde, Kent, 116 
Taunton, 132 
Tenos, 8o». 



Tew, Great, Oxon., 15 163, 

Tewkesbury Abbey, 58^. 

Teynham, Kent, 191 

Thame, Oxon., 171, 175, 181, 

182, 261, 265, 268 
Thannington, Kent, 179 
Thaxted, Essex, 136 
Theddlethorp, Lines., l64». 
Thetford Priory, Norfollc, 187 
Theydon Gernon, Essex, 88 
Thirsk, Yorks., 43 
Thorn, in Prussian Poland, 44, 49, 

52, 244 w. 
Thornbury, Gloucs., 287 
Thorncombe, Devon, 204, 206, 


Thornton, Bucks., 175, 232, 269, 

Thornton-le-Street, Yorks., 15 
Thruxton, Hants, 168 
Thurcaston, Leics., gin. 
Thurlow, Great, Suffolk, 266, 283 
Thurrock, West, Essex, 215 
Ticehurst, Sussex, 40 
Tideswell, Derbyshire, 8 1 
Tilbrook, Beds., 203, 256 
Tillingham, Essex, 215 
Tilty, Essex, 96 
Tingewick, Bucks., 14, 116 
Tintagil, Cornwall, 262 
Tintinhull, Somerset, 93 
Tisbury, Wilts., 214 
Todwick, Yorks., 215 
Tolleshunt Darcy, Essex, 45, 81, 

Tong, Salop, 94, 100, 102, 136, 
17I; 172, 175,264, 266, 271 

Topcliffe, Yorks., 43, 45, 48, 50-2, 
201, 244, 247 

Toppesfield, Essex, 283 

Tormarton, Gloucs., 210 

Tor Mohun, Devon, 287 

Torrington, Devon, 262 

Tottenham High Cross, 185/?. 

Totternhoe, Beds., 97 », 

Tredington, Worcs., 89, 94 

Trotterscliffe, Kent, 234 
Trotton, Sussex, 13, 57, 168, 186, 

i87«., 190, 206, 239, 257 
Trumpington, Cambs., 17, 20, 


Trunch, Norfolk, 1 3 w. 
Tuxford Hall, Notts., I27». 


Ufford, Suffolk, 274 
Ufton, Warwickshire, 116 
Ulverstone, Lanes., 290 
Upchurch, Kent, 199, 241, 247 
Upminster, Essex, 81, 84, 268, 

Upsala, 43 w. 

Upton Cressett, Salop, 15 
Upton Lovel, Wilts., 71 
Upwell, Norfolk, 66, 68, 7 1 


Vauluisant Abbey, 242 ». 

Verden, 16, 63 

Vernon, Normandy, 175 «. 

Verona, 77 «. 

Vienne, 94 w. 

Villers, Brabant, 7 


Walcherf.n, 56 

Waldingfield, Little, Suffolk, 211, 

Wales, 27 

Walkern, Herts., 45, 234 
Wallop, Nether, Hants, 98 
Walsham, North, Norfolk, 100 
Walsingham, Little, Norfolk, 100 
Waltham Abbey, 95»., 96«. 
Waltham, Lines., 297 
Waltham, Little, Essex, 174 
Walthamstow, Essex, 1407/. 
Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, 24, 

Walton-on-Trent, Derbyshire, i o i 



Places Wanborough, Wilts,, 204, 263 
Wandsworth, Surrey, 192 
Wanlip, Leics., 252 
Wantage, Berks., 71, 105 
Wappenham, Northants, 228 
Warbleton, Sussex, 90, 93 
Wardour Castle, Wilts., 45, 51 
Warkworth, Northants, 171 
Warley, Little, Essex, 24 ». 
Warminghurst, Sussex, 286 
Warter Priory, Yorks., 97 ». 
Warwick, St. Mary, 9»., 36, 90/?., 

162, 252, 303-6. 
Warwickshire, I4«., 303 
Waterpery, Oxon., 39, 249, 281 
Watford, Herts., 227 
Wath, N. Yorks., 227 
Watlington, Norfolk, 2i». 
Watton, Herts., 91, 160 
Weald, South, Essex, 215, 229, 

Wedmore, Somerset, 185 
Weekley, Northants, 223 «. 
Welford, Berks, 136 
Welford, Northants, 233 
Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, 191 
Wells Cathedral, 4, 8o«., 87«., 

io8«., 114, 133, 140 
Welpe, Lower Saxony, 16 
Wendens Ambo, Essex, 163 
Wendon Lofts, Essex, 95 w. 
Wendron, Cornwall, 94, 139 
Wennington, Essex, 249//. 
Wensley. Yorks., 43, 46, 49, 50-3, 

70, lOI 
Westerham, Kent, 116, 212 
Westley Waterless, Cambs., 13, 

152, 241 
Westminster, see London 
Westmonstre, Holland, 56 
Westmorland, 27 
Weston, North, Oxon., 10 1 
Weston-upon-Avon, Gloucs., 179, 


Wetherden, Suffolk, 3 I 
Whaddon, Bucks., 230 
Whalley, Lanes., io6». 

Whatley, Somerset, I52». 
Wheathampstead, Herts., 207, 263 
Whichford, Warwickshire, 116 
Whissonsett, Norfolk, 176 
Whitchurch, Oxon., 116, 139, 

i64»., 168 ' 
Whitnash, Warwickshire, 13, 10 1, 


Wicken, Cambs., 34 

Wickham, East, Kent, 197, 199, 

2I4»,, 242 
Wigtoft, Lines., 30 
Wilberfosse, Yorks., 263 
Wilbraham, Little, Cambs., 125, 


Willesden, Middx., 131, 234, 316 
Willingale Doe, Essex, 174, 287, 

Wilmslow, Cheshire, 174, 296 
Wimbish, Essex, 154, 156, 243 
Wimborne Minster, Dorset, 17, 


Wimington, see Wymington 
Wimpole, Cambs,, 140 
Winchester, 64;/., 142; College, 

26, 37, 71, 72, 88-90, 93, 94, 

114, 141, 264, 316; St. Cross, 

10, 86, 93, 126, 130 
Windsor Castle, 310; St. George's, 

92, 132, i88«, 
Winestead, E. Yorks., 45, 281 
Wingfield, Suffolk, i68». 
Winkfield, Berks., zi^n. 
Winterbourne, Gloucs., 246 
Winwicic, Lanes., 83, 180, 181, 


Wisbeach, Cambs., 163 
Wiston, Sussex, 57, 168 
Withington, Salop, 89, 94 
Wittenham, Little, Berks,, 210, 

Witton (Blofleld), Norfolk, 98 
Wivenhoe, Essex, 180, 281 
Wiveton, Norfolk, loi 
Wixford, Warwickshire, 167, 256 
Wooburn, Bucks., 135, 300 
Woodbridge, Suffolk, 299 



Woodchurch, Kent, 64, 181 
Wood Ditton, Cambs., 252 
Woodrising, Norfolk, i88«. 
Woodstock, Oxon., 140 
Worcester, See of, 80, 114; 

Cathedral, 240 k. 
Worlingworth, Suffolk, 106 
Wotton- under -Edge, Gloucs., 

I04ff., 161, 191, 254 
Wrentham, Suffolk, 184, 254 
Writtle, Essex, 214, 229, 296 
Wrotham, Kent, 177, 279, 290 
Wroxall Abbey, Warwickshire, 262 
Wroxeter, Salop, 223 «. 
Wycliffe, Yorks., 300 
Wymington, Beds., 102, 165, 168, 

201, 247, 256, 315 
Wyrardisbury, Bucks., 1 42 
Wyvenhoe, Essex, 10 1, 102 

Y Places 

Yarnton, Oxon., 218 
Yatton, Somerset, 227/?. 
Yaxham, Norfolk, 71 
Yealmpton, Devon, 45 
Yeldham, Great, Essex, 235 
Yeovil, Somerset, 97?/. 
Yetminster, Dorset, 180 
York, 12, 13; See of, 69W., 113, 

ii5». ; Minster, 24Z?., 32, 64, 

75, 79» 83»., 90, 134, 198?/. ; 

St. Mary's Abbey, \z6n; St. 

Michael Spurriergate, 100 
Yorkshire, 13, 23, 100 
Yoxford, Suffolk, 262 290, 295 n. 


Zealand, 44 



Academical Costume, 65, 91, 102, 

Allettes, 147-51 

Alb, 46, 47, 5 I 66 (described), 
71, 72, 85, 86, 91, 92, i37«. ; 
apparels of, 46, 47, 6^n., 82; 
figures of saints on, 84;;. ; for- 
bidden, 108 ; girdle or cord of, 
66, 67 »,, 258 ; plain {a3a />ura), 

Alba (alb), 66 

Almayne rivets, 177 

Almuce, 8,40,41, 65, 86-8 (de- 
scribed), 92, 94-5, 105, 109;/., 
no, 122, 124, 132, 138, 316; 
absence of, 140 ; morse of, 87 

Almutium (almuce), 86 

Amess (almuce), 65, 86 

Amice, 40, 41, 46, 47, 51H., 65 
(described), 71, 72, 91, 102, 
I37«., 258, 307; apparels of, 
47, 65 ; arms on, 83 ; inscrip- 
tions on, 83, 84W. ; saints on, 

Amictus (amice), 65 

Amys (almuce), 65, 86 

Anabolagium (amice), 65 

Anelace, 104, 173, 198-208,210; 
worn by Judges, 227; scabbard 
or sheath of, 200, 205, 208 ; see 

Annulus (episcopal ring), 74 

Apparels of amice and alb, 65 n. 

Arming points, 1 5 i 

Armour (Military Costume), 39 w., 
143-93, 229, 231-4; Periods of : 
Surcoat, 145-51; Mixed Mail 
and Plate (Cyclas), 152-4 ; tran- 
sition, 154-6; Camail, 156-64; 

Complete Plate, 164-9 I Yorkist, 
169-76; Early Tudor or Mail 
Skirt, 177-83 ; Tasset, 183-6; 
Garter Knights, 186-8; Livery 
Collars, 188-92 
Aumusse (almuce), 86 
Aurifrigia (orphrey), 65 «. 
Aventaille, see Helm 


Backplate, 160, 164, 170 
Baculus pastoralis (episcopal cro- 

zier), 75 
Baguette, mail, 171 ; plate, 164 
Bainbergs (jambs), 1 5 i 
Baltheus (alb girdle), 66 
Bandeau (hair fillet), 245 
Bands (legal), 103 »., 222 «., 224, 

230; (female), 291; bandbox, 

291 ». 
Banner, 168 

Barbe (monastic female), 98, 99 ; 
plaited (female), 245, 247, 264, 
266 ; absence of, 253, 264 

Barbes d'ecrevisses (dagging), 159 

Bards (horse armour), I56«. 

Bascinet, 152-5, 172, 174; orle or 
wreath of, 163, 168; vervelles 
of, 152, 157; vizor of, 154, 155, 
157, 162, 164 

Bases, 177 

Basilard, 159, 200 

Bastardeau (small knife), 205, 208, 

Baton (military), 192 ; (scholastic), 

Bawdric, 159, 160, 163, 168, 198, 

202 ; initials on, 164 
Bear-paw sabbatons, 178 
Beard, see hair 



Bee de cane sabbatons, 178 
Belt, see sword 
Birch rod, 97 

Birettum album (coif), 222 

Bliaus (surcoat), 147 

Bodice, 291, 293 ; vandyked skirt 

of, 291 
Bongrace, 288 
Bonnet, 245/?., 275, 284 
Book hanging from waist, 285 
Boots, half, 205-8 ; jack, 185, 215- 

Bourrelet, 209 

Bouterolle of scabbard, 148 

Brassarts, 151, 156, 1 64 ; rerebraces, 

151, 158, 1 64 ; absence of, 1 5 3 ; 

vambraces, \^on., 151-3, 158, 

164, 170W. 
Brayette, 171 

Breastplate, 160, 162, 164, 170; 

peascod, 183 
Brech-rand, 177K. 
Breeches, 185 ; see Stocks, upper 
Buskins (episcopal), 73 
Butterfly head-dress, 1 1 n., 270-2, 

274-6; cornet of, 271 2727;., 

275 ; drawn en profile, 272 ; 

wires sustaining, 271 «. 
Buttons, 198-200, 202-3, 215,217, 

242, 244-56 


Calash (caleche), 288, 291 
Caligae (episcopal buskins), 73 
Camail (mail), 152-4, 157, 159, 
160, 162-4; period, 156-64, 
186, 192, 250W. 
Cambuca (episcopal crozier), 76 
Camisia vestis (cassock), 85 
Campagae (episcopal sandals), 73 
Cannons, nebule-shaped, 216 
Cap, academical, 102, io5«., I2iff., 
125, 128, 133,/^-^ Pileus: square, 
/^^Pileusquadratus; civilian, 2 1 6, 
2I7«. ; ecclesiastical skull cap, 

113, 116, 117; priest's square Costume 

cap, 121 «.; female, 244, 245, 

249, 264, 271, 275, 284, 291, 

297 ; flat, 297 ; Mary Queen 

of Scots, 284; tam-o'-shanter, 

283; Garter, /^-i? Garter; John 

Knox laical, 12577.; legal, high, 

226, 232 ; judge's black skull 

cap, 223, 22677. ; judge's square 

or corner (sentence) cap, 121 77., 


Capa manicata, 12477. 
Cape, female, 282 ; legal fur, see 

Cappa (cope), 88, clausa, 10377., 
109, 123-5, 127, 130; nigra 
(choral cope), 91-2, 1 10 ; pluvi- 
alis (choral cope), 9777.; serica 
(cope), 88, 1 13 77. 

Caputium (hood of cope), 88 

Carcanet (necklace), 272 

Cardinal (hood), 288, 293 

Cassacca (cassock), 85 

Cassock, 40,41, 72, 85-6, 92, 95-7, 
100, 102, 104-7, 112, 1 14-17, 
123, 124, 127, 128-38, 316 

Casula (chasuble), 69 ; (Roman 
costume), 69 

Catercap, 1 25 77. 

Cauchoise head-dress, 27277. 

Cauls of head-dress, 245, 253, 255, 
258, 260, 262, 263, 268-70, 
274-6; square, 257, 261; un- 
ornamented, 259, 260, 262, 267 

Cerveliere, plate, 146 

Chains for neck (civilian), 213; 
(military), 179-82 ; (female), 
268, 277-9, 281; pendant, see 

Chamfron (chanfrien), horse ar- 
mour, 15677. 

Chape of scabbard, 148 

Chapelle de fer (kettle hat), 155 

Chaperon, 12477., 197-200, 202; 
liripipe of, 202 ; scarf-like, 209, 
210, 234; worn turban-wise, 
20677., 209 ; hood, 49, 198, 200, 



202-6, 209, 210, 270; tippet, 
198, 201, 209 
Charles II. 's Court, female dress of, 

Chasuble, 46, 47, 6477., 67, 69-70 
(described), 72, 78-9, 80, 82, 
88 ». ; use forbidden, 108 ; worn 
over armour, 1 80 ; orphreys of, 
47, 64 w., 65 K., 70, 311 ; orna- 
mentation of, 83 ; cross on, 83 ; 
inscriptions on, 84 ; saints on, 
84, 3 1 1 ; personal devices on, 
311-12 ; rarity of, 83 ; heraldic, 
83«., 311-12 

Chau9ons, 149, 151 ; see cmsseaux 

Chausses (mail), 146, 156-8 

Chesible (chasuble), 69 

Chimere (episcopal habit), 108, 
109, 1 13-14, 121 123W. 

Chin-cloth, 264; see barbe 

Chirothecas (episcopal gloves), 73 

Chlamys, 217 

Cidaris (mitre), 74-5 

Cingulum (alb girdle), 66 

Clerical habit, 65, 103-7 

Cloak, short, 186, 213-16, 300 

Coat, buff, 185 

Cod-piece, mail, 171 

Coif, I03»., 222-6, 230, 231; 
absence of, 227-30 ; strings of, 
222 ». 

Coifde mailles, 146, 147,149,150, 

152, 182, 239W. 
Cointisse, 148 

Collars, 185, 186, 215 ; lace, 216; 
female lace, 291 ; see falls ; mail, 
171 ; plate, 154; livery, 163, 
169, 173, 174, 182, 191 ; devices 
employed on, 189-90 (Lancas- 
trian, Yorkist, Tudor) ; of SS., 
162, 164, 167, 168, 186, 188-90, 
192, 204, 2o6w. ; female, 248, 
256, 257, 259, 261, 262; pen- 
dant of, 257; trefoil toret or 
clasp, 192 ; of Suns and Roses, 
I73» 17s. 176, 186, 188, 190, 
191, 229; female, 270,273,274; 

pendant, white lion couchant of 
March, 192, 208, 270 ; suns and 
roses on head-dress, 269 ; of mer- 
maids, 162, 191 ; of park palings 
with pendant, hart lodged, 191 w. 

Colobium (alb), 66, 108 ; (Roman 
costume), 66 

Comb, hair, 289 

Cope, 40, 67«., 71, 72, 87, 88-91 
(described), 92-5, 102, 107, 1 14, 
122, 124, 129, 130, I37»., 138, 
264, 307, 316; use forbidden, 
108; embroidered throughout, 
89 ; hood of (caputium), 88 ; 
morse of, 88 ; decorated, 91-2 ; 
orphreys of, 6^fi., 89-90, 12377., 
3 1 1 77. ; figures of saints and per- 
sonal devices on, 71, 79, 90, 93, 
22477., 3ii»., 312 
Cope, choral, monastic, plain, 8677., 

89, 91-2, 96, 9777., no, 138 
Cornet, see Butterfly head-dress 
Coronet, 253, 258, 260, 269, 270, 

27877., 281 
Cote hardie (male), 49, 199-201, 
243 ; semee of peascods (?) parti- 
coloured, 201 ; long, 1037/., 197; 
pockets of, 197; short (just au 
corps), 198; liripipia of, 10377., 
1 97-200 ; mitten sleeves of, 198 ; 
(female), 239-51; semee of 
shields, 239 ; liripipia or lappets 
of, 242, 243, 246, 249, 250; 
pockets of, 245, 249 ; sideless, 
female, 241, 243, 244, 248-52, 
254, 257-60, 266, 268-70, 273, 
275, 278-81 ; ermine or fur 
flounce of, 249, 250, 258, 269, 
270, 275, 279-81 ; ornamenta- 
tion of, 244, 248-50, 252, 257 
Cote, ijiedlee, 224; regal, 58 
Coudi^res, 1 5 i 
Couteau de chasse, 200 
Coutes, 151, 152, 154, 158, 164, 
170, 176, 177, 181 ; buckle- 
shaped, 165; fan-shaped, 165 
Covrechef, 239-44, 246, 264 



Cowl, Benedictine, 96 ; Cistercian, 

Cow-mouth sabbatons, 178 
Crespine head-dress, 245, 253"5> 

257, 260 
Crest, see Helm 

Crestine head-dress, 2^^ ; see Cres- 

Crinet (horse armour), l^6n. 
Crinoline, 288 
Croc, 192 

Cross, pendant, 213, 268, 277, 278, 
281 ; Tau, 179, 181, 278, 279 
Cross-guard, see Sword 
Cross-stafF, archiepiscopal, 6^n., 77 
Croupiere (horse armour), 156s. 
Crown, regal, 58, 155 
Crozier, see Pastoral StafF 
Cubitiere, 1 5 i 

Cucullus (cowl), Benedictine, 96 
CufFs, 185, 215 

Cuirass, 162, 170, 171, 177; tapul 
of, 171, 177, 180; heraldic 
(Molyneux), 182; see' breast- 

Cuirasse, defaut de la, 158 
Cuir-bouilli, 146 

Cuisseaux gamboises, 149, 151,1 54, 

Cuisses, 158, 165, 178; pour- 
pointed or studded, 160, 161 
Culettes, 178 

Cyclas, 152-4; period, 152-4 

Dagger, i53»., 183, 304; see 

Misericorde ; sash of, 183 
Dagging, I58»., 159, I98». 
Dalmatic, 41, 46, 66, 72-3, 83 
Diamond-shaped head-dress, 275 
Doublet, 1 16-17, ^32, I4°> H''' 
212-15, 217, 300 


^y^Hpiov (maniple), 68 
Eighteenth century female costume, 
one instance on a brass, 293 

Elbow-cop, 151 Costume 

Epauli^res, 154, 156, 158, 164, 

170, 171 ; splint-like, 171 
^■mTpa-^rjXiov (stole), 66 

Epomis (amice), 65 

Ermine on robes of C.J., 226^?.; 
see cote hardie, sideless 

Escoffion cornue (horned head- 
dress), 258 

Estivals (horse armour), 156/?. 


Falls, collars, 291, 292 

Fan, feather, 292 

Fanon (maniple), 68 

Farthingale, 288, 291 ; wheel, 288 

Fermailes, see mantle, female 

Ferula (pastoral staff), 76 

Ferule (scholastic), 97 «. 

Fichus, 291 

Fillet, tee Hair 

Flail, military, 193 

Flanchi^re (horse armour), i^6n. 

Frills, 179, 183, 185, 214, 280, 

285 ; see Head-dress 
Frontlet, see Pedimental head-dress 
Fustis cornutus (croc), 192 


Gadlings, see Gauntlet 
Gambeson, leather, 146 
Garde de bras, 170, 177 
Garde de cou, I77». 
Garland, maiden, 245, 294-6 
Garter, Order of. Mantle of Canons, 

91, 92, 135; morse of, 92; 

Mantle of Knights of, 174, 176, 

186, 187 ; badge of, 186-7; 

surcoat of, 187 ; jewelled cap of, 

187; Collar of, 187, 189; 

Humerale (hood) of, 187, 209; 

Garter, 186-8, 304 
Garters, 213 

Gauntlets, 156, 158, 165, 179, 180, 
181, 184; absence of, 168, 171, 

2 B 



Costume 17^; shell-backed, 158, 172; 
gadlings of, 158 

Genouillieres, 146, 153-4, 158, 
l6l»., 165, 171, 178, 181, 
183-5 ; pot-lid shape of, 158 

Girdle, male, 199-201, 203-5, 207- 
13,215 ; initial T on, 201, 203 ; 
absence of, 203-5 ? J^'^g^'sj 227* 
229 ; female, see Gown ; female 
monastic, 98, 99 ; child's, 299 

Gloves (episcopal), 76 ; jewelled, 
46; absence of, 8 1 ; monial on, 73 

Gloves, 150; see Gauntlet 

Gonfanon of lance, 148 

Gorget, plate, 154, 155, 162-4, 
i68«., 170, 174, 177, 182, 185 ; 
female, 242-5, 247 

Gown, academical, 122, 123; 
doctor's scarlet, 114W. ; M.A., 
112, ii5». ; B.A., 112; with 
two slits, see taberdum talare ; 
bag-sleeved male, 142, 202, 203 ; 
sleeves of, pokys, bagpipe, 203 n. ; 
female, 232, 255-7, 262-3,268, 
297; girdle of, 256-7, 262; 
mantle worn with, 263 ; cassock- 
like male, 142, 208, 212; clerical, 
103 preaching, 112, 113, 
1 1 6- 1 7 ; Genevan, 1 1 2 «. ; false- 
sleeved male, 112, 113, 1 15-17, 
131-3, 140, 141, 212, 213, 215, 
2 17 M., 233-5 ; fen^'il^j 284; fur- 
lined male, 210, 233 ; fur-lined 
and cuffed female, 267-9, ^7^> 
272-4, 276, 278, 281-2; em- 
broidered throughout, 273 ; 
heraldic, 276 ; diapered lining 
of, 272 ; girdle of, ornamented, 
267, 272, 276, 277 ; open, fe- 
male, with puffed sleeves, 281, 
282, 284, 288 ; embroidered, 
290; scarlet, of Judges, 223 »,; 
surplice-sleeved female, 254, 255, 
258, 260, 264; girdle of, 255 ; 
swan on collar of, 261 ; see 
Houppelande ; female with wide 
sleeves (sixteenth century), 280 

Guige, see Shield 
Gussets, see Mail 

Gypci^re (gibier) purse, 199, 209- 
13,215; worn by Judges, 227-9 


Habergeon, 157 

Habit, Benedictine, 96, I22». 

Habi tus clericalis, see Clerical habit 

Hair, male: beards, 159, 167 «., 
179, 182, 183, 198-201, 203-5, 
213; moustache, 115, 159, 1 79, 
183, 198,-203,213; tonsure,223, 
226; absence of, 107, 1 1 2, 1 30 ; 
female, curls worn in, 291, 293 ; 
false, 245 ; flowing, 245, 294-8 ; 
short, 295 ; plaited, 241-3, 248, 
295, 297 ; remarkable dressing 
of, 288-9 » fillets containing, 239, 
243-5 (bandeau), 2j\.S,z^z,2^^?i., 
294-7 ; roll-shaped, 297 

Halberd, 193, 214//. 

Handkerchief, 292, 299 

Hat, Cardinal's, 64 «. ; Doctor's, 
1 2 1 122; broad-brimmed, 
civilian, 215 ; female, 289,290, 
292-4 ; kettle, 155 

Haukcton, leathern, 146, 149, 153, 

I54» I57» I7i» 

Hausse-col (mail), 171 

Hawberk (mail), 146, 147, 149, 
152-4, 157, 159-61, 163 ; gloves 
of, 146, 149 

Head-dress, female, 258??.; frills 
on, 245, 264; lace used on, 
289 ». ; network ornamented or 
jewelled, 245,253, 255 ; pearls, 
string of, 254; border of, 275 ; 
three-cornered, 287; suns and 
roses shown on, 269 ; see Bonnet, 
Butterfly, Cap, Caul, Coronet, 
Covrechef, Cresplne, Diamond, 
Hat, Heart, Hennin, Hood, 
Horned, Kennel, Kerchief, Lu- 
nar, Mitre, Nebule, Paris head. 



Pedimental, Reticulated, Steeple, 

Veil, Wired, Zig-zag 
Heart-shaped head-dress, 258 
Helm, tilting, 148, 154, 155, 159, 

162-4, 172, I74» 1 75' 1 79-84* 
187, 304, 305 ; vizor of, 175 ; 
aventaille (ocularia) of, I48».; 
crest, 155, 156;/., 159, 172, 179, 
304, 305; panache, 168, 184; 
lambrequins, 159, 172; mant- 
ling, I79» 1 81 

Helmet, 179, 182-4; vizor of, 184; 
oreillettes of, 179 

Hennin head-dress, 258, 271, 272 

Holy-water sprinkler, 193 

Hood, academical (caputium), 85, 
logn., 1 15-17, 121 »., 124-5, 
127-9, ^31-8, 140, 1^1 ; gradu- 
ate's, 1 25 ; undergraduate's, 125; 
liripipium of, 125 ; (clerical 
habit), 100, 104; liripipe of, 
1 10; Judges' and Serjeants', 
224-6, 228-31; see Chaperon; 
female, large (sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries), 288-91, 293 ; 
French, head-dress, 284 

Horned head-dress, 258, 261, 262, 
267, 269-71 

Horse armour, I56«. 

Hose, tight, 193, 198, 203, 206; 
trunk, 183, 213, 215, 300; 
bombasted, 214 

Houppelande, male, 206 ; female, 
255, 260; swan on collar of, 
261 ; see gown, surplice-sleeved 

Humerale (amice), 65 ; (Garter 
hood), see Garter 

Hunting-horn, 205 


Infula (scarf of crozier), 76 
Infulae (mitre strings), 75 ; (coif 

strings), 222 «. 
Inkhorn, 142, 209, 211, 235 
Insignia, academical, 122; legal, 

223 ; civic, I09«., 217 


Jack, leathern, 193 

Jambs or jambarts, 151, 154, 156, 

158, i6i«., 165, 176, 178, 185 ; 

studded, 161 «. 
Jewel worn on forehead, 288 
Jupon, 154-63, i68«. ; heraldic, 

155, 159-62, 250». 


Kennel head-dress, 275 
Kerchief (female), 239, 244, 291 
Kettle-hat, 155 

Kirtle, 239, 241-4, 246-58, 263, 
264, 267-70, 272-3, 275-6, 296; 
diapered, 252; heraldic, 248, 
252, 254, 257, 259,273 ; girdle 
of, 248, 252, 258, 260; mitten 
sleeves of, 244, 245, 254, 255, 
258, 263-5 

Knee cops, 146 

Labell^ (mitre strings), 75 «. 
Lace, see Collar, Head-dress 
Lacerna (Roman costume), 88». 
Lamboys, skirt of, 177 
Lambrequins, see Helm 
Lance, 148, 155, 170 ; pennon, 

148, 155 ; rest, 171, 177 
Lappets, 103 «.; see Paris head, 

Pedimental head-dress 
Legal Costume, 221-35 
Lineas of archiepiscopal pall, 78 «. 
Liripipe (academical), 127W., 131, 

132, 137W. ; see Chaperon, Cote- 

hardie. Hood, Tippet 
Lunar head-dress, 258 


Mace, 179, 192; spiked, 193 
Mail, banded, 146, 150-2, 156, 
157 ; interlaced, 146, 151, 157 ; 




fringe of, i6o, 163, 164, 167, 
168; gussets of, 157, 171, 174, 
178; see Camail, Chausses, 
Habergeon, Hawberk 

Mail, collar of, 171 

Mail skirt, 171, 175, 177, 178, 
181-3 ; period, 177-83, 188, 192 

Mammeli^res, i^zn., 153 

MavSwuc (cope), 88 
Manicae (episcopal gloves), 73 
Maniple, 41, 46, 47, 68-9; shape 

of, 82; absence of, 82, 134; 

crosses on, 83W. ; heraldic, 312 
Manipulus (maniple), 68 
Mantle, male, fastened on right 

shoulder, 49, 141, 198, 200, 

203, 205 ; fastened on left 

shoulder, 182; absence of, 20 1 -2 ; 

dagged, 198W. ; civic, 183,217; 

Judge's, 223/?., 225, 226, 228; 

absence of, 229; regal, 58; see 


Mantle, female, 240, 241, 243, 
244, 246-8, 250-5, 257, 258, 
260;/., 263, 264, 268, 270, 272- 
5, 277-9, ^9^ ' 'ibsence of, 242 ; 
diapered, 252; how fastened, 
241, 244, 246; ermine-lined, 
266, 269 ; hood of, 247 ; cords 
of, 246 ; slide, 244, 246 ; 
brooches or studs of (tasseaux, 
fermailes), 241; heraldic, 181, 
187, 188, 252, 254, 259, 269, 
273» 27Sy 276, 278-82, 285 ; 
monastic, 98 ; absence of, 99 

Mantling, see Helm 

Mappula (maniple), 68 

Martel de fer, 192 

Mentoni^re, 172, 176 

Mirror hanging from v/aist, 285 

Misericorde, 159-61, 165, 173, 
174, 178, 192 ; absence of, 168, 
169, 171, 173-5 

Mitra (mitre), 74-5 ; aurifrigiata, 
75 ; pretiosa, 46, 75, 82 ; sim- 
plex, 75 

Mitre (episcopal), 41, 47, 48, 55 

^7"; 74-5» 96, 108, 11^., 

I26«,, 311 ; strings of (infuls, 

labellas, vittas), 75 
Mitre head-dress, 258, 269, 270 
Mitten sleeves, see Cote-hardie, 

Kirtle, Subtunica, Undertunic 
Monastic habit, male, 95-7; female, 


Monial (ornament of episcopal 

gloves), 73 
Morning star (morgenstern), 193 
Morse of almuce, 87 ; of cope, 88, 

Moton, 170, 171 
Mourning, 246 24777. 
Moustache, see Hair 
Muff-warmer, 277 


Nebule head-dress, 244, 245, 249- 
5^ 253 

Necklace, 254, 258, 259, 270, 272, 
273» 277, 292 ; pendant of, 254, 
258, 259 ; see Chain 

Network, see Head-dress 


OcuLARiA, see Helm 

Odovrj (maniple), 68 

Q/.io(l>6piov (pall), 78 

Qpapiov (stole), 66 
Orarium (stole), 66-7 ; (Roman 

costume), 78 
Oreillettes, see Helmet 
Orle, see Bascinet 
Orphreys of vestments, 65 ». 


PiENULA, 69 

Palettes, 165, 167-70 

Pall, archiepiscopal, 67, 77»., 78 ; 

lineas of, 78 w. ; crosses on, 78 
Pallium, archiepiscopal, 78 ; or 

cloak (Roman costume), 67, 78 



Pallium llnostimum (maniple), 68 

Panache, see Helm 

Paris head (dress), 282-4, ^^7' ^9^» 
296, 298 ; lappet of, jewelled or 
embroidered, 284; turned up, 
288 ; wires sustaining, 284 

Partlet, 279, 280, 285 

Parura, see Apparel, 65//. 

Passguards, 177 

Pastoral staff (crozier, episcopal), 
47, 55«-» 75-7, 81, 107, 108, 
113, 1 14, 126 K., 31 1 ; scarf of 
(infula, vexillum), 76 ; inscrip- 
tions on, 77 ; abbess', 98 ; abbot's, 
95«., 96 

Ilarf jO£<T(ra (pastoral staff), 1 1 3 

Pauldrons, 170, 176, 177, 183 

Pearls, see Head-dress 

Peascod breastplate, 183 

Pedimental head-dress, 272, 275, 
276, 278, 280, 286, 298 ; dis- 
appearance of, 284 ; frontlet of, 
embroidered or jewelled, 272, 
275, 296, 2987/.; lappets, 276; 
turned up, 280; surmounted by 

coronet, 188 

Pedum (pastoral staff), 76 
Pelease (legal tippet), 224 
Pellicium (cassock), 85 
Penner (pencase), 142, 209, 211, 


Pennon, see Lance 

Perfume box, 277 

Petticoat, embroidered, 284, 285, 
288, 291-3; hoop, 288; of 
mail, see Mail Skirt 

^aivoKiov (chasuble), 69 

Pici^re (horse armour), i^dn. 

Pike, 185 

Pike guards, 177 

Pileus, pointed (academical), 
109, 125, 127-33, 136, 
without point, 107, 125, 
quadratus, 1 1 1 «., 1 12-13, 117, 
121 «., 125 «.; rotundus, 125 «. 

223 ; 

Pillion (pileus), cardinal's scarlet, Costume 
277 «. 

Placcards, 170; demi-, 170 
Placcates, 170; demi-, 170, 177 
Planeta (chasuble), 69 ; (Roman 

costume), 69 ; plicata (chasuble), 


Plastron de fer, 153 

Plate armour. Complete, period of, 

160, 164-9, 186 
Plates, demi-, 151 
Pluviale (cope), 88 
Pokys, see Bag-sleeved Gown 
Poleyns, 146 

Pomander (pomme d'ambre), 277, 

281, 282 
Pommel, see Sword 
Pommes chaufferettes, 277 
Pontificalia (pontificals), 3, 16,41, 

43» 46, 57» 72-9» 95» io7«., 

I 26». 

Pontificals (rings), 74 
Pourpoint, 153, 160 
Pourpointerie, ouvrage de, 149, 

154, 158, 160, 161 
Purse, 106, 199; /^•^ gypciere 
Pyramidal head-dress, 275 


QuiLLONs, see Sword 


Randt, ijjn. 
Rapier, 214, 215 
Rerebrace, see Brassart 
Reticulated head-dress, 244, 245, 

252, 253 
Reticule, 282 

Ring, episcopal, 74; (academical 
insigne), 122 ; female, 247, 253 ; 
monastic, 98, 99 
Rivets, sliding, " almayne," 177 
Roba talaris (academical), 122; 
(legal), 226 ». 



E Robe, long, Serjeants', 224, 225, 
226«., 230, 231 ; parti-coloured 
(medlee cote), 224, 225 w. 

Rochet, episcopal, 107-9, ^^3' ^H? 
lawn sleeves of, 108, 109, 113, 
114, 280; academical, 123; 
monastic (Augustinian), 97 

Rochetum, rochetto, see rochet 

Rosary, 105, 106,208-12,267,269, 
276-8, 28 1, 282 ; worn by Judges, 
227, 228 ; female monastic, 99 

Roundels, 15 1-3, 158, 162, 164, 
165, 170, 177 

Ruffs, 115, 179, 182, 183, 185, 
186, 214, 215; Elizabethan 
(female), 285, 288, 291, 292, 
300; upheld by wires, 288 


Sabatyns (episcopal buskins), 73 
Sabbatons, 176, 178, 183, 208 
Salade, 172, 174-6; vizor of, 172 
Sandalia (episcopal sandals), 73 .- 
Sandals, episcopal, 46, 73 
Sash, military, 185, 216-17; fe- 
male, 282 
Scabbard, see Sword 
Scale work (armour), 153, i6i 
Scarf, Black (tippet), 86«., 102, 
105, 109-1 13, 115-17; mayoral, 
I09»., 217 
Sceptre, regal, 58 
Scimitar, 193 
Shadoe, 288 

Shield, 147-9, 151, 153-6, 159, 
193 ; absence of, 150; enamelled, 
8;guigeof, 147, 153, 154; roses 
on, 147 ».; tilting (a bouche), 

Shoes, male, pointed, 49, 198, 203, 
208 ; round-toed, 2 1 o, 2 1 3, 2 1 7 ; 
square-toed, 208, 211, 212; 
female, broad, 277 ; pointed, 
239; round-toed, 285, 289; 
rosettes on, 291 ; high heels of, 

Skirt, of mail, see mail skirt; of 

taces, see taces 
Skirts, long, of children, 299 
Skull cap, see cap 

Sollerets, 150^., 151, 154, 158, 
161, 165, 176, 178, 208 ; a la 
poulaine, 158; lames of, 151 

Sotulares (episcopal buskins), 73 

Splint armour, 184 

Spring pins, 170 

Spurs, prick, 146, 153, i54;rowell, 
150, 152, 154, 158, 165, 178, 
185, 216; spur leathers, 185; 
length of, 4 

SS., see Collar 

Standard (collar), mail, 171, 177; 

plate, 162, 164 
Starch, 288 «. 
Steeple head-dress, 271 
Stick held in hand, 216 
Stockings, episcopal, 73 ; mail, see 


Stocks, nether (stockings), 213,217; 
upper (breeches), 213-16 

^TOf^apiov (alb), 66 

Stole, 46, 66-8, 71,110-11; shape 
of, 82 ; absence of, 8 1, 82, 1 34 ; 
heraldic, 312 

Stomacher, peaked or pointed, 288 

Stoss-kragen, ijjn. 

Subtunica, 82, 86, 1 22, 3 16 ; with 
mitten sleeves, worn beneath cas- 
sock, 82 ; see Tunic, under 

Sudarium (maniple), 68 

Suns and roses, see Collar 

Superhumerale (amice), 65 

Superpellicium (surplice), 86 

Supportasse, 288 

Surcoat, 145, 147-9, 151, i53»-» 
1 56«., 197; superseded by cyclas, 
152; see Garter ; female, hood 
of, 242 ». 

Surcote overte (surcoat, female), 

Surplice, 40, 41, 72, 85-6, 88, 92, 

95, 107-9, 112, 114, 138, 316 
Sword, 147, I53»., 159, 161, 165, 



173-6, 178, 183-6, 192, 2I4»., 
23 1» 304' 305 ; regal, 58 ; belt, 
147, 160, 162-5, i69»., 185; 
absence of, 167; initials on, 165; 
crossguard, 159; pommel, 147, 
159; arms on, I73». ; quillons, 
147; 173; scabbard, 147, 159, 
162, 178; initials on, 167; 
bouterolle or chape of, 148 


Tabard (academical), sleeved, 1 24, 
129, 131, 135-41; sleeveless, 
ad medias iibias, 12 4, 132, i35»-j 
136-8, 141 ; (legal), sleeved, 

224, 225 230, 231 ; heraldic 
military, 166-7, 172-3,175,178, 
179, 181, 184, 231, 232, 285 ; 
female, 285-6 

Taberdum talare (academical), 
105K., 109, 123, 128, 129, 131, 

132» 134 

Taces, skirt of, 160, 162-9, ''7^» 
174, 177, 1 8 1-3; manner of 
fastening, 163 «. 

Tapul, see Cuirass 

Tasseaux, see Mantle, female, 241 

Tassets, 178, 182-5, a I'ecrevisse, 
183 ; period, 178, 183-6 

Tena (coif), 222 

Tenae (coif-strings), 222 «. 

Tiara, papal, 64?;. 

Tibialia (episcopal buskins), 73 

Tilting shield (a bouche), I77». 

Tippet (academical), 85, 124, 125, 
127-36, 138; liripipesof, izjn., 
(civilian), see Chaperon ; (eccle- 
siastical), TOO, 104-5 ; see Scarf, 
Black; of sables, 1 10, 277 w.; 
monastic, 97 ; (legal) cape, 224, 

225, 228, 230, 231 ; Serjeants' 
lined with budge (lambs' wool), 
224 ; judges' with minever, 226 ; 
(regal), ermine, 58 

Toga (Roman costume), 69, 78 ; 
talaris (academical), 122 

Tonsure, see Hair 

Toret, see Collar of SS. 

Trapper, horse, 156, 311 

Trunk hose, see Hose 

Tuilles, 166, 168, 169, 171, 174, 
176, 178, 180, 181, 183 ; ab- 
sence of, 174 

Tuillettes, 171 

Tunic, long male, 202 ; long female, 
c. 1380, 251-4 ; girdle of, 253-4 

Tunic, under, 49, 198-200, 203 ; 
mitten sleeves of, 49, 199-201, 
203, 226, 230; see Subtunica 

Tunica alba (alb), 66; Benedictine, 
96 ; Cistercian, 96 ; dalmatica 
(alb), 66 ; (dalmatic), 72 ; mani- 
cata (alb), 66 ; pontificalis (tu- 
nicle), 73 ; talaris (cassock), 85 ; 
(Roman costume), 66, 67 ; clavi 
of, lati and angusti, segmenta, 
calliculae of, 66, 67 

Tunicella (tunicle), 73 

Tunicle, 46, 66, 73, 83, I07 ; ab- 
sence of, 81, 83 


Underpropper, 288 

Vair, 242, 243, 248 

Vambraces, see Brassarts 

Vardingale (Fr. vertugale), 288 

Veil, 239, 245, 246, 248, 249, 
253-5» 257, 258, 260, 261, 267, 
268, 270-2, 275, 276, 284, 293, 
294 ; absence of, 270 ; monastic 
female, 98, 99 

Veiled head-dress, 244-7, 253, 263 

Velvet, 275, 277 ». 

Vervelles, see Bascinet 

Vestimentum, a set of vestments, 
69 «. 

Vestis talaris (cassock), 103 
Vestment (chasuble), 107, 108, 307 
Vestments, ecclesiastical, 63 ; em- 
broidery of, 47, 50; apparels 




and orphreys, 65?;.; Eucharistic, 
see Mass ; Mass, 49, 65-73, 86 w., 
107; Processional or Choral, 85- 
95, 126, 128-33 
Vexillum (scarf of crozier), 76 
Vif de I'harnois, 158 
Virago sleeve, 291 
Virga pastoralis (pastoral staff), 75 
Vittas (mitre strings), 75 
Vizor, see Bascinet, Helm, Helmet, 

Volant piece, I77». 


Waistbelt (girdle), 49 
Waistcoat, 217 

Widows' weeds, 247, 264 
Wig, 109, 217; Serjeants' long, 

Wimple, 99, 239, 241, 243, 244, 

Wings or lappets at shoulders, 288 
Wired (butterfly) head-dress, 272 
Wreath or orle, see Bascinet 


Zig-zag head-dress, 244, 245, 249- 

Zimarra (simarre) chimere, 109 
Zona (alb girdle), 66 


See also List of Contents 


Abbess, 65, 98 

Abbot, 17, 2i«„40, 41, 43,46, 
.48, 65, 73»., 74, 76, 83;;., 84, 
95-7, 1 26;/., i37«., 207, 311, 

Acolytus, 64 

Agnus Dei, 47, 76 

Alderman, 205, 217 

Altar cover, 312 

Ancients (legal), 222;;. 

Angels, 47, 48, 50, 51,54, 55>9i» 
258, 270, 312; contract for 
making, 304-5 ; archangels, 84W., 

92, 268 

Apprenticii ad Barros, 222 ; ad 
legem, 221, 232, 233 

Archbishops, 4, 30, 48«., 55, 64, 
67-9* 75» 76«., 77-80, 83-5 »., 
90W., 106, 108, 1 10, 1 13-5, 126 

Archdeacons, 51, 86, 87, 89-91, 

93, 94, ii3»., 123, I27«., 130, 
132, I37«., 141 

Architecture (canopies, etc.), 18-20, 
23, 41, 42, 44, 47, 50, 51, 54, 

55» 57» 79» 148, i5o» i55» iS^w., 
164, 181, 187, 202, 240, 299 

Arts, Faculty of, 122, /^-^ Masters 

Attornati, 221 


Bachelor, 122, 125 ; of Arts, 135, 
141 ; of Divinity, 92, 116, 117, 
132, 134; of Canon Law (De- 
crees), 138-9; of Laws, 104, 
107, 116; Utriusque Juris, 140, 
316 ; of Physic, 140 

Bar, the, 221 ; gentlemen under 
the, 222 ». 

Barristers, 232, 233 ; Inner, 222 ».; 
Utter, 222, 233 

Bencher (legal), 233 

Bishops, 2-4, 6, 7, 14-18, 27, 35, 
38, 42-4, 52, 55«., 57, 63, 64, 
67»., 69, 70, 72-7, 80-4, 86, 
88-90, 95, 107-8, no, 1 13-15, 
i26«., 133, 137?;., 187?^., 192, 


Books shown on brasses, 80, 81, 
113, 116, 216, 231, 233, 293 ; 
on incised slab, 126K. ; scrolls, 
209, 2247/., 228, 229, 231 ; slab 
semee of, 168, 228 

Brasses, Monumental, see Introduc- 
tion, also Flemish and Palimpsest 
Analysis of Cortewille brass, 

Artists of, and their signatures, 
14-15, 55«., 185 ?z., devices, etc.. 

Bracket, 20,49, 93' ''°4' ^5°» 
160, 181, 247, 250, 254, 256, 
265, 294, 296 

Chrysom, 23, 25 

Colour on, 270, 274 ; enamel 
on, 148 

Cross, 22, 81, 104, 246; 
floriated, lyn.y 20, 21 «., 22, 64, 
103, 156, 197, 202, 203, 263 

Engravers (provincial) of, 172, 
174, 176, 216, 261, 282, 283 ; 
error of, 178W. 

Extra-mural, 79 

Goldsmiths' work on, 15 

Modern, 26, 58»., 218, 296; 
artist, 26 



Objects (animals, etc.), de- 
picted on : butterflies, dragons, 
50; peacock feast, 52; shears, 
207 ; stag-hunt, 52 ; wodehouses 
feasting, 52 

Pardon, 64?;. 

In private possession, 215, 262 
Rectangular shape of, 162, 
185, 213, 214, 216, 281, 299 
Shroud or skeleton, 23, 25, 

I35» HO 
Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibi- 
tions, 48 »., I23«., 224»., 311- 


Candles, 5 i 

Canons, Ecclesiastical, 1 1 i izn. 

Canons, 857/., 86-91, 93, 123, 
I26«., 131-4, 139 ; of Windsor, 
92-3, 132 ; Augustinian, Austin 
or Black, 96-7 ; pety (minor), 
93, 109W. 

Cardinals, 6^n., S^n., 86, 103/?., 
1 10, 277». 

Casement, see Matrix 

Chalice, 49, 64«., 68, 99-102, 107, 
135-9, 3I2»- 

Chamberlain of London, i66w. 

Chancellor, Lord, 80 ; of Univer- 
sity, 127 

Chancery, Court of, 2 24». ; Cur- 
sitor in, 235 ; Masters in, 226, 

Choristers, 1257/, 

Christ, figure of, 47, 81, 107; 

Crucifixion, 311,312; Stigmata, 

235 ; Vernicle, 91 
Cirographorius (engrosser), 234 
Civic dignitaries, 200, 217 
Coif, Order of the, 222, 225, 226 
Collections, Gough (Gaignieres), 7, 

I4«., 28». ; British Museum, 

Craven Ord (Douce), I, 33, 49 ; 

Huybrechts, 6477. 
Commoners, 12577. 
Communion, Holy, 107 

Consecration of Archbishop Parker, 

no, 11377. 
Constable of the Tower, 18877. 
Constitutions of Cardinal Otho, 


Contracts for Beauchamp tomb, 977., 
303-6 ; for Sandys tomb, Basing- 
stoke, 547;, 

Copper, alloys, manufacture of, 2 ; 
engraving on, discovery of, 16^7. 

Council of Constance, 57; of 
Milan 5 th, 8777.; of Oxford, 

Counsel, King's, 222 

Crants, Virgin, 295 77. 

Cross, fylfot, 6777., 83, 14777.; 
Keltic, 3; Tau, 128, 139; see 
also Costume Index 

Crown-keeper, 214; his badge, 

Cullen plate, 9 


Deacon, 41, 64, 67, 72-3, 107 ; 

sub-, 64, 73 
Deans, 89, 94, 95, 112 77., 11477., 

115, 123, 12677., 129, 140 
Doctor, 122, 12377., 222 
Doctors, of Divinity, 8577., 89, 94, 

104, 106, 10877., 10977., 111-17, 

125, 126-9, 223 ; of Canon Law, 

126, 129-30; of Law, 8577., 89, 
92, 12577., 12677., 131-2, 184, 
223-4; Utriusque Juris, 132-3 ; 
of Medicine, 12577., 133; of 
Music, 125 77., 142 

Draper, 212 


Easter sepulchres, 193 

Effigies, kneeling, 174, 175, 178- 
85, 18877., 198, 203, 208, 210, 
213-16, 227-9, 234' 235, 246, 
263, 267, 268, 274-6, 279, 281, 
282, 285-7, 290, 292-4, 297, 

Sitting, 290 



Standing, on chequered pave- 
ment, 184, 214 ; on low circular 
pedestals, 289 

Male and female, hand in 
hand, 161, 168, 174, 204, 248- 
50, 2^5«., 256, 258, 265 

Hands of, crossed, 46, 49 «. 

Heads of, resting on cushions, 

50, 51,54, 91, 150, 181, 185, 
242, 246, 248,251,252,254-6, 

258, 266, 268, 270, 279, 281, 

Objects at feet of : two animals 
addorsed, 52 ; bear, 162 ; bedes- 
men, 263 ; dog, 9I«., 148, 151, 
159, 163, 167, 168, 169 (Jakke), 
171-4, 176, 179, 199, 201-3, 
205-8, 228, 239-41, 243, 247- 

51, 254, 274; greyhound, 162, 
163, 173-6, 180, 182, 281 ; toy- 
terrier with bell collar (lap dog), 
242, 243W., 245, 247, 248, 250- 
3, 252 (Terri), 255, 26o«., 272 ; 
gnawing a bone, 205, 247 ; two, 
fighting, _ 247 ; dragon, 274 ; 
two fighting, 46, 52 ; eagle, 176, 
270; fighting, 52; elephant, 
180, 266 ; griffin, 174, 180, 304, 
305 ; hedgehog, 261 ; leopard, 
167, 227 ; lion, 91 134, 148, 
149, 159, 163, 167, 169, 
171-6, 179, 181, 226, 227, 240, 

259, 266; fighting, 52; two 
addorsed, 201 n. ;■ mount, ground 
sown with flowers, etc., 167, 168, 
172, 173, 175, 179, 201, 203, 
209, 227, 228, 230 ; sheep, 208 ; 
stag, 49 ; unicorn, 169 ; wine- 
cask, 203 ; wodehouses (wild 
men), 174; woolpack, 201, 204, 
205, 207, 208 

Of children on brasses, 20, 54, 

94> 95 »v 99» io4-7» ^.'^^n., 
ii4»., 132, 175, 185, 186, 201, 
204-7, 209»., 211, 214-16, 246, 
247, 266, 268, 270, 271, 276, 
281, 282, 291-300 

Halfor demi, Ijn., 2I«., 24W., General 
4o» 55» 63, 7^-2, 83, 92, 94,iioi, 
102,104, 117, 127»., 128,132-3, 
136-41, 145,150, 197,199,200, 
202, 204, 205, 241, 242, 244-7, 
262, 263, 287, 297 

Sculptured, 2, 67»., 77, 79, 
87W., io8«., lion., 112, I32«, 
I36«., i49«., i5i-3»., i56«., 
I57»., I58»., 163W., i68w., 
i88w., 189W., 191?/., I92»., 
I98«., 204;;., 223W., 227W., 
230«., 232W., 2397/., 2407;., 
242 »., 243 245 K., 248 
253W., 258, 280, 316 

Enamels, Limoges, 5, 6 

Esquires, see Chapters III., IV., V., 

Exchequer, Court of, 224W., 226; 
Chancellor of the, 232; Chief 
Baron of, 222, 226-9 ? Barons of, 
226-9, 231* 266 ; Clerks of, 234; 
Auditor of, 234 


Fellows of Colleges, 71, 72, loi, 

116, 137-41 
Flemish brasses, 5, 9«., 10, 14, 16- 

18, 20, 25-8, 33,42-56,63,70, 

72, 75»-» 77-9. 83, 84, 91, 95, 
101, 129, 154, 161, 197-9,201, 
202, 205, 212, 243, 244W., 247, 
260W., 276, 277, 297, 299; 
palimpsests, I3«., 38, 44-6, 51, 
56, 199, 202 

Flowers, 240, 293 

Frankelein, 70, 201 

French workmanship, brasses show- 
ing» 56-7, 153, 242 


Garlands, Funeral, 295 w. 
Garter, brasses of Knights of the, 

167, 168, 174, 176, 180, 1 86-8 ; 

stall plates, i88w. ; Chancellor 

of the, i88w. 



ERAL Gens de robe, 221 

Glass, mosaic, 17; red cassock 
depicted in, 85; St. Jerome 
depicted in, I09«, ; Serjeant-at- 
law depicted in, 2307;.; lady- 
wearing heraldic tabard depicted 
in, 2867?, 

Gueux, League of the, 44 


Heart, inscribed, 211, 227, 251, 


Coats blazoned: — 

Albemarle (de Fortibus), I47«, 

Aldeburgh, 160 

Bacon, 151 ; of Redgrave, i^m. 

Beauchamp, 155, 252 

Beaumont, 83/;. 

Brocas, 250 

Bures, 149 

Camoys, 1877;. 

Chelvey, 259 

Creke, 153 

Daubeney, i6()n. 

D'Aubernoun, 148 

Delamere, 48 

Denmark, 58 

Des Essarts, i66«, 

Dixton, 173W. 

Edward the Confessor, i68«. 

Edward III., 155 

Ermyn, 90 

Feld, 172-3 

Ferrers, 252 

Fitz Ralph, 151 

Foxley, 250 

Fulburne, 90 

Fynderne, 167, 259 

Geslingthorpe (Calthorpe),248». 

GifFard, 156 

Grey de Ruthin, 155, 316 
Harsick, 161 
Hastings, 154 
Horton, 50 

Kent, Holland, Earl of, 270 n. 

Kyngeston, 259 
Lippe, 74 ». 
Mauleverere, 162 
Mayo, 81-2 
Molyneux, 182 
Northwode, 154 
Paderborn, See of, 74 «. 
Parsons, 3 1 2 

Plantagenet, Henry, Earl of 

Lancaster, 1 55 
Powys, Charlton, Lord, 270«. 
Richard IL, 168 n. 
Rivers (Redvers), Earl of Devon, 

Russell, 82 

St. Alban's Abbey, 47 

St. Amand, 155 

Say, 172 

Setvans, 149 

Stafford, 155 

Stapleton, 172 

Trumpington, 148 

Uvedale, 257 

Valence, 155 

Vipont (Veteripont), 172 

Wantele, 166 n. 

Coats mentioned: — 
Arundel, 90??. 
Bagot, 162 
Baynard, 276 

Beauchamp, 907;., 162, 311-12 

Bodiham, 160 

Bohun de, 3 1 2 

Braunche, 53 

Bray, 285 

Bulowe, de, 83 

Canterbury, See of, 78 

Cheyny, 273 

Clare, 3 1 2 

Clifford, 2407;. 

Courtenay, 279 

Covert, 286 

Delamere, 53 

England, 1877/., 311 

Fitz Walter, 3 1 2 

France, 187W. 



Gage, 188?/. 
Gorynge, 286 
Grandisson, 3 1 1 
Grey of Wilton, 188?/. 
Hevenyngham, 275 
Howard, iSyn., 280 
Ipswich, town of, 5 5 
Laon, Chapter of, 86 
Legh, 83 

Lincoln, See of, 82 
Lippe, 83 
Ludlowe, 276 
Merchant Adventurers, 55 
Michelgrove, 279 
Montacute, 312 
Monthermer, 312 
Nevill, 312 
Newburgh, 312 
Northumberland, i88«. 
Oxford, see Vere 
Plantagenet, 312 
Salisbury, See of, 84 
Salters' Company, 55 
Scrope, 281 
Shelley, 279 
Solms, 311 
Stafford, 312 
Thornton, 54. 
Tiptoft, 281 
Topclyff, 53 
Vere, de, 312 
Verney, 285 

Warwick, see Beauchamp, Nevill 

Badges, Crests, Devices — see 
Costume (Collars, Garter) : — 

Aileward (garb), 90 

Beauchamp (bear, 304, 305, 3 1 1 ; 
griffin, 31 1 ; staff ragule, 162) 

Berkeley (mermaid), 162 

Bohun, de (swan), 312 

Bourchier (eagle), 270 

Burghersh (lion), 266 

Catherine of Aragon, 311 

Foxley (fox), 250 

Henry VIII., 311 

Setvans (motto), I49». 

Stafford (knot), 312 Gi 
Tudor, 1 14 

See also Effigies, Objects at feet of 

Heralds, Kings of Arms, brasses of, 

l66w. ; Visitation, 166?;. 
Herse, 303, 304 
Hospes of Norwich, 218 
Host, sec Wafer 
Hostiarius, 647/. 

Household, Royal, Master of, 1 80 ; 
Officers of, 179; of Cardinal 
Wolsey, Comptroller, 182 

Hunter, brass of a, 205 


Indent, see Matrix 
Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth, 
102 K. 

Inns of Court, Grey's, 233, 234; 
Lincoln's, 233 ; Staple (Prynsi- 
pall of), 235 ; Temple, Inner, 
233 ; Middle, 225 w. 

Inscriptions, 16, 17, 20, 21,^23, 

25, 30, 3i» 4°> 45» 47» 49» 52» 
54-8, 6\n., 81, 84, 96-8, 115- 
17, izjn., 129, 131, 133-6, 139, 
140, 148-50, 151W., 153, i66w., 
i8o«., 197, 201, 211, 230-5, 
240, 259, 263, 265 


Judges, 200, 221-3, 225-30 
Justice of North Wales, 228 


Kings, 58 

King's Bench, Court of, 222, 
2 24». ; Chief Justice of, 223 w., 
226ff., 227; Justice of, 227-9, 
259, 267; Clerk of the Crown 
in, 234 

Knights, see Chapters III., IV., V., 




Latten, 2, 9, 29 
Lector, 64 
Lecturer (legal), 233 
Licentiati, 127; in decretis, iiSn., 


Manuscripts, 4, 5W., 52W., 68, 
69W., 75, 83«., 84W., 95«., io3«., 
109, 124, \z6n., izjn., i^6n., 
igyti., 2o6«., 224«., 239«., 
247 258 «. 

Mar bier, 205 

Mary, B.V., 51; and Child, 84, 
107; Annunciation, 105; As- 
sumption, 311 ; Pieta, 81 

Masters of Arts, 94, 95, 1 00-2, 1 04, 
105, 115-17, 124, 135-8, 


Master of Clare Hall, 1 3 1 
Master of Queens' College, Cambs., 

Matrix, II, i7«., 18, 20, 27, 28, 
42?/., 80, 81, 96, i04«., I27«., 
i3i«., 150, 156, 187,229,249?/., 
zyzn., 296 

Mayors, 1097/., 217, 218 

Mercer, zijn. 

Merchants' Marks, 53, 55,205,207 
Missal, 64»., 1 01 
Monks, 65, 96-7, 99«. 
Monuments, Queen Elizabeth's 

Proclamation against breaking or 

defacing, 308-10 
Mootmen (legal), 222 «. 
Mosaics, Ravenna, 78 


Notary, 209, 211, 235 
Nuns, 65, 99, 247 


Orders, Holy, 22 1 
Ostiarius, 64 


Page of Honour, 180 

Paintings, 48 w., 6^n., d-jn., 105 w., 

224«., 289«. 

Palimpsest brasses, 13K., 15, 21, 
27«., 29, 35, 37-42, 64«., 81, 

95> 97> 99» i38«., 145 
187, i88«., 193, 233, 240, 259, 
261, 263, 264, 281, 296-7; 
Flemish, 44-6 

Paten, 49 

Pilgrim, 204 w. 

Pipe subthesaurarius, 231 ; Comp- 
troller of the great roll of the, 

Pleas, Common, Court of, 222, 
224«., 234; Chief Justice of, 

226-9 ; Justice of, 227-9 ; 

"Secundarie" of, 227 ; Attorney 

of, 235 ; prothonotary of, 234 
Popes, 64«., 68, 73, 75, 78 
President of Magdalen College, 

Oxon., 82, 92, 134, 135 
Priests, see Chapters I. and IL, 4, 

7, 10, 1 1 «., 13, 21 22, 26, 

39-43» 49» 20S> 231, 264, 
3i2»., 316 

Priors, 65, 79, 96, I27», 

Prioress, 65, 98, 263 

Privy Council, 309 

Provost of Eton, 92 ; Vice-, of 
Eton, 128; of King's College, 
Cambs., 129; of Oriel College, 
Oxon., 1277/,; of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxon., 117, 128 ; of Tat- 
tershall, 93, 130, 134 

Pulpit represented on brass, 1 17 

Puritans, 1 1 2 «. 


Readers (legal), 222 «., 233 
Rebus, maple leaves, 90 ; peascods, 
201 ; Whychurch, 312; wood- 
howses, 100 
Recorder of London, 228 ; of Nor- 
wich, 218 



Reformation, 25, 82, I93«. 
Regulas generales of the Judges, 222 
Renaissance, 19, 24, 25 
Restoration, 291 
Resurrection, 193 
Roses, Wars of the, 169 


Saints, Alban, 47 
Cornelius, 56 
Cuthbert, 68, 69 ». 
Eligius, 52 
Ethelbert, 18, 63 «. 
Ethelred, 17, 58 
Faith, 203, 263 
George, 155 
Gregory, 6\n., 75, loi 
James, 84 

Jerome, 647/., logw. 
John Baptist, 104 
Katherine, 94 
Lawrence, 72«., 84». 
Martin, 94 ». 
Nicholas, 52 
Oswyn, 47 
Paul, 47, 84, 104 
Peter, 47, Sjn., 84, 104 
Quentin, 72 w., 84 
Sextus, Pope, 68 
Stephen, 84 «. 

Thomas (a Becket) of Canter- 
bury), 69«., 79 

Trond, 84 

Zenobio, 67 w. 
Scholars of Divinity, 101,135,138; 

foundation, 125 w. 
Schoolboys, 141-2 
Seal, the Great, 80 
Seneschallus domus, 64 «. 
Serjeants-at-arms, 179, 192 
Serjeants-at-law, 221-31 ; King's, 


Sheriff of London, 205 
Shield Bearer, 161 
Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de 
Paul, 272 «. 

Slabs, Incised, 3-7, I4«., 86;;., 87«., General 
97«., 100, 126;;., 158;;., 2o6»., 

Soul, conventional treatment of, 48, 

Squire of the Body to Richard IIL, 

Stalls, carved woodwork of choir, 

Standard Bearer, 168 
Staple of Calais, Mayor of, 201 ; 

Merchant of, 211 
Star Chamber, Court of, 309, 310 
Statutes, Oxford Laudian, I25». 
Steward, Chief, of Glastonbury 

Abbey, 230-1 
Student of Civil Law, 141 
Suit of Bishop Wyvill v. Earl of 

Salisbury, 192-3 
Supremacy, Oath of, loyn., 114 
Symbols, evangelistic, 47, 50, 52, 

54, 57, 84«. 


Tailor, 207 
Tapestry, Bayeux, 68 
Thurible, 50, 5 i 
Tiles, encaustic, 198 «. 
Treasurer, Lord High, of England, 

Trinity, emblem of the, 91 

Undergraduate, 141 
Uniformity, Act of, 108 


VowEssES, 98, 265, 294 ; Order of, 
98, 247 


Wafer, 99-102, 107, 135, 137-9, 

Warden of Merton College, 126, 
128; of New College, 80, 89, 



I24» I3S» 138; of Winchester, 
89, 94, 1 14 ; of Greatham Hos- 
pital, I27«. 

Wardes and Liveries, Court of, 
Auditor of, 234 

Weepers, 50 ; contract for, 304, 

Widows, 245-7, 264-7, 293-4; 

benediction of, 247 ». 
Wills cited : — 

Dene, Archbishop Henry, Son, 

Denny, Thomas, 1 1-12 

Elyngbrigge, Thomas, 64 «. 

Fastolff, Katherine, 1 1 

Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony, 228 w, 

Fitz James, Isabella, 275 w., 276 ». 

FitzWilliam, William, 8». 

Foxle, Sir John de, z^on. 

Harsnett, Archbishop Samuel, 

30, 55»., 76W. 
Martyn, Elizabeth, 98 «. 
Salisbury, Thomas de Montacute, 

Earl of, 1 1 n. 
St. Quintin, Sir John de, 1 1 
Warwick, Richard Beauchamp, 
Earl of, 303 
Wine merchant, 203 
Wool merchant (woolman), 97?.; 

201, 204, 205, 207, 208, 253 
Wool trade, 9?/., 53 


Yeoman of the Crown, 286 ; of the 
Guard (with badge of Rose and 
Crown), 2i4n.